Achievement Oriented Participative Directive And Supportive Control Management Essay

The Path-Goal Theory of Command was developed to describe the way that market leaders encourage and support their fans in reaching the goals they have been set by making the path that they have to take clear and easy.

In particular, leaders:

Clarify the road so subordinates know which strategy to use.

Remove roadblocks that are preventing them going there.

Increasing the rewards along the route.

Leaders can take a strong or limited approach in these. In clarifying the road, they may be directive or give obscure hints. In getting rid of roadblocks, they could scour the road or help the follower move the bigger blocks. In increasing rewards, they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with yellow metal.

This variance in methodology will rely upon the situation, like the follower's potential and determination, as well as the issue of the work and other contextual factors. House and Mitchell (1974) summarize four varieties of leadership:

Supportive leadership

Considering the needs of the follower, displaying concern for his or her welfare and creating an agreeable working environment. This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. This process is most beneficial when the task is stressful, monotonous or unsafe.

Directive leadership

Telling supporters what needs to be achieved and offering appropriate guidance on the way. This includes providing them with schedules of specific work to be achieved at specific times. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity lowered (by informing them what they should be doing).

This may be used when the duty is unstructured and intricate and the follower is inexperienced. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and therefore is suitable to the problem.

Participative leadership

Consulting with fans and taking their ideas into account when coming up with decisions and taking particular activities. This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed plus they expect to be able to give it.

Achievement-oriented leadership

Setting challenging goals, both in work and in self-improvement (and frequently jointly). High standards are proven and expected. The first choice shows faith in the capacities of the follower to achieve success. This approach is most beneficial when the duty is intricate.

1. (b) Situational theory

The situational theory of control and the Business lead instruments for identifying authority style are explained, and the application of the situational authority theory to the process of planning and putting into action organizational change is detailed. Early studies of management style recognized two basic management styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Succeeding research discovered that most market leaders exhibited one of four mixtures of job and romantic relationship behaviours. The situational control theory holds that the difference between your success and ineffectiveness of the four command styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to this situation where it is used. The task maturity of the average person or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in conditions of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, determination or ability to simply accept responsibility, and ownership of the required education or experience for a particular task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be decided from the Business lead self and Business lead other questionnaires. Through the use of the rules of the situational authority theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific duties and degrees of follower maturity, the writers were successful in applying 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by personnel pharmacists with little previous experience in specialized medical services. The situational leadership model permits a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the duty maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate command style, and improve the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers may use this model when putting into action clinical pharmacy services.

The Situational Authority Theory suggests that effective leadership requires both functions of "leadership" and "management. " Depending on the level of each one of these functions necessary, four different varieties of leadership can be utilized. These are delegating, training, directing, and helping. For a head to be purposeful in their way, they must use the right style by being able to evaluate a follower's readiness level. Quite simply, they need to "meet a follower where they can be. "

A follower's readiness level is determined by two factors. The foremost is the amount of capability to do what's needed. The second reason is the level of determination to do what is needed. The diagram above will help you in determining your officer's readiness level.

Once the officer's readiness level is described, you will be able to determine what style of command will provide the best results if you are advising. An consultant that is capable of adjusting his/her style to meet up with the needs of the official will be more effective.

1. (c) Behavioural theory

Logically, behavioural theory complements the flaws in characteristic theory because piecing together what head are obviously and what they do seem to pretty much encompass every measurements of command. One important appeal of behavioural theory is that if we know what leaders do, then you'll be able to train people command. So theoretically everyone is in a position of become a leader if indeed they learn management properly. Now, to discuss about what leaders do is quite a daunting task. Most of the books and journals we continue reading organisational learning, effective management which talks about tuning in, empowering, and uplifting people are upon this subject. All of them are by in large stylistically prescriptive while disregarding the situational facet of management (Maurik 2001). The authority style that works in one situation might not just work at all in another situation. Churchill's great leadership during WWII didn't carry his premiership afloat following the war ended (Maurik 2001). However, despite being limited in this manner, behavioural theory can still shed light on how we understand control. If you want to read up more about any of it, there are two seminal clinical tests on this subject matter (Bake and Mouton 1964; Tannenbaum and Schmidt 1958 cited in Maurik 2001). Some may be by Bake and Mouton in 1964 who described control behaviours in task-relationship oriented dichotomy (cited in Maurik 2001). That is considering management approaches which can be "focused on finishing assigned jobs with little matter for follower's individuals needs" on the one hand (Job) and "creating an agreeable atmosphere of work but neglect to deliver on end result" on the other (Romantic relationship). Their key studies are that the task/relationship oriented management used is not a case of either/or circumstance. Actually, effective market leaders utilise both techniques by appropriate to the management needs of given people situation (cited in Maurik 2001). What I find interesting concerning this is the 'midsection of the road' approach that involves a 'balanced need for process accomplishment and maintaining healthy romantic relationships' design of leadership is despite being "politically expedient" (Maurik 2001 pp12) (in another phrase makes everyone happy) but is unlikely to start changes in the position quo (Maurik 2001).

There are two main theories of Leadership Behaviour, Transaction and Change. This is what we call the "X" sizing of behaviour command theory.

X Dimensions

X Dimension works from Transactional to transformational control, as researched by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985). The controversy rages, is that one aspect or two? This is a vintage dualism in leadership studies. Melts away viewed modal thinking (the means over ends reasoning) in the first levels of development and held these market leaders to be "transactional" in their behaviours. Transactional leadership "takes a shrewd eyes for opportunity, a good hands at bargaining, persuading, reciprocating" (Burns up, 1978:169). A "transformational leader, " on the other side, "recognizes and exploits a preexisting need or demand of an potential follower. . . (and) searches for potential motives in enthusiasts, seeks to gratify higher needs, and engages the entire person of the follower". Eventually transformational market leaders were thought to engage in behaviours that improved the overall game, even changed the globe.

