Academic Problems Facing College Students Physical Education Essay

Post-secondary education is facing many problems today. One of the most significant issues is the fact students are not well prepared for the educational demands of university, which can result in dissatisfaction, poor marks and non-completion. Nationally, educational preparedness is deficient (Moore, 2006). Idaho has observed this problem and is also working to overcome the obstacles (Idaho State Panel of Education, 2009). School enrollment of adults in Idaho has seen a slight drop since 1990. In comparison with national averages, a relatively fewer quantity of young adults in Idaho are signed up for postsecondary education. In addition, only 43% of those who matriculate to university have the ability to efficiently complete an undergraduate degree within a period of six years (National Center for Open public Policy and Higher Education, 2008). One program post-secondary organizations have embraced in Idaho is dual enrollment, a program that encourages high school students to attend university courses concurrent with senior high school courses for senior high school and college or university credit, also called dual credit. This study will attempt to examine the potency of the dual enrollment program in Idaho, specifically if participating in dual enrollment impacts a student's first time school GPA, and retention.

Statement of the Problem

The problem being examined is the mixed findings on the potency of dual enrollment programs in influencing school success among first-time college or university students. Dual enrollment has been regarded as a practical way to reduce senior high school drop outs and increase university enrollments. Great things about the dual enrollment programs are supplementing the curriculum of high universities with college lessons (Jacobson, 2005), and contact with the rigors of college while in senior high school creates a far more successful college scholar. Despite the presence of outcome studies, inadequate is known about how precisely dual credit enrolment influences college final results among those who matriculate first-time to college or university. This study will attempt to examine the potency of the dual enrollment program in Idaho, specifically, if taking part in a dual enrollment program correlates with a student's first 12 months college or university GPA and retention.

Significance of the Study

This study contributes to having less books on dual credit programs and their impact of school success. The purpose of this study is to find out whether contribution in dual enrollment training in senior high school affects the academics activities of first-time freshen.

Institutions now encourage students to co-enroll in postsecondary companies for credits. Actually, dual credit programs are being among the most popular educational programs today. The advantages of dual credit enrollment are well-established in institutional books. The main advantage of dual credit enrollment is the fact that high school students has a higher probability of matriculating into college or university immediately after senior high school graduation and towards successful conclusion of a postsecondary degree.

Institutions will benefit from this study since it provides data which could inform practice and implementation of dual credit programs. School administrators can become more adequately prepared of how benefits of dual credit courses are mediated by parameters such as gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic position. The data out of this study can be used to inform decisions related to how dual credit programs can be produced more effective. This may provide basis for changes in the design or implementation of dual credit programs to become more accessible plus more conducive for those.

Literature Review

In response to what was widely perceived as the failure of American education to create competitive students prepared to take part in the global overall economy, programs like the dual-credit enrollment of high school students were conceived (Adelman, 2006). Dual-credit identifies courses wanted to high school students "who receive university credit and credit toward secondary college graduation with the same classes" (Marshall & Andrews, 2002, p. 237). The offers of dual-credit programs describe its wide program in the educational setting up. Dual-credit enrollment programs are available in 47 states over the United States today. Various studies have shown that high universities have been positively running dual-credit courses since the previous five years; 71% of all public high universities are providing dual-credit programs while around 10-30% of senior high school juniors and seniors have obtained school credit among states encouraging dual-credit programs (Hoffman, 2005). Dual-credit training are made to complement the senior high school curriculum in order to provide 1) a soft transition to postsecondary education, 2) a less expensive college or university education by accelerating the completion of the degree, and c) create an experienced and trained American work area which can be competitive internationally (Smith, 2007).

Aside from the above-mentioned benefits, proponents of dual-credit programs believe more importantly, dual-credit programs improve the academic success of high school students after they matriculate to postsecondary education (Karp et al. , 2007; Smith, 2007). Those that advocate for dual-credit programs make the assumption that taking college or university courses beforehand make better-prepared and for that reason, more successful university students in the future. Unfortunately, extant books review on dual-credit enrollment is too sparse to support these assertions. What is known to us in conditions of empirical studies show the results of studies are inconclusive at best.

Dual-credit enrollment and postsecondary success

There are too little result studies conducted on dual-credit programs to support the positive boasts of its proponents.

