An Integrative Construction Of Management Perspectives Religious beliefs Essay

Management has become a part and parcel of each day life, whether it is at home, in the office or stock and in administration. In all organizations, where band of human beings put together for a standard purpose, management key points come into play through the management of resources, funding and planning, priorities, guidelines and practice. Management is a organized way of undertaking activities in any field of human being work (Bhattathiri, 2001). Efficacious and effective management is extremely hard without in-depth understanding of the organisation which has been maintained. Organisational knowledge is completely critical to building, conserving and leveraging institutional quality. It is like the environment you breathe-you cannot measure it, touch it, or view it nevertheless, you cannot survive without it (Prasad, 2004)).

The basic elements of management are always there whether we take care of our lives or our business. In fact, management can be used knowingly or unknowingly by every person born as human being on this globe. We are all managers of our very own life and the practice of management is found in every element of human activity: universities, business, government, unions, armed forces, families and spiritual places. Thus, management is becoming an exciting and entertaining subject matter because it handles placing, seeking and attaining objectives. It makes human initiatives more fruitful. It brings order and efficiency to the initiatives of individuals. It brings better equipment, vegetation, offices, products, services and individual relations to our society. There is no substitute for good management and good management consists of demonstrating average people how to do the work of superior people.

Society is a collection of individuals and people constitute society. Every individual has several needs and would like but it is impossible for him to gratify all his dreams and wants along with his own efforts only. Thus, he joins hands with others and works in organised groups to attain what he cannot achieve singlehandedly. Today, the culture has large and complex institutions with many people working together. Quite simply, when a range of persons join mutually for the attainment of some common objectives, organisation comes into being. Whatever may be the nature and kind of the organisation, it cannot run effectively unless there may be someone to maintain its affairs. Management is an essential part of any group activity. It's the management which plans, organises, co-ordinates and controls the affairs of the organisation. It brings the real human and physical resources collectively and motivates the folks at work as a way to make a cordial, congenial and harmonious environment in the company. To sum up, it can be said that an organisation is like an orchestra team. It really is for the management to make music or a noise from it. If there is a powerful and effective management, the effect is sweet and melodious music; otherwise the effect is chaotic and terrible noise.


The concept of management is really as old as the people itself. It is a universal trend. It is not only the monopoly of business houses. It is a part and parcel of each kind of decision making. It is the marshalling of manpower resources and technique for getting a job done. Management is multifunctional in nature. It is a set of techniques and useful processes employed to maximize productive utilization of human being, physical and natural resources for the benefit of all in a wholesome physical and conceptual environment. Men, material, money, equipment and methods constitute human and physical resources. The physical environment includes temperature; noises, light, ventilation; the various tools which are used; the techniques of work; the material employed; the series where the work is conducted and other physical aspects. The conceptual, or mental, environment can be involved with the attitude or frame of mind of individual staff member in the given environment. The director has to give a positive and conducive environment where the worker offers his best to the establishment.

Management is the process of making and maintaining a host in which individuals, working jointly in groups, successfully accomplish selected goals (Koontz & Weihrich, 1998). It requires coordinating and overseeing the task activities of others so that their activities are carried out proficiently and effectively. Management places ideas into action through and with people. Effective management contributes to productivity with peace, growth with harmony and brings out the best potential in people. Management creates harmony in working together, equilibrium in thought and action, goals and accomplishments, plan and performance, produce and market (Bhattathiri, 2001).

When people are motivated and encouraged, they run their organisations effectively and profitably, produce quality goods and services and keep customers and clients satisfied (Bodhananda, 2007). Insufficient management can create chaos and cause mayhem, perplexity, wastage, wait, obliteration, losses and low sense of price. Management is approximately managing do it yourself, people and situations. Supervisor must show the road on which his labor force can stand out and stay focused. Management's job is to make people with the capacity of joint shows and make their strength effective and make their weaknesses irrelevant (Drucker, 1998). It's the capability and capacity of the manager that can transform the situations to the best for all your stakeholders. If he is bestowed with the product quality to judge individuals and their talents then he may take them to the zenith of these performance. Management is helping ordinary people to produce remarkable results (Someswarananda, 2005).

Management, today, goes beyond providing just direction or getting work done by people. Administrator has to think beyond results; he has also to create and maintain performers by uplifting them. Manager's job is two-fold (1) To translate the desire in terms of project; and (2) To create performers. Workman's job is to produce results - from likely to execution. And supervisor's work is to resolve the problems of workmen (Someswarananda, 2005).


The word point of view has been derived from the Medieval Latin word perpectiva (ars) 'knowledge of optics', from the verb perspicere this means 'to look through' (Oxford Dictionary). It implies a view or vista or a mental view or perspective of an person or an organisation. In addition, it means the ability to understand things in their genuine interrelations or comparative importance (thefreedictionary. com). Management Perspectives provide an overview of the rules, skills, troubles and the other factors which the managers have to face today. These include the theoretical construction, ideas and techniques which may be applied to day-to-day work of an organization like planning, decision making, control, motivation, communication, individuals resource management, corporate communal responsibility, change management and managerial skills and mantras necessary for effective and useful working of the business.

