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A study in to the Indifferent Worker:

To Address the Issues of Indifference in the Labor force and Consider the Motivational Remedies.

Rationale for study

Indifference can be described as a lack of curiosity about doing something, the perception of a task being unimportant or work being completed with a reduced emphasis; sometimes no emphasis on quality and effort. An indifferent person could be described as apathetic, with the suppression of feeling. Many companies and individuals learning resource departments simply do not acknowledge indifference as the popular problem it truly is. It really is difficult to see what a person or organisation is not doing; it is hard to monitor or observe and then the better the data and understanding we have the better we can overcome the issue. There exists little existing research in the region of indifference amidst the labor force, yet it has been outlined as a modern HR phenomena. EVIDENCE Indifference is a term that is used in many different contexts, Indifferent behaviour and behaviour between pouches in the workforce finally cost organisations time, money and resources. Indifference addresses a variety of subject matter such as mindset and sociology as well as business and management. It could no longer be ignored. The study aims to provide us an improved understanding of productive and affordable alternatives that ensure successful brief and permanent motivational tranquility for the indifferent elements consisting in the labor force. I will check out and critically analyse the techniques of determination and how effective these are in tackling today's era of indifferent attitudes, this will assist me on making recommendations to quash the effect and impact of indifference.

Implications

Indifferent individuals reverse efficiency and reduce efficiency, inevitably influencing other's attitudes. I want to highlight the issue of indifference and suggest the appropriate combatant techniques required to effectively handle and efficiently fix the problem. Determination as a subject has been broadly debated through the years and the development of theories have allowed us to gain valuable insights and take up best practises. Yet it is still important to issue the contemporary thoughts and beliefs on the subject as we enter into a new years of indifference we have to think about modern motivational solutions, I am considering the relevance of existing theories. Implementing the right motivational drivers and incorporating effective company culture is a lot more helpful for successful business.

Indifference and motivation have implications for several key functions and areas within all organisations; recruiting, culture and performance to name but a few. There simply isn't enough modern-day theory taking into consideration the level and implications of the widely disregarded indifferent employee. Although the topic is relatively new, there is literature in relating areas, motivational tactics may provide us the answer; motivation as a subject has had a great deal of literature over time. However with increasing globalisation and interconnectivity; divisions of labour attitudes, more combined views and a more wide variety of individuals we need a more coherent and current idea of modern day issues like indifference; inspiration theory needs to evolve with the 21st century.

Motivation and Engagement

Through examining different motivational theories I could gain a better understanding of how determination has helped engagement and improve employee commitment. Ultimately I am wanting to how appropriate these techniques are to today's managers with reference to tackling indifference in the workplace. Common management theory such as Taylor (1911) founded the early ideology of inspiration. I will talk about the different needs based theories such as Maslow's hierarchy, including extensions of the idea. Theories focused on extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, developing a wider knowledge bottom part of desire will help our understanding and provide better route and through enlightened tactics to permit managers to adopt the best practise for the indifferent staff. This can help resolve the problems highlighted.

Motivation is the traveling force for efficiency and efficiency within the labor force. Henri Fayol, an early on pioneer of management theory, suggests there are four important elements of management; planning, organising, directing and control. Drive would be categorised under directing, virtually identical definitions; directing is leading employees to perform the organisation's goals and making them perform effectively. Theorizing the happening of indifference can help managers eliminate the problem through motivational implementation they'll create more competitive people resource bottom part Cui, 2004 emphasises this aspect, describing the; "need to groom people to become a source of competitive advantages". The prevailing research straight regarding drive contrasts recover of indifference; there is a great amount of literature and a number of views, however the theory is dated and the methods by which some research was tested is ever increasing arriving under scrutiny. The analysis of desire will aid managers in distinguishing the indifferent worker and enable a bigger level of understanding and concerns to effective resolutions for an employed, committed and encouraged workforce.

Research Questions

To look at the implications, gain a far more coherent understanding and properly recognize the special needs for the indifferent attitudes amidst employees.

To research the broader aspects in surrounding theory associated with indifference; to raised our understanding of the phenomena.

To support the talk of indifference and modern drive resolutions, acknowledging the modern day problem and taking into consideration the application of contemporary motivational theory.