In the Theatre approach, innovator behaviours are seen as plots (grasping together individuals, behaviours, and happenings)

Y Dimension

Y Dimension From the Will to Server to the Nietzschean Will to Electric power. Again, is that one dimensions or two? The Will to Electric power is specifically excluded from transaction and transformational head theory by both Burns and Bass. I therefore address it as a second dimension of leadership. It really is quite silly study leadership as simply a well to serve; many leaders go after power, some are capable of doing good stuff with it, others are swallowed by electricity. Nietzsche composed about Will-to-Power (WTP) and therefore Spoke Zarathustra (TSZ) as having something regarding the will to start and implement a goal as well as the more macro construct of Darwin's theory of natural section, the power to convert the inherited advantages from generation to technology (WTP #362). And WTP is also a Will to Fact (TSZ, pp. 28, 113). The WTP is a will to defeat the tiny people, "they will be the superman's greatest danger" (TSZ, p. 287). As well as the super head is not satisfied with the enjoyment of the best number of workers or consumers (TSZ, p. 287). The Super market leaders views the abyss with the sight of any eagle and grasps the abyss of poverty and misery with the talons associated with an eagle (TSZ, p. 288).

Z Dimension

Participation is from monophonic (sole tone of voice) to (polyphonic) involvement in management. Some leaders cultivate one tone, their own, and other market leaders are more pluralistic, able to create polyphonic and even more participative management.

First - there is one tone of voice -In bureaucratic theatre, there is mainly monologue. In bureaucratic control, for example, there is mostly monologue; other voices are there on the level but forbidden to speak, or they can only be whispered, their words un-hearable, drowned out by the main one official narrator who is authorized to adopt centre-stage and speak and speak even more. As Kirkeby (2000: 232) argues it is the right of power to narrate happenings, to declare them intimate, tragic, comedic, or ironic, and then of course make sure they are all into a romantic narratives that matches the bureaucratic pension for monophonic (single voiced) influence. For just about any other speech to speak would be an function of bureaucratic espionage; certainly for the secretary to speak would be unthinkable rebellion.

Second - there have been two voices - In the Quest two or more players take the stage, but it is almost never more than dialog. In dialogue the "I" and the "Other" take the level and we listen to voices, but little reflection. It is no longer the monologue of the I declaring the Other as villain. The Other gets to speak and be heard by the 'I. "

Third - there were three voices - To me, this tone that Kirkeby details is the same one uncovered way back when by Adam Smith. Smith viewed global capitalism and say that without ethics events may follow a logic of the market place that could not lead to honest relations among buyer and retailer, employer and hired, monopolist and businessperson. It is the internal spectator, the tone that talks to us while observing the First and Second (the I and the Other) rehearse there dialogue on the stage inside our mind's eyesight. And in this model, even two actors on the level visualize the dialogue of the Triad in their own brain, but as well in the top of the other.

Fourth - then there have been four voices - That is an extremely special tone of voice, one we sense is about to speak but will not, one which is on the stage but keeps in the shadows. In the Fourth, "the event is never over and done with" (Kirkeby, 2000: 237). And with the going to speak tone of voice of the Fourth, we live intuitively aware of the simulation and almost can here the polyphony of voices, a mob about to take surprise the stage. We may hear a groan, a murmur, a mumbling sound, but we can never quite find out the words. We are able to sense somehow the bureaucratic machine, the search quest, and even chaos itself are just mythic metaphors a lot of people have speculated and articulated about the net of human happenings (web is just one more one, as it theatre a metaphor). We sense the difference, and we realize with one more steps we will certainly get caught in chaos.


Out of the box

In the box




Box Dimensions


Plot s

X Behavior dimensions (exchange/transformation)



Y Power dimensions (will to serve/will to electric power)



Z Participation aspect (1 tone of voice/many voices)

Inside Box



Traits (Myers & Briggs)




Situation of Box



Situation (time & place)


Spectacle s

Jon Howell in an interview with Sun-News (January 29, 2001: 7) states "A market leaders' behaviour must match the situation, and the news headlines of his or her followers. " And his synopsis is very appropriate here:


Leader effectiveness is determined by what people do, not by some inherent personal feature. . . I'm not stating personal characteristics don't help; they certainly do. But leaders have to conform their behavioural styles to fit the situations where they find themselves".

Howell says the good news is most people can learn leader behaviours and figure out how to recognize situations in which certain behaviours are most significant. Howell and Costley (2001) argue for the match of leader behaviour, leader characteristics and characteristics, follower characteristics, and the situation accessible. And there are seven head types, fit for various behavioural procedures and situations in my read of these leader theory:

Supportive Market leaders (those considerate, people oriented market leaders).

Directive Leaders (fit for repetitive or work pass on between sites and for cultures such as Mexico that like status well defined.

Participative Leaders such as Dwight Eisenhower who could tame the Primadonna generals and politicians of WWII, and by careful hearing many voices craft an alliance.

Reward and consequence market leaders (transactional).

Charismatic (heroic) leaders

Boundary spanning (network) leaders

Leaders who build and forge sociable exchange (also networkers).

And we now have still left the obsession with one best style of leadership. There is no common style. There is really as I have advised, a sizing of behaviours working between Transactional and Transformational. The behavior school up to now is fixated on the transactional. To uncover transformational we must sail to the Isle of Situation.

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