A Study And Statement On Community Work

Social work is definitely considered as a hard and complex profession, with a complicated and perplexing platform. This is because of its different settings accompanying different responsibilities.

An inevitable part of social work is its worth and ethics and the questions and debates that surround its framework. Although values can be considered as personal and individualistic, additionally it is possible for a group with the same values to share the same ideals, such as sociable work. It's important to acknowledge that values continuously shape our activities and it is of the judgment of Ronnby (1992) that someone becomes a cultural worker because they may have the same ethics and prices and attach these to the position.

Biestek developed traditional prices in the late 50s. (Biestek, 1961). His principles outlined the basics of traditional social work and were made of a seven-point scheme.

The principles consisted of 1. Individualism. 2. Purposeful expression of thoughts. 3. Controlled emotional involvement. 4. Popularity. 5. Non-judgmental attitude 6. Consumer self-determination. 7. Confidentiality,

Many of Biestek beliefs were very traditional and were criticised for his or her variety in their interpretation. Controversies associated with different principles caused many difficult conclusions e. g. individualisation and confidentiality. Individualisation cannot be possible in the fast paced modern world, people lose their personal information and individualisation is not reputed. Confidentiality has its restrictions to be enforced e. g. If the individual divulges information where someone will be harmed, the public workers duty is to share it as the right to other individuals. It had been clear these key issues had to be developed and advanced to help communal workers.

It was considered that there has to be guidance on ideals and ethics for sociable personnel, as they play a major part in their work

Central Council for Education and Training in Community Work was a substantial part in the development in education for interpersonal workers. Additionally it is acknowledge by (CCETSW, 1998) that it's a necessary part as the name suggest, that sociable personnel must gain an understanding of ethical understanding within the professional practice. Skill development offered social workers a variety of skills that are needed to ensure that cultural work is a high quality profession.

The CCETSW set out details of lots of competencies that they should be able to cover in their work. It is considered that we now have two main ideologies within public work, social justice and personal caring. These were considered to be benefit for social personnel as they exercised anti-oppressive practice.

They produced a list that sociable workers had to identify with.

This stated that a social staff member:

  1. . Should be focused on:
  • Value and value of people
  • Promote peoples privileges to choice privateness protection and confidentiality, while looking at the privileges and needs
  • The proper of individuals to make choices
  • Strengths and skill embodied local neighborhoods
  • Right of security for those in danger
  • Social staff can do:
    • Develop awareness of inter-relationship of the process of structural oppression, race, category and gender
    • Understand and counter take action the impact of discrimination from poverty, time, impairment and sectarianism
    • Demonstrate an awareness of individual and institutional racism
    • Understand gender issues and demonstrate anti-sexism in cultural work practice
    • Promote plans and practices that are non- discriminatory and anti- oppressive

    Demonstrating these skills in learning, acknowledge that that they had competence in practice. The Central Council for Education in Sociable Work explained that ˜practice must be founded on, informed by and with the capacity of being judged against a clear value foundation' (CCETSW, 1995).

    This knowledge basic was very important, but it didn't give ready-made answers as to how social employees should continue in virtually any particular situation. However it gives tons of perception and signs about situations that social staff may face, it also empowered them with an appropriate response for just about any particular predicament. Never the less it is still down to the individual social worker to acquire and increase their knowledge base for practising in social work. The range of skills that can develop from learning will be in charge of an established and high quality in the service that are offered to service users.

    There are professional moral specifications that are relevant to social workers in practice. These allowed public workers to just work at a professional standard and to behave expertly. These standards concern ethical responsibilities to clients, acquaintances, social work occupation and tasks to the broader society.

    Some of the specifications are rules for professional carry out, including the code of ethics for public workers.

    For cultural work the code of ethics takes on a significant role in its training, policy making and its professional books. These guidelines give a framework for making sense of the practice in social work.

    The code of ethics for social workers (BASW 1996) was set up in 1975 to ensure that public workers had a set of rules for professional activities.

    The primary aim of the Code of Ethics is to make these pragmatic guidelines clear for the cover of clients and other associates of culture. Its principal aims are to ensure that the professional sociable workers were recognised as a non-bias worker.

    The code covered two main areas, including concepts and practice,

    The assertion of principles covers social workers understanding and figuring out of the worth and dignity for each and every human being, irrespective of origin, race, status, sex, erotic orientation, age, impairment, or religious perception.

    Social workers are anticipated to avoid and eliminate exploitation and discrimination against anybody, group, or school on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, colour, sex, sexual orientation, age, marital status, political belief, religion, or mental or physical impairment.