Discover the techniques implemented to enhance performance and satisfaction of the workforce and discover which motivational factors will impact the indifferent worker best.

Literature review

The literature review concerning this research leads us to various writings of ideas. Some of these opinions share continuity with one another, but other ideas convey more diverse views. The subject itself is multifaceted and carries a great deal of subjectivity through the questions precisely what is an indifferent worker, how can an company identify indifference within the labor force, and what exactly are the best answers to the issue? Indifference needs to be tackled, as Cuming highlights; "what's good for the average person is good for the company as well" (1993, p. 6). So getting rid of indifference will profit an organisation all together, its in the organisations intereset that its work force is engaged if not devoted.

Indifference and its own Repercussions on the Organisation

Radwan, 2009 explains "Indifference is the point out of feeling where you merely don't value taking an action, the challenge with indifference is that sometimes you are aware that doing that thing or taking that action will get you much profit but still one does nothing, indifference is not like lack of inspiration because you may lack determination if you aren't aware of the value of the experience, however if you are aware but still take no action then you are indifferent. " What can cause the visitors to surrender and be indifferent is serious and pro-longed dissatisfaction (Geezla, 1998, 136). It is essential for employees to be engaged in their job and have a good attitude towards their work and their contribution. I am seeking to realize why and how indifference happens at work and from my findings conclude with a powerful resolution for the issue.

Eslami (2010) declares "people with (indifference) do not care about the future, because so far as they are concerned, there is no difference between present, future and previous. " This illustrates the problems organisations face with components of an indifferent labor force; how do an organisation use tactics and proper eye-sight with employees that aren't involved in their work and sub sequentially do not conform to organisational culture? Indifferent employees deteriorate in behavior; this has a bad effect on other fellow workers and can decrease productivity. The scope of indifference in an organization identifies the behavior of somebody who carries out the organization's activities without needing their ability or creativity. Indifference threatens to demolish encouragement of the employees; reducing their work and popularity of obligations (Tabaeian, 2001). Whereas Murphy, 2002 features indifference as having a more significant effect on organisational culture, he completed a study that disclosed "a perceived discrepancy between your official espousal of the values by the company and their real enactment. . . The ambivalence of this group towards such ideals is shown in the indifference of staff, for whom the values have little salience as drivers of company policy or practice. " He then goes on to convey "the embedding of company worth is represented as part of a more substantial descriptive construction of salience. Additionally it is argued that political factors, including powerful, unofficial social and sub ethnical norms, will override the impact of officially espoused, but unembedded, principles. " Further highlighting the necessity for a better understanding and modern day acknowledgement through his statement; "Organizations that look to land an easy fix or play politics, hardly ever bridge isolated silos of self-control, culture, gender or beliefs. "

To grasp the idea of an indifferent individual, I will be touching determination and concentrating on engagement. Literature relating to this field will help provide a much better knowledge of the motivational remedies. Dedication is some sort of devotion including feelings such as trust and stability that organisations wish to gain from their workers. Whilst not a lot has been immediately written on indifference, there is a lot literature on dedication. The staff should be considered a productive member of an organisation, rather than enter an employment relationship based on submission and obligation. Submission and responsibility can lead to thoughts of indifference. Price states that employees should be focused on the organisations 'quest and beliefs'. Price talks about that employees will show dedication and enthusiasm only when they want to, rather than out of compliance. Price's model is based on an 'anti-authoritarian' viewpoint, so his view is interesting in comparison with managerial ways of motivating indifferent employees. Price features the importance of commitment to a person level. P15

Indifferent employees do not expect much from other company, except a pay check and in some cases, benefits. Highly indifferent employees see "their life" as existing independent from work. Those employees who are lower in indifference are usually believed to have orientations contrary to the highly indifferent workers. Behaviour plays a key role in understanding this problem. A reason why there's been so little research upon this topic is because even if organisations recognize indifference they can not tell what percentage of their labor force are indifferent; people know about its existence but they don't feel it occurs at a wide enough level to be studied seriously and also have the understanding of 'appropriate methods in destination to counter respond the effects'. (Grzybowska 2005)

"A recent study found that 68% of customers who leave do it due to a company employee's indifference. " WAYS TO GET Your Employees To Treat Customers Better

Lisa Earle McLeod, 04. 26. 10, 01:21 PM EDT

Indifference not only slows the company procedures and efficiency down but can also lead to consumers having a negative experience with the organisation.