Feedback and perception studies have been made to reveal that students signed up for dual-credit programs have positive reactions towards dual-credit lessons. Those surveyed mentioned they were pleased with the grade of education and found dual-credit classes more engaging than regular senior high school subjects (Andrews, 2004).

An institutional research by Monroe Community College or university (2003) figured dual credit advanced participating students' college or university readiness. Inside a comparative longitudinal study, the researchers discovered that dual credit students received higher placement ratings in reading which were those who did not complete dual credit training. Data obtained in 2001 unveiled that greater than a third (35%) of dual credit students got scores below 80% for reading compared to 40% among non dual credit students. Not surprisingly positive result, the analysis experienced methodological limitations. Without controlling for other parameters, it can't be empirically founded that dual-credit enrollment was the most influential changing that influenced higher placement ratings.

Studies have also advised that dual credit enrollment contributes to higher university retention. Dual credit students successfully completed more college credits than students who did not participate in dual credit lessons or who completed more school hours (Nitzke, 2002).

A handful of quantitative studies suggest that dual-credit enrollment may be predictive of successful university outcomes. In a thorough study by Karp et al. (2007), it was found that dual enrollment students who matriculate to college or university for the first semester were more likely to persist in school until another semester; the likelihood was increased for CTE dual enrollment students. Within 2 yrs of college enrollment, dual credit students' cumulative GPAs were significantly greater than students who didn't complete dual-credit lessons.

Eimers and Mullen (2003) discovered that students who matriculated to school for the first time and got dual credits in senior high school were more academically well prepared than first-time students without dual credits completed. Furthermore, dual credit students were found to get significantly higher Take action scores and higher senior high school rates than non dual credit students.

Bailey and Karp (2003) conducted a books review study to ascertain if there is certainly significant evidence creating the impact of dual credit courses on educational success of high school students as they matriculate to college. In reviewing 45 studies and articles related to dual enrollment, the authors found that few outcomes studies have been made to claim that dual credit hours are predictive of postsecondary success. Several studies were reviews and institutional studies which did not control for confounding parameters such as determination, senior high school GPA, and university student demographic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

Another exhaustive books review research by Kim (2005) mirrored the studies in Bailey and Karp (2003). Facts suggesting the positive impact of dual credit hours on educational success or college or university outcomes is nominal.

The literature review uncovers the scarcity of information on the question of whether or not dual credit programs significantly predict postsecondary success among first-time school students. This research contributes to this space in books.

Research Questions

This research examines the central question, "Is dual credit participation significant in predicting postsecondary success among students who matriculate to college?" The following research questions serve as guide:

Does gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic position effect first-term postsecondary GPA among first-time freshmen?

Does high school ACT report and senior high school GPA predict first-term educational performance of dual credit students?

Does dual credit contribution correlate with first term postsecondary GPA?


The pursuing null hypotheses will be analyzed:

There will be statistically factor in first term GPA of dual enrollment and non-dual enrollment students between variables such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position.

There will be statistically significant distinctions in the first term GPA of dual enrollment and non-dual enrollment graduates predicated on high school GPA and Work scores.

There will be statistically significant distinctions on the first-term postsecondary GPA among dual and non-dual enrollment graduates.

Research Design

This study aims to examine the relationship of demographic, academics, and enrollment variables on the success of students in post-secondary education on the basis of their first-term postsecondary GPA. To this end, a quantitative ex post facto review is designed if you want to evaluate the potency of the dual enrollment program in Idaho. A quantitative research design was driven based on the purposes of the study. The objective of the researcher is to determine the contributory variables leading to postsecondary success of those who recently participated in dual credit programs. When the study problems calls for causal explanations or trending of factors, the quantitative research design is appropriate (Creswell, 2005). More specifically, this analysis can be applied an ex post facto research technique to determine whether dual credit programs significantly forecast successful first season GPA. Ex post facto or "after the truth" research is a quasi-experimental research form that utilizes available data rather than data obtained through real experimentation (Goddard & Melville, 2009, p. 9).

This dual credit research will make use of archived raw data from the databases of every participating university in Idaho. Archived raw data regarding participants and nonparticipants in dual enrollment programs will be accumulated from data stored in a repository preserved by each school. Within the standard educational documents maintained at the faculty, demographic information (gender and contest), academic ranking, credits received, and final marks are taken care of and archived. As well as the demographic information, academics standing up, and course work completed, the first-semester college GPA of students who enrolled in the community school after senior high school graduation is maintained in the repository.