    Millerson (1964) argued that the code of ethics could become irrelevant, as it was difficult to use, as it could not be dominated by one specific area within cultural work.

    Millerson noted that there were many areas of specialist including child cover, community health care, mental health insurance and family therapy, that this becomes more challenging use the code as a primary way to obtain moral guidance. Moral awareness is a necessary part of the professional practice of any social worker. His or her ability to do something ethically is an essential aspect of the quality of the service wanted to clients.

    It has been thought that the code of ethics was set in spot to allow cultural work to be accepted as a professional occupation. Social personnel were likely to Identify and interpret the foundation and character of individual, group, community and communal problems. Illustrating their potential to recognise professional and personal restrictions, and refrain from any behaviour that may damage the career.

    The uncertainty of daily practice brings with it many honest dilemmas, that are a challenge for many social staff. The complexities of honest dilemmas arise whenever a social employee has several possible undesirable conclusions that not in favor of their own moral principals, these dilemmas result in a battle because they need to bother making a choice and they have no idea which one is right.

    Professional service shall assist clients to use responsibility for personal activities and help all clients with similar willingness.

    Social work is a decision making profession that can lead to many problems, the sensation of guilt and blame for the outcome of many decisions they have been involved with.

    This could cause much stress and pressure for social workers in having to make major decisions and choices, but also for taking responsibility for any outcomes which may fail.

    This article has described the worthiness base of sociable work in its development and education, also looking at its impact and repercussions. Learning foundation work can provide possible solution as to how social personnel should proceed in a situation; it can also give a lot of insights into areas they have no experience in.

    The rules of ethics expectations were described and considered it's been argued of its impact and purpose, its usefulness and its own instruction for the occupation of social individuals. How we deal with them will be a challenging and rousing process for everyone social workers. There are plenty of instances in professional interpersonal work where simple email address details are not available to resolve complex honest issues.

    A research study has been reviewed and analysed, demonstrating anti-oppressive practice. It is shown that power and oppression of all varieties must be controlled and resisted, we should acknowledge that power and oppression is obviously present in individuals and within world.

    In conclusion social work can be a challenging subject matter and one which will actively press the boundaries of all social workers on an individual level and professional level. It is agreed within interpersonal work that ethics, morals and beliefs are all an inescapable part of professional practice and ˜Honest awareness is essential parts of practice of any sociable work' (IFSW, 1994).

    Values and ethics aren't simply reasonable matters that we can unravel through reasonable arguments; they are a combo of thoughts and thoughts closely associated with action. There should be distinctions about how to apply public work principles and ethics into their professional work, without creating personal discord.


    Moreover, the Public work beliefs emphasises that the communal personnel should identifies and question their own worth and prejudices, and their implication of practice; and they should Admiration and value uniqueness and adversity. and identify (discrimination), analyse and take action to counter discrimination, racism, disadvantage, inequality and injustice using strategies appropriate to role and context (CCETSW, paper 30 referred in UB. 2002: 6).

    Therefore, the public work value gave people a primary power to clients by letting them choosing and decide for themselves and sociable worker are advised to promote opportunities for individuals to work with their own talents to make decisions for themselves (CCETSW, newspaper 30 cited in UB. 2002: 4). Quite simply, social work has widened the concept of ˜freedom' and ˜toleration' by being considerate for everyone members of the community, which is now-a-days known as ˜anti-discrimination', flexibility of choice' and ˜equality'.


    There are also issues regarding to interpersonal worker's practice e. g. doing in ˜traditional' way credited to personal prejudices, which has oppressed the clients and has stigmatized the interpersonal work itself. Thompson (1997: 11) emphasise that the community work practice which will not take accounts of oppression and discrimination can't be viewed as ˜good practice. . The ˜bad practice' is portrayed through the press however the good practice is not granted and neither praised by media. The communal work constantly reviews the procedures to face prejudices and emphasises on top of anti-discriminatory practice.


    The concise oxford British dictionary defines values as principles or criteria of behaviour. Personal beliefs can very dependent on our social, ethnical and religious qualifications. Although being inherent these values can change once we develop and mature and become less dependent on the prices that are important to our parents, family and peers. David Howe (1999) advises that principles are essential because they help to guide action (Review Product 1, p. 18) he also suggests values spell question and trouble (Analysis Product 1, P. 18), principles can cause issue and tensions which have to be reflected upon. I come from a sizable family and lived on a council housing house where family and neighbours looked out for just one another. I've six brothers and one sister and, although we were disciplined, our parents always confirmed their love for us. In my immediate and extended family there was a sense of security in that we all understood we'd people who cared for us and who continually be there for all of us no matter what. It had been inherent in us to care for one another and I perhaps made the assumption that most families acquired the same worth as ours. I think I considered people who didn't have these principles to be untrustworthy, unreliable and uncaring and at that time I did so not realise that was a preconceived judgment based on no actual experience. It was not until I started to work in home childcare that I started out to question my prejudices. I realised that not everyone was raised with the same worth as I have been which my ideals and values would change and develop through my experience within my work. I caused many children and teenagers from varied social, religious, racial and interpersonal backgrounds with a wide range of mental and behavioural complications. I found how little some parents/carers valued their children and how badly they cared for them. As parents/carers have such a major influence over the child's life this meant that the kids themselves had very little self worth or value, with low do it yourself- esteem and thoughts of cultural isolation. They found difficulty in developing romantic relationships, having been subjected to various levels of physical, mental and sexual mistreatment. Through this experience I achieved a larger sympathy and knowledge of how people's life background can affect their future. People have individual life encounters and for that reason their principles and beliefs are very often not the same as our own. The sound system on tape one (K111 Aspect 1 Band I) state that we have to think about our very own prejudices rather than skip over them and we should be willing to simply accept others beliefs. I've learned through experience that people cannot impose our own personal worth and viewpoints on others; we should constantly re-evaluate our thoughts and activities.

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    An experience with one of the young people in the Children's Residential Unit where I did the trick illustrates how my ideals have been called into question and mirrored upon. The young person acquired only had contact with his mother, who was white and acquired never attained his father, who was black. His dad had an extended troubled history relating drug and alcohol misuse. When he was 9 yrs. old, the young person thought we would make contact with his father, from the wishes of his mother and siblings, who had been born to a different father. They thought that contact would split the family even further and this put a lot of pressure on the young person. The daddy initially offered consistency but this was temporary and there were issues with his lack of basic parenting skills. To alleviate these problems it was essential to build a working marriage with the father to increase the insufficient support given to the young person. Whilst dealing with these problems it was important to work in a non-judgmental way as there have been conditions that whilst they may have seemed adequate to some, I did not totally agree with. This educated me that it was important to permit the teenagers choices, also to respect those options, and to allow them to take control of their lives. Empowering a person will give them more control over their lives, to truly have a greater speech in companies, service and situations which impact them(Bray & Preston-Shoot, 1998:48 cited in place booklet Adams, Dominelli and Payne, p. 38) There were also issues encircling the father's competition. The mom and the siblings were all white and resided in a white environment and this caused some strain between the children. Through the use of positive encouragement and working in an Anti-Oppressive (seeking important change in electricity set ups and exploitative relationships which maintain inequality and oppression)(Bray & Preston-Shoot 1995 cited in Analysis Device 1, Part A, p. 77), Anti-Racist and Anti-Discriminatory (challenging unfairness or inequity)(Bray & Preston-Shoot 1995 cited in Study Product 1, Part A, p. 77) way I managed to alleviate a few of the problems. This made me echo how important someone's culture is to their identity and I've learned not to discriminate due to race, faith, culture, language, public position and life-style. In identifying and questioning my own worth and prejudices(CCETSW 1996 p. 18 Assists to Practice Cards) I am constantly re-evaluating my thoughts and actions through reflection.

    During my previous experience I've also become aware that our professional principles may sometimes conflict with those of organizations for whom we work (Aids to Practice Greeting card, Valuing). I had taken health care of two young brothers who, when they were located in the residential attention home where I proved helpful, had serious connection disorders, behavioural problems and mental health issues. My fellow workers and I worked directly with them in conjunction with other relevant organizations, including Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, in order to enable them to get trust and build relationships around. The children were thriving inside our care and had stopped self-harming but, after two years of working with them, the financing local authority made the decision, because of lack of funding, to remove the boys from their placement and gain those to a center in their hometown. This was done against their wishes and from the advice of the mental health team.

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    The children's right to choice was disregarded. As sociable staff are challenged to be advocates for individuals who are unable to advocate for themselves and all the cultural workers work should be aimed towards getting rid of the obstructions which allow the service user to manage their own life(Aids to Practice card Advocacy & Empowerment) your choice was contrary to my personal and professional values and a hard one to acknowledge. This experience made me mirror that you will see times during my practice when my prices will discord with others but difficult decisions will always have to be made. I hope I can learn from earlier mistakes within the machine and continue to practice in my professional code as explained in the course audience, will respect their clients as individuals and can seek to ensure that their dignity, protection under the law and responsibility shall be safeguarded (BASW 1986 Place Reserve Adams, Dominelli, Payne, p. 34)

    Describe your current understanding of professional interpersonal work values and exactly how you have arrived at this understanding. Format those issues that you find difficult and want to work on during your present location.