Writing in an article regarding organisational brainpower, Weber (2010) points out that an organisation opting for a quick fix strategy for resolving problems with respect to organisational self-discipline, culture and beliefs won't work, He stresses the importance of involvement from higher-level management; "It takes engagement from an institute's top control, a willingness to get time, and ability within teams that come from many sectors of population. " He suggests a well-balanced variety of personnel will help indulge individuals and improve performance. Indifference needs to be tackle head on, more connections between low level personnel and their superiors is important in lowering the problem, making a culture that acts as a disincentive to indifference is important but actually realizing and monitoring the situation of indifference and understanding the wider implications and influences is the only way to implement a successful combatant technique to effectively eradicate the problem whilst ensuring.

Motivation Program and Engagement Effectiveness

There has been a massive amount of literature produced regarding motivation during the last century. Determination theory was first created to the business world by early pioneers such as Taylor. Latham, 2007, explains Taylor's research found money was the primary motivation for motivating the labor force. The classical management theory advises managers should take up a militant style, authoritarian technique. I really do not imagine this attitude should be embraced by today's mangers for tackling indifference, although money may be a primary incentive for an indifferent worker, management need to intrinsically motivate, getting the individuals more engaged; this strategy was proven inefficient rather than as fruitful as alternative methods. The importance of motivational factors and the needs of the staff lead to raised management resolution, managers cannot go back to this perspective it will not work on a long term basis

Prior to Maslow, researchers generally centered on individual motivational factors independently. Maslow (1954) developed the hierarchy of needs, this created a simple change to the way employee productivity and inspiration was perceived and built the foundations for further motivational theory. The hierarchy of needs is a triangular sizing with five elements; Physiological needs, safe practices/security needs, need for belongingness, self esteem and lastly self actualization. Maslow cases all employees will move along the hierarchy. To be able to progress you will need to fulfil certain requirements a particular element to move the hierarchy. The indifferent worker in many cases is a past 'team member' and was at some level a considerable contributor, this theory is not relevant with the indifferent employee anticipated to them being at different levels of the hierarchy when the frame of mind models in. Existence-relatedness-growth theory very much like Maslow's hierarchy advises motivation is a result of people attempting to meet basic needs, unlike Maslow's 5 needs Alderfer (1969) advises there are three needs; living, relatedness and growth. This theory is more appropriate for tackling indifference. Life needs would cover the lower areas of the hierarchy; physiological and basic safety needs. Related needs would come under esteem and belongingness and expansion needs would have a tendency to be towards the top of the hierarchy at the do it yourself actualization level. One conflicting view in this theory is that the needs are not progressive in the way that there is no hierarchy; professionals having a more successful role in engagement and employee progression will certainly reduce the prospect of indifferent attitudes to determine themselves within employees; resolving the problems before they turn into a problem. Alderfer implies people may work on gratifying all needs at once rather than satisfying one need to move to the next.

Process theories of motivation give attention to relationships between performance and satisfaction; Collateral theory was unveiled through Adams, J, S. (1965). Regarding to Jones R, G. & George, J, M. (2003) "the equity theory is defined as a theory of inspiration that targets people's perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes in accordance with their work outputs". The idea is dependant on a percentage of suggestions and output. The theory argues that inputs such as training and skills will result in benefits such as pay and fringe benefits. Similar to performance related pay, equity theory implies the ratio will create absolute fairness. Getting the possibility to earn on a level using field will fulfill employees and inspire them to better their performance. Collateral theory supports the view performance increase therefore of increased job satisfaction. With successful software of Alderfer; the collateral theory will be more effective or justified. Financial compensation is not the best incentive for fully proposal of the indifferent worker; intrinsic drive is more desired plus more beneficial for the organisation as a whole.