Population, Sample, and Sites

Colleges chosen as research sites are institution actively taking part in dual enrollment programs within Idaho. The test calls for freshman students who are both dual enrollment completers and non-completers. While demographic and academic information is available in the database of every college, the data source does not identify who among the freshman students could actually complete dual enrollment programs prior to college or university admittance. Hence, the brands of dual enrollment completers will be anchored from program mind of postsecondary institutions in Idaho. The sample will be labeled into 1) completers and 2) non-completers of dual credit programs. Data on the various dependent and indie variables to be considered in the study will be obtained through the college or university data source with permission from the respective postsecondary companies.

Variables to be Studied

For this quantitative ex post facto research, the following dependent and self-employed variables are recognized:

Dependent Variable

First 12 months GPA. This establishes postsecondary success as the result of dual credit participation during senior high school. Data will be attracted from the college or university database.

Independent Variables

Dual-credit enrollment. This research is framed under the assumption a student's contribution in dual credit programs in high school will contribute positively to postsecondary GPA.

Gender. As the control variable, the assumption is a participant's gender influences the success of dual credit programs in postsecondary success. This will also be attracted from the university database.

Ethnicity. This review considers ethnicity as a control adjustable to the potency of dual credit programs.

Socioeconomic status. A student's socioeconomic position is also considered an intervening changing in analyzing the success of dual credit programs in predicting successful postsecondary outcomes.

High school Action score. In deciding the affect of dual credit participation to postsecondary success of freshman students, the Function score is considered an intervening adjustable.

High Institution GPA. In identifying the effect of dual credit contribution to postsecondary success of freshman students, the high school GPA is considered an intervening variable.

Data Collection and Analysis

This ex post facto quantitative research relies on already available data to determine if contribution in dual credit programs during senior high school can anticipate successful postsecondary outcomes for students in Idaho institutions. Demographic and academics data is stored in the databases of each taking part college. To be able to access archive data, personal visits and characters of need will be sent to the heads or directors of organizations. Following the required data is retrieved from the university databases, the researcher will source the data using the Statistical Package for the Friendly Sciences (SPSS v. 16) software program. The identical software will process the data for appropriate statistical analysis.

In control and managing data, a statistical repository will be built. Every student will be assigned a participant quantity as a code and the demographic account of the respondents will be logged in. The impartial variable identified for analysis is the first term postsecondary class point average. The GPAs during the first term will be inserted in to the statistical repository. Control variables such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position may also be entered into the statistical data source. Intervening variables examined as determinants of differing examples of postsecondary success are the ACT credit score and high school GPA. The effects of these factors will be correlated with the postsecondary first term GPA suggested in the data source.

An ex post facto analysis will reveal whether the independent factors (gender, ethnicity, Action score, and socioeconomic status) can anticipate postsecondary success. In addition, an ex post facto design will determine whether causal human relationships exist among the list of variables. Whatever significant correlations may arise will imply the life of causal associations but not automatically imply causation.

A step-wise multiple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted at. 05 degree of significance is decided on as the correct statistical analysis solution to allow the researcher to view each variable separately from the put together effects of factors selected for this study. The backward elimination approach of step-wise regression commences inclusive of all predictors and ascertains what degree of prediction is lost by progressively deleting the variables one at a time. This enables the strongest predictive factors to be determined and other parameters in the region of correlation to the success of the members.

The data will be filtered by specified variables and put together into and Excel spreadsheet, then transferred into the Statistical Deal for Social Sciences (SPSS v. 16) for further analysis. Predicated on the results of your step-wise multiple regression process, the researcher will determine whether or not to simply accept or reject the null hypotheses developed prior to data collection.

The studies will be utilized to test the next hypotheses:

There will be statistically significant difference in first term GPA of dual enrollment and non-dual enrollment students between variables such as gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

There will be statistically significant differences in the first term GPA of dual enrollment and non-dual enrollment graduates predicated on high school GPA and Take action scores.

There will be statistically significant distinctions on the first-term postsecondary GPA among dual and non-dual enrollment graduates.

Ethical requirements in research will be looked at in the suggested study by requesting permission first from the institution administrators and describing the targets of the study and the task which will be used. To uphold privacy and confidentiality, the members' titles will be replaced with codes to safeguard their identities.

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