    Professional communal work values as listed in the course material (K111 stage 1 p. 20) are part of the core competencies. The K111 helps to practice greeting card (valuing) identifies these as creating a clear group of values which positively informs your public work practice, especially concerning promoting the intrinsic ˜well worth' or ˜value' of another human being. These are values that need to be inherent within any professional and even maybe within each staff member on a specialist and a private basis.

    My own understanding of professional cultural work beliefs has modified and evolved over time through my very own past experiences. I feel that, fundamentally, esteem for other people is the most crucial value as ultimately you should treat people just how that you would desire to be cared for yourself There is a long tradition in sociable work that emphasises the value of ˜value for people'(Study Product 1, Part A, P. 76). Bisteck, 1961 (as cited in K111 study device 1 p. 76) outlined seven principles of casework which included acceptance, self-determination, confidentiality, individualisation and a non-judgemental attitude. These are grouped along under the umbrella of ˜value for persons'. Personally i think that I've learned to build on my esteem for others through previous connection with service users, especially in residential care where in fact the majority of children and teenagers had little if any self-respect. Valuing something means that we know it's well worth. That is essential in interpersonal work specifically because many service users have emerged as ˜undeserving' by culture, or as worthless. Indeed, some service users have this view of themselves(Helps to Practice Cards, Valuing). Dealing with them as individuals, each with their own identity, and not within a homogenous group, helped me to understand how important self-identity, self-awareness and self-worth is.

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    I have been able to reflect on this and bring it into my practice. Although I did so not necessarily agree with or approve of the prices and behaviours of the families of a few of the teenagers it was very important i was led by the ˜prices of communal work' (CCETSW 1996 p. 18, Supports to Practice Greeting card, The Values of Interpersonal Work) which I communicated a non-judgmental frame of mind toward them. Acceptance of others and a opinion in the worth and dignity of each individual are worth that are conveyed through non-judgmental behavior. To be able to respect someone else's privacy and guard confidentiality affirms that persons worthy of and dignity. I currently work with children from areas that are classed as disadvantaged; these areas have a high transient human population from from coast to coast, including the travelling community. This makes for a wide range of cultures, religions, communal status, cultural minorities and also to treat people as individuals and respect and value uniqueness and diversity(Aids to Practice Greeting card, The Values of Communal Work) is vital when practising in such diverse public options. The traveller's who I've caused have views which are incredibly different to my own. They believe that girls do not need to be educated by any means and that boys only need formal education before years of ten. Because this goes against my personal values I sometimes find it difficult to promote people's right to choice in such situations but I do recognise the need to use individuals and families from backgrounds and civilizations of which I might have little direct experience in ways which is delicate to the diversity (Analysis Unit 1, Part A p. 19). I try to recognise that changes must result from within the service customer and that we cannot impose our expectations and values on them. However, I am always conscious of the need to be familiar with any child protection issues and the need to assist visitors to increase control of and enhance the quality of their lives, while recognising that control of behaviour will be required at times in order to safeguard children and men and women from harm(Review Unit 1, Part A, P. 20)

    I am constantly studying myself and other folks and re-examining my very own attitudes and prejudices. The K111 Helps to Practice cards Valuing, informs us that the assumption is that the values which advise training will come to influence practice and perhaps more importantly, having a couple of principles to apply to the practice of ˜valuing' the lifetime and contribution of another human being, of respecting them and upholding their protection under the law and responsibilities, is seen as essential to accountable public work. The values that are central to social care should impact all aspects of my working practice. My current understanding is that the profession of sociable work centres on the improvement of standard of living for individuals and the augmentation of human potential for full, productive contribution in society. If we let our very own personal principles be guided by the values of public work(Aids to Practice Credit cards, The Prices of Sociable Work) then we'd allow everyone that people touch to develop their full potential whilst also giving them the choice of and responsibility over their own actions.

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    Adams. R, Dominelli. L, & Payne. M, 2nd Model Social Work: Topics, Issues and Critical Debates, Palgrave

    K111 Social Work Practice Learning, Stage 1, 2002, Aid to Practice Credit cards, The Open College or university, Milton Keynes

    K111 Friendly Work Practice Learning, Level 1, 2002, The Open up School, Milton Keynes.

    K111 Sociable Work Practice Learning, Level 1, 2002, Tape 1, Rings E-I

    Pearsall. J, The Concise Oxford British Dictionary (2002), 10th Release, University Press


    Day 2: Users' objectives of cultural workers

    The main points that I believed were reiterated through the sessions led by the service users were; an expectation that the partnership with their communal worker would possess the positive attributes of worthwhile relationship. The target was on an open and identical attitude, shared trust and value. Empowerment was imperative to the service consumer as it addresses their thoughts of impotence within contemporary society; this can be attained by being beneficial e. g. signal placing to other firms for support and empowerment and assisting with direct repayments so that service users can make their own decisions regarding their care and attention. I found that it was the positive features of any good relationship that were most appreciated such as a personal and friendly approach; useful offers of functional help i. e. useful telephone numbers and keeping to appointment times and arranged timescales and these made the difference between a good working relationship and an unhealthy one. One service end user believed that, because she offered as very articulate and self-employed, she was not offered assistance with filling in varieties for direct payments, which highlighted to me a positive assumption can result in needs not being met. (193)

    Day 3: Carers' anticipations of public workers

    One of the key things that we learned from the ending up in carers and my own experience within my family was the psychological rollercoaster of the 24hour commitment involved. Among the circumstance studies we looked at during the component highlighted how the target of support is principally directed at the service user and the needs of the carer are often forgotten. One point that stood out in one of the lectures was how personality has some effect on what care is suitable for see your face. The example given was something user whose mental health problems sometimes conflicted with the delivery of care for his physical health issues adding extra stress for the spouse and carer. As a family carer myself I discovered with how good sign placing from the sociable worker can help with the frustrating process of striving to gather understanding of how and where help can be utilized. I also discovered with other carers activities of the need for the professionals involved with us member's treatment to respect our family member's individuals needs e. g. her faith and her food tastes to keep up dignity. Maintaining good interprofessional relationships was highlighted, to keep cohesion and continuity of health care and to be prepared to advocate with respect to the carer and service user. (217)

    Day 4: Cultural competence

    Cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and economic differences impact how individuals and organizations access and use health, education, and public services. They can also present obstacles to employed in partnership in health care interventions particularly when practitioners stereotype, misinterpret, make defective assumptions, or mishandle with insensitivity their encounters with individuals and organizations viewed as different in conditions of their backgrounds and encounters. Implementing an anti-oppressive procedure by admitting and reflecting on personal biases, stereotypes, and prejudices is the starting place of developing social competence, the next stage is usually to be sensitive to ethnical norms, attitudes, and beliefs; in simple fact valuing the variety of social difference. Other important ways that you may are more culturally competent and prevent potential pitfalls would be in learning verbal and nonverbal cues of other civilizations, becoming convenient in cross-cultural situations by examining what works and what will not. By assessing how the beliefs and behaviours of the cultural group influence the service end user, their connections with services offered, understanding how to negotiate between your person's values and techniques and the culture of your career, cultural competence may be accomplished. I am valuing the opportunities this program is affording me in developing my cultural consciousness by learning from and with folks from a number of different social and cultural backgrounds. (214)

    Day 5: Community personnel' use of vitality and authority

    My concerns about using professional specialist are about finding myself in situations that want careful judgement due to the implications for both service individual and myself because of my very own activities or non-actions. I could ensure that we acquire up-to-date understanding of the beliefs and ideas of the English Association of Public Workers Code of Ethics for Sociable Work and work by them all the time. Other resources of assist in verifying that I was not using the power and authority committed to me properly would be speaking with line managers, referring to the General Friendly Care Council codes of practice and discussing the Country wide Occupational Standards for Social Work. Other ways of seeking assistance is always to discuss dilemmas and reflect upon similar circumstance studies weighing up the results of certain lessons of action. Seeking help from other pros and agencies may give a fresh perspective, however, this is a case of balancing personal and professional judgement in the context of rules and rules of the occupation and treading the slim collection between safe holding and violation. (178)

    PART 2

    The personal impact of the learning that occurred on the topic of social competence was that it gave me greater understanding of how every person differed in their own individual perceptions of the culture, qualifications and religious beliefs. This realisation has increased my self-awareness of my own cultural identity and how that has molded my own beliefs and ideas.

    I am aware that in world we often group people according to their ethnical background, predicated on appearance or religious beliefs, when what really matters is the impact of culture on the individual. This I sensed was clearly exhibited when, on the module, one browsing lecturer came across as very dominating towards our group, and asserted his expert several times through the teaching sessions. During the lectures on ethnical awareness the same lecturer explained his cultural background and discovered that in Africa, where he was raised, all male old people would be highly revered and reputed as the wiser elders of the community. Once I recognized this it helped in my understanding of the way the affect of his culture experienced shaped his behaviour. As Boyd Franklin (1989) illustrates, individual family will choose which family worth, traditions, behaviours, and culture they would like to maintain and that they will discard or replace. The duty for the social worker is to comprehend which pieces of the culture the family has retained and which bits are stereotypically insensitive to the family. Only then is the worker considered to be culturally sensitive and rehearsing from a culturally specific point of view. (Cited in Wodarski & Thyer 1998:256).

    This has inspired me in the manner where I see myself as a specialist social worker by highlighting the duty of obtaining relevant information in the assessment stage. As a social employee this initial evaluation can only be done competently and effectively by exercising within an anti-discriminatory way; and by acknowledging that we can only understand other people by respecting and increasing awareness of that they understand themselves (Davies 2002:306). I see this can only be achieved with a person centred way, focusing on the needs of the average person, which would avoid assumptions being made towards a monolithic culture for cultural minorities. Davies (2002) explains this further when he suggests that a preoccupation with complexion, ethnicity or culture may cause a misinterpretation of the needs of the client and the provision of incorrect services to them. Conversely, interpersonal employees whose methods ignore or minimizing ethnical issues may lead to erroneous summary (Schinke, S. P & Cole, K 1998:369)

    This experience allowed me to see how social assumptions and ignorance effect perception and be a hurdle towards working in partnership with a carer or service consumer. These barriers need to be overcome in order to preserve the key points of relationship. This relates to my professional beliefs and principles, that happen to be embodied in a manner that fulfils the legal and policy requirements of the service users, and carers as layed out in the Country wide Occupational Benchmarks for Social Work and the overall Social Health care Council. Contained in their insurance policies are a couple of beliefs and ethics produced following a thorough consultations that occurred with those who use services, their carers and their organisations. For example, as a social worker we live ethically necessary to listen actively from what users and carers have to say, speak to those requiring and using services, and their carers, with credited respect because of their years, ethnicity, culture, understanding and needs and struggle discriminatory images and techniques impacting users. The procedures also point out it is good practice to entail users and carers in decision making, offer users and carers options and options, build honest relationships based on clear communication and examine needs properly: A good example of this is taking into consideration the needs of the carer and their right to an assessment of need under the Carers Equal Opportunity Take action 2004.

    The reason that rules of ethics and benchmarks of practice are essential is that the social employee/user romantic relationship is a fiduciary one predicated on trust. Friendly Work can be regarded as a ˜individual services' occupation along with medication and regulations. The social staff member has special knowledge and competence and must be respected by the user to do something in his/her needs. The relationship between social employee and user can be an unequal one, for the reason that the social staff member is more powerful. Public work, therefore, along with legislations, medicine, medical, counselling, and other similar occupations has a code of ethics that is designed among other activities to protect the user from exploitation or misconduct (Lenders, S 1995). The British Association of Social Staff is one of the most significant professional organisations allied to social work practice in the United Kingdom. Part of the role of BASW is to ensure that its associates ˜release their ethical responsibilities and are afforded the professional protection under the law which are necessary for the safeguarding and promotion of the privileges of service users'(www. basw. co. uk). The BASW code of ethics says, Public work practice should both promote esteem for individuals dignity and follow public justice, through service to humanity, integrity and competence. It is our ability to practice in a manner that is grounded in this strong, honest value based construction, which will be imperative to our development as a good cultural worker.


    Adams, R, Domenelli, L & Payne, M, (1998) Sociable WORK Designs ISSUES AND CRITICAL DEBATES, London, Macmillan Press Ltd

    Banks, S (1995) ETHICS AND Worth IN Community WORK, London, Macmillan Press Ltd.

    Bolton, J (2003) BASW, CODE OF ETHICS FOR SOCIAL WORK, <http://www. basw. co. uk/articles. php?articleId=2&page=15 > (accessed 30th November 2006)

    Davies, M (2002) The Blackwell Companion to Friendly Work. Cornwall, Blackwell Posting Ltd.

    Wodarski, J S & Thyer, B A (Schinke, S. P & Cole, K) (1998) HANDBOOK OF EMPIRICAL SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, VOL 2, NJ, John Wiley & Sons.


    Culture in this context is thought as the main social structural influences we were delivered into and which possessed an impact on the way that we perceive and react to the world around us. These affects are dictated by: race, colour, religious beliefs, gender, erotic orientation, age, disability, class and highlight. Under western culture we think that we are liberally minded and therefore relatively free of prejudice, however in reality this isn't so. Just about everyone has inherited our parents, siblings and peers bigotries and a few of these are deeply imbedded in our unconscious and are therefore not easily recognized.

    Cultural differences are usually outlined when a person culture is threatened; an example of this is the atrocities of 9/11 and the backlash of discrimination and mistreatment levelled at anyone from a Muslim or Middle Eastern background. This abuse showed how easily a group of folks could be attacked just for the colour with their skin, their spiritual beliefs as well as for having a Midsection Eastern surname. It also shows how labelling people can lead to mass discrimination and in acute cases can be used to extremists use i. e. ˜ethnic cleaning'.

    Labelling overall eliminates the individuality of the individual and dehumanises them; they are seen as an organization with a tag and can be easily targeted by those who dread them. Our preconceptions of the ˜label' can prevent us from learning and understand an individual for who they really are.

    On the other aspect of the argument identifying cultural differences can educate a person to a group's spiritual belief, cultural needs and dissimilarities therefore enabling increased understanding and provision and version to that groupings requirement.

    Criteria 2

    Biographical Information Indicating Own Knowing of Cultural Heritage and Potential Impact THIS MIGHT Have On Romantic relationship with Client

    My own cultural history is a ˜merged bag'. I got raised in a white middle class military history, with parents who had no strong religious values, but who presumed very highly in their children being 3rd party and ˜strong' emotionally wise. I was extremely lucky for the reason that I visited a military institution, outside of England, where a quantity of different races put together and discrimination of any sort had not been tolerated. The first time I experienced any racial maltreatment and discrimination was whenever i returned to England and went to a College in the western world of London. Through the eighties England experienced major competition riots and emotions of fear against ethnic minorities were working high. Children found on their parents dread and changed it into abuse on minority organizations at School. I got shocked to see such abuse and may not require myself, as I have been targeted as an outsider and different when I acquired first joined the institution. This experience made me rebel against my father's politics beliefs and I became very still left of centre in my political opinions, joining the anti apartheid movements and campaigning for minority privileges. In my twenties I ˜outed' myself as a gay woman and campaigned for Lesbian and Gay Protection under the law, worked in a Women's Centre and sat on the Council's Equal Opportunities Mother board. This experience helped me to extend my knowledge foundation of issues surrounding women, disability, mental health issues and contest issues.

    This ˜merged bag' of ethnical history has allowed me to comprehend and experience issues bordering equality and discrimination to a greater degree than if I had reminded within the position quo of my parents beliefs. I believe to a greater part this will permit me to hook up with my clients in understanding their emotions to be ˜different' so when someone who has suffered abuse for being gay I really believe I will have better empathy with those that contain been abused. In the negative part I think that I will have to be more disciplined in being non judgemental when speaking and hearing clients who have strong prejudices and views on issues which I believe are fundamental wrong. However figuring out where the prejudice stems from and what the fear is should be an interesting challenge.

    Criteria 3

    Interaction with Customer Scenario

    For my relationship with a client scenario I've chosen a customer who's male, dark, working category, a Jehovah's See which is eighteen years old. His name is ˜A'.

    ˜A' has voluntarily called for counselling through the faculty Counselling Service which is suffering from despair. ˜A' areas that he is convinced he is stressed out as a result of:

    • Surviving in contemporary society which is not sticking with God's will
    • The deterioration of the moral state scheduled to liberal views on gender, homosexuality and women as equals
    • Feeling apart from Society consequently of his belief's
    • Feeling under pressure from his peers in the Jehovah's See Cathedral to convert more non believers
    • Not necessarily being sure about his belief's
    • Sense guilty about talking about his concerns with a non believer

    A's original observations and concerns of me as his Counsellor were that:

    • I wasn't a Jehovah's See so may judge him on his spiritual belief's
    • I was a women and for that reason may well not understand him as a man
    • I had been white so cannot understand the pressures on a black male
    • I got a lot more than him and for that reason could not relate to young people's issues
    • I would persuade him to avoid thinking in God and become a non believer.

    For our first program ˜A' was very outspoken of his spiritual views, almost daring me to dispute with him. He described all the things he thought were the most extreme and would therefore get a response from me. ˜A' attempted to get me expressing what my values were and what I really thought of his; after a while the ˜baiting' halted as I refused to bite and offer a judgement. ˜A' commenced to calm down and started out to speak about why he believed so angry and just why he noticed so down and his guilt for admitting he wasn't certain of all his beliefs. Over the next five periods ˜A' started out to feel safe in being able to discuss his doubts and doubts and also to be able to share his anger at being judged by others to be different and for that reason not ˜normal'

    By providing a non judgmental environment for ˜A' to discuss his inner most concerns and emotions in, ˜A' sensed in a position to trust me to listen and guide him through his issues. ˜A's original anger and protective stance abated and he believed safe to open up. ˜A' displayed excellent courage in dealing with his prejudices and preconceptions of me and overcame these in order to explore his own primary issues.

    ˜A' provided challenging to my very own views, which overall are liberal and non extremist. However using the center conditions of the Laptop or computer Way and using my connection with dealing with ˜A' as a opportunity to look within my own beliefs and prejudices allowed a ˜earn, win' situation that occurs for both Customer and Counsellor.

    Criteria 4

    Inherent Power Distinctions and Steps to Limit Inequality

    The inherent ability differences which can be found between the consumer and the counsellor will usually exist due to the nature of the partnership. The client often approaches the relationship feeling very vulnerable and appears towards to the Counsellor for advice and reassurance. The Counsellor does indeed ˜keep some actual power: she controls the boundaries of time, setting, fee and will create, even in negotiation limitations about contact outside the session' (*1). In having the ability to reduce this imbalance your client needs to feel well known and ˜adored' by the Counsellor. Making use of the PCA in dealing with a Client enables these to feel:

    • Respected
    • Loved
    • Understood
    • Empathised With

    Using skills such as lively being attentive, paraphrasing, reflecting and good body gestures makes your client feel safe and empowered. As a Counsellor being conscious of the client's preconceptions provides opportunities to reduce some of the energy imbalances by:

    • Asking your client to handle you by your first name and not by a formal title
    • Dressing in a good everyday way not in a suit
    • By (if possible) laying out the room in a non confrontational manner, with pictures or blooms in the room
    • By get together your client's needs, in physical conditions, for example making certain there are tissue and one glass of water available.

    A blend of providing for subconscious and physical needs really helps to restore the energy balance to a more even keel.

    There are it should be observed some advantages in having a notable difference in electricity; someone in the relationship has to establish limitations and the Counsellor is able to this. The Counsellor exists to facilitate a Client in resolving their own issues; the client's popularity of the Counsellor as somebody who will there be to help and know what they are simply doing helps this process.

    Criteria 5

    Safety Needs for Do it yourself and Client, Person and Organisational Responsibilities

    It is essential to ensure that the surroundings you will work from is both safe and secure for your client and yourself. You, as a person have a responsibility under Health insurance and Security Legislation to ensure that you do little or nothing to endanger yourself or another and should one does so you may be liable for prosecution or pursued for civil damage.

    In any section of work there are health insurance and safeness concerns and requirements; these are especially relevant to lone workers and people who work with the general public. As a person Counsellor doing work for one's self it's important as completed a Risk Diagnosis of the premises you intend to work from; this should include reviewing get away from routes, flame evacuation procedures, design of the room, furniture, fixtures and fixtures and potential concealing spots both within the building (if its available to the general public) or in carpark areas. THE CHANCE Assessment also must talk about issues such potential dangers and outcomes of an violent attack and what can be done to minimise this from happening and really should it appear what methods there are of alerting others for help. Additional personal training incompatible management and anger management may be required; this would gain not only the Counsellor but the Consumer as well. Also as an individual it is important to ensure you have obtained the correct insurance cover; Open public Responsibility etc.

    Working with an company it's important to obtain read and understood any risk assessments regarding your activity and ensure that you are aware of protocols and procedures to deal with incidents. Making sure you know about location, layout, security alarm points and break free routes is also good practice.

    Clients require a safe environment to maintain when they are talking about feelings as sometimes these may put out as extreme anger, which is not premeditated, and can sometimes contributes to violent behaviour. Having minimised probable hazards in the area and organised types of procedures for dealing with such behavior restrictions risk to both celebrations. It's important to notice though that overt options such as using a table as a physical barrier between you and the client will produce an opposite reaction; giving the client sense vulnerable and not trusted; so measures taken need to address this factor.

    Having a safe environment to work in provides the platform for the relationship that is essential for an effective therapeutic marriage to can be found in.


    1. CSCT/AEB Theory Guide 1997
    2. Research - BACP Information Sheet G5 - Personal Protection for Practitioners


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