In contrast to this Vroom developed expectancy theory. His views based on that of Lewin (1935) and Rotter (1955) suggest people expect a certain level of work or performance to accomplish desired goals and goals. Increasing job satisfaction should come consequently of increasing job performance. Vroom (1964) defines two key elements to the idea: expectancy; 'a momentary belief concerning the likelihood a particular take action will be accompanied by a particular final result. ' Valence; 'affective orientations toward particular final results' valence either comes negative or positive, for example somebody who prefers attaining an result alternatively than not-attaining the outcome has positive valence. Expectancy theory implies motivation is determined by how strong the expectancy is and how valiant the person finds the duty. This is aligned compared to that of the indifferent employee; one which has lost their way. This indicates job design is essential for effective performance. Forde & Whiddett, (2002) describe the idea of Instrumentality, also developed through expectancy theory, unlike expectancy; instrumentality advises one result will lead to some other important final result. Porter and Lawyer (1968) explored expectancy theory and their studies backed that of Vroom. One criticism they does have was the idea did not consider potential and job clearness, expectancy theory focused on extrinsic motivation somewhat than intrinsic. The indifferent employee needs a move in viewpoint to a more intrinsically motivated mind-set in order to solve the problem indefinitely.

McClelland & Atkinson (1965) presented achievements motivational needs theory, the theory is dependant on behaviour in achievements orientated activities, there are three specific motivational conditions; willingness to participate, ability or perception to attain the goal; expectancy and there should be an incentive to carry out the task. Achievement theory categorises everyone into different personalities and needs. McClelland found three different kinds of need; the necessity for achievement, dependence on power and the necessity for affiliation. All have specific characteristics and tendencies that are explained at length. This could be a remedy, a balance between fairness and progression can help engage indifferent attitudes. Task determination theory, or better known as goal setting theory originated through Locke (1968) his analysis found three important tips, Precise goals which may be measured are a much better tool of drive rather than simply giving basic goals. More challenging goals lead to a larger level of performance weighed against easy goals, Individuals decisions are affected by their behavioural intention. Indifferent attitudes will be hard to encourage progressive goals setting may have a negative impact for indifferent individuals yet can be an appropriate motivator for the normal staff member aligned to the organisations culture and has a reasonable level of commitment.

Latter theories of inspiration include Herzberg (1987) who details desire as "a function of progress from getting intrinsic rewards out of interesting and challenging work. " Herzberg's two factor theory is separated between factors behind job dissatisfaction called cleanliness factors and positive components of the job leading to satisfaction, known as motivators. In his research he points out the opposite of job dissatisfaction will not lead to job satisfaction alternatively no job satisfaction. A similar is true with the other part of the idea regarding motivators. He shows extrinsic determination as hygiene factors which will undoubtedly lead to no job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction. He also advises the motivational factors i. e. motivators will lead to determined or unmotivated labor force. Forde, & Whiddett. (2002) make clear "If job satisfaction brings about greater productivity, it seems sensible that any improvements in motivators should lead to a noticable difference in performance. " Satisfaction for the work is crucial, early motivational remedies can help solve the condition. A paternalistic managerial position will improve communication and the manager can re-bridge the dedication and increase the performance permitting an all round more vigorously engaged individual.

More recent ideas and expansions on inspiration include the development of psychological cleverness, Goleman (1995) deriving from early ideas on interpersonal intellect from Thorndike (1937). Butler and Waldroop recognize the importance of four proportions of relational work: cleverness, interpersonal facilitation, relational imagination and team command. This more common theory should be adopted in order to abolish the indifference before it develops. It can provide the employee with more responsibility and a fresh calling as they say although dangerous in the hand sof the indifferent it may have a superb affect on proposal and inspiration, management intuition and general people skills and diagnosis should provide an inkling into what needs the indifferent employee is requiring and what may possibly help drive them and reinstate a good level of commitment.

Conclusions and Recommendations for further research

Classical Management theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs aren't best appropriate if wanting to motivate the indifferent staff. Alderfer's three needs of lifetime, relatedness and progress are more suitable, indifference could arise from a lack of these needs, building and growing predominately worse over time therefore of managers failing woefully to acknowledge potential capacity for improvement and an individual's workplace improvement or even progression. For effective proposal and sufficient dedication handling these needs will help the employees stay centered and committed to the job accessible and ensure successful and happy representation. Equity Theory can in some cases help stimulate the employee and reengages them back to good work ethic. Performance related pay buildings for example will encourage employees in the short term, with a less impact on that of the indifferent however financial compensation is not priority for routing out the reason and permanently eradicating indifferent behaviour within employees. Intrinsic desire theory supplies the optimum solution; Herzberg 1987 for example, the motivators upon this two factor theory can be implemented and utilised in wanting to reverse the effect of indifference.

In order to solve the issue it's important to reverse the growing entrenchment of negative work ethic as soon as possible. A number of motivational motorists should be adopted finding the the one that works for the worker swiftly is advocated. Managers need to be effective in reforming the idea, ethics and morality of its indifferent employees; it is of the upmost importance; Murphy, 2002 expresses. "leaders need charisma to create the understanding and sentiment". Indifference in employees based in customer faced tasks will have a profound negative impact on the customer's understanding of the company. Helpful and useful customer interaction is ever more desired if not necessary in today's business world. It increases the organisation's competitiveness, retains custom and advocates the trustworthiness of the business enterprise. Ensuring customers tend to be than satisfied with their experience is a top priority; the idea of conversation with associates of the organisation performs an important part in credibility. Facts Without managerial acknowledgement and the right, proactive, response; departments will never be as fully successful and will suffer from poor representation. This low morale should be attended to through changing managerial methods and applying different motivational engagement tools. There needs to be a change; one which implements more desire and interest for indifferent members.

Motivation drives the workforce; influencing capacity and potential, additionally it is crucial for employing the company's objective and image throughout all degrees of organisational structure. Desire enables employees to raised embrace the organisation's culture. The indifference concern is very real; individuals will persist and their behaviour will free semester. Failing to handle the matters effectively will bring about a wider and more serious impact over time. Changing the frame of mind of the individual employee in order to fully engage them will change any entrenched behaviour. Through the correct motivational and managerial manner they may become exceptional employees once again. Returning the sound work ethic and standard will lead to a noticeable and advanced individual contribution; an advantage all human learning resource managers prefer to see.

Managers must have the chance for a far more decentralised, motivational insurance policy in order to deal with indifferent attitudes. More managerial discretion for methods that will bridge the needs of the indifferent get back of the goals of the company should be promoted. There has to be an alteration in perspective away from the mainstream determination, that of 1 predominate policy deciding on all employees is not the path for the resolving the indifference problem. When tackling indifference we need to change the motivational procedure for different circumstances; the manager can pick up on key indications and measures; productivity for example. (Bratton and Gold's, 1999) pursuit model also features main functions of HR and other aspects and indicators such as absenteeism. Indifferent employees need to understand management as sufficiently dealing with their needs and wants whilst managing the organisational or departmental goals, needs and objectives, in a good way. This isn't best done through an appraisal composition but more similar to that of a casual meeting. Folks are unique and indifference is best tackled when dealing with cases independently; assertiveness for specific needs will result in an improved management practise and will settle the issue amongst the average person indefinitely.

Further research

Relatively long term case studies into finding, watching and documenting specific cases provides a clearer understanding. Putting into action different techniques spoken about can truly test the theories; accumulating an abundance of indifferent approaches for specific types perhaps. I recommend these further research ideas;

Comparing Indifference in a number of open public and private sector organisations will allow a better insight; revealing the issue to see if it's more susceptible to certain structures, management styles or industries.

A research study observing different effects of a variety of motivational practices using set in place trial periods for each. Doing this on indifferent employees would be enlightening; By exploring further and obtaining these results this could permit us to categorise different levels or types and probably identify key catalysts for indifference amongst the labor force.

Ethical considerations may need to be taken into consideration; if observation is carried out without worker knowledge and consent, it will cause matter. Some will dispute this is essential so the results is not manipulated; to be able to sustain more accurate results. There's also many variables to take into account, company culture for example, but figuring out indifferent employees must be acknowledged. if professionals are well outfitted with the knowhow and can distinguish between too little progress or temporary spells of poor performance with a genuine indifferent employee they can see what is most effective and gain a wider knowledge foundation for the themselves and the field of interest. Through using efficiency measures and watching progress the problem can be analyzed effectively. Implementing other comparative and assessable parameters will enable a more solid base on which conclusions can be assessed more reputably; eventually attaining more conclusive and licensed research will drive the problem in to the mainstream.

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