It is a proven fact that management is not an action in isolation; it is extremely the impact of total environment in which the organization exists. Beginning with the management in antiquity to the management today, the several perspectives of management at different factors of time can be summed up briefly as under in an integrative manner:

An Integrative Platform of Management Perspectives

(Source: www. cab. edu. np)


Management is definitely a part of the nature of man. In its crude form, it's been there from nomads to rulers of varied kingdoms. Management as a field of study may be just 125 yrs. old, but management ideas and practices have actually been used from the initial times of recorded history. For instance, 2, 500 years before management analysts called it job enrichment, the Greeks found that they could improve the productivity of boring repetitious tasks by performing those to music. The basic idea was to employ a flute, drum, or sing lyrics to stride visitors to work in unison, using the same effective motions, to promote those to work faster and longer, and also to make even a boring work or job interesting and interesting. While we can find the seeds of several of today's management ideas throughout record, not until the last two decades, however, did systematic changes in the type of work and organizations develop a compelling need for managers. Examples of management thought and practice can be found all through the history (Williams, 2009). This has been proven in the desk below.

Table-1. 1

Management Ideas and Practice throughout History



Contribution to Management Thought and Practice

5000 B. C.


Record keeping

4000 B. C.


Recognized the necessity for planning, managing, and controlling

2000 B. C.


Requests submitted in writing. Decisions made after consulting personnel for advice

1800 B. C.


Established handles by using writing to record orders and by using witnesses to vouch for that which was said or done

600 B. C.


Production control and wage incentives

500 B. C.

Sun Tzu

Strategy; identifying and attacking opponent's weaknesses

400 B. C.


Management named another art

400 B. C.


Human relationships and action study



Job descriptions



Delegation of Authority



Listed command traits



Listed managerial traits



Different organizational forms/structures



Numbering, standardization, and interchangeability of parts


Sir Thomas

Critical of poor management More and leadership



Cohesiveness, power, and leadership in organizations

(Source: C. S. George, Jr. , THE ANNALS of Management Thought, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1972)

Concept of management has undergone a sea change since its inception, as a formal subject, in the early 1900's. From your set of key points evolved the clinical management theory of F. W. Taylor and it enjoyed a role as a visible theory till 1950's. Target of management then shifted to decision theory. In 1960's, systems orientation emerged. Change and contingency management of 1970's was followed by new methods to human relations and development quality in the 1980's and archetype management in 1990's. Trip of management thought is depicted briefly in the desk below-

Table-1. 2

Major Classification of Management Methods and their Contributors

Pre-classical Contributors to Management Thought



Robert Owen

Proposed legislative reforms to improve working conditions of labour

Charles Babbage

Advocated the idea of 'department of labour'; devised a profit-sharing plan which led to the modern-day Scanlon Plan

Andrew Ure and Charles Dupin

Advocated the analysis of management

Henry R. Towne

Emphasized the necessity to consider management as another field of analysis and the importance of business skills for owning a business.

Major Classification of Management Approaches

Major Contributors

Classical approach

Scientific management

Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Henry Gantt

Bureaucratic management

Max Weber

Administrative management

Henri Fayol

Behavioral approach

Group influences

Mary Parker Follet

Hawthorne studies

Elton Mayo

Maslow's needs theory

Abraham Maslow

Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor

Model I versus Model II values

Chris Argyris

Quantitative approach

Management science

Operations management

Management information system

Modern approaches

The Systems Theory

Contingency Theory

Emerging solutions: Theory Z and Quality management

William Ouchi

(Source-https://sites. google. com/site/early-approaches-to-management)

Under various methods, management was explained from different points of view essentially depending on the perspective and record of the management thinker. Koontz recognizes eleven methods to the management principle, which are the following:

The empirical strategy states that we can understand what management is by deciding what added to success or inability in specific cases.

The interpersonal behavior approach is based on getting things done through people and therefore, management is centered in understanding associations (psychology).

The group behaviour procedure emphasizes the behaviour of people within groups and therefore tends to count on sociology, anthropology, and public psychology. Often this interest in-group behaviour patterns is known as 'organizational behavior'.

The cooperative sociable system approach (organizational theory) combines components of the interpersonal and group behavior approaches into something called the business where the most important goal is co-operation.

The socio-technical system approach increases the previous approach the sizing of technological systems. It really is believed that the machines and methods have a solid effect on the sociable system and this the duty of the manager is to ensure tranquility between the interpersonal and technological systems.

The decision theory approach believes that management is seen as a decision making and for that reason a systematic approach to decision-making essentially outlines management.

The systems methodology to management, like biological systems, views management's role in a assemblage of subsystems, inputs, and processes in a environment, which are interconnected and/or interdependent. This may well not be a different procedure but is a all natural view of management, providing place for components of the other approaches to be integrated.

The management 'technology' methodology feels that problems can be explained within a mathematical model - basic associations - in such a way that the target may be optimized.

The situational approach says that, management action will depend on the situation taking into account the influence of given activities on the behaviour patterns of people and the business. This is a practical procedure, which clues at the artwork (viz, technology) of management.

The managerial jobs procedure is predicated on research by Mintzberg as to the roles (functions) managers fill.

The operational approach is an effort to combine components of every one of the above-mentioned methods, taking what is applicable, discarding whatever is not, and growing a procedure for management that indicates the difficulty and variedness of what is expected of the manager (Koontz, 1980).

However, all these approaches lack in one aspect or the other. Idea of management has advanced through the years and is an ongoing process; it changes and enhances as the surroundings changes. The self-discipline of 'management' is just 100 years old. By and large, it is a product of industrial trend. Hence, its intellectual traditions are rooted in anatomist and economics. Later it was affected by psychology, sociology and other related disciplines. During recent years, yoga, meditation and spirituality also have began influencing the field of management (Sharma, 2006). During the 1990's, the advancement of spirituality and management theories converged and activated a bold involvement in formulating spirituality structured ideas and research within the educational management domain, leading to the formulation of a fresh self-control (Rojas, 2005).

In the present epoch, internationally run organisations are stirring towards alternative approach to management. Holistic strategy calls for under its ambit the whole organisation, systems, people and culture. Holistic approach can bring better results for modern organisations to deal with complicated issues in global environment, because corresponding to Aristotle, overall is more than the total of its parts (Abbasi, Rehman and Bibi, 2010)


People who are making judicious use of available resources and effectively taking care of to earn high revenue and returns aren't sure whether it's worth it. They feel defeated regardless of being successful. Associated with that money has been minted through unethical and immoral means. Industrialists today are doing the right things for their ventures but not necessarily doing things the correct way. Indian companies are in circumstances of flux, more bewilderment, turmoil and tension persists in its working and less emphasis is on the issues of productivity, inspiration, ideas, morals, ideals and ethics. The explanation for this situation is too much dependence on western types of management. The management idea emanating from the western world is dependant on the lure of materialism and on a perennial thirst for gains, irrespective of the quality of the means followed to achieve that goal (Bhattathiri, 2001).

There is a spurt in commercial scandals because the focus of most business houses is to earn much more and more money. Almost every season, it appears, some scandal envelops a lot of money 500 company and causes a fresh spasm of general public distrust of big businesses. This year's occurrence probably should not be unusual; in the competitive software industry, the temptation to cut honest edges can be hard to avoid (Zipkin, 2000). Corporate, do not stop to think and contemplate the result of their greed on the stakeholders. There is insatiable appetite for success no matter what. In their unquenchable desire to have number one position, corporate have become ruthless, forgetting their obligations towards the population at large. The world today is so corruptible, gullible and materialistic that many corporations and nations operate with out a soul conscience. The capitalistic bottom-line of increasing profits is among the most standard for purported success, pervading international, regional, countrywide and organizational levels (Noor, 2004). Management has been reduced to a handmaid of profiteering. The maximizing of profits becomes the ultimate goal, to the exclusion of most other considerations (Gupta, 2000). We are aware that with its axis on privatization and liberalization, nationwide and world economic order is little by little becoming market focused and globalised. Capital is today's integrating factor. Those people who have or can access to resource stand to benefit from this economy while others are being marginalized (Xavier, 1999).

Corporate homes that have become alert to their moral and social tasks towards the modern culture are only following the mandatory responsibilities. Modern-day research has found that while around three quarters of major Australian companies believe it is the responsibility with their boards to set a proper 'firmness from the top' and screen organizational performance against a formal code of carry out, 84 percent of the companies that has promulgated a code of ethics reported that they didn't actually monitor conformity with it (International Review of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2005, KPMG, Australia). This is also the truth of companies in many developed as well as producing economies. You can find awakening of moral and ethical responsibilities but much more needs to be done at the local and global level. Currently, however, corporate America seems to be doing more than simply paying lip service to benchmarks of management behavior. For all your controversy surrounding the Firestone/Ford tyre recall, and the questions it raises about the potential for corporate wrongdoing, a growing number of big companies are enacting stringent ethical recommendations and support them up with inner mechanisms to enforce them. While some consider the changes little more than window dressing, there is absolutely no question that change is afoot (Zipkin, 2000).

In the present era, corporate sector desires to own staff not humans. Materialism has crept in to the roots of the corporate world. Materialistic management has done more injury than good. The capitalist is continuing to grow richer, man has been reduced to a hired wage-earner and the buyer has been put at the mercy of the materialistic director. There is absolutely no sense of belonging, no harmony, no co-operative company, no fellow-feeling and the least common methodology and perspective (Gupta, 2000).


There is more to management than just earning profits plus more to the role of any manager than reaching the organisational targets. He has to end up being the watch dog to see that nothing detrimental is performed by the business at the expense of the stakeholders. He has to stay linked to the root base of his faith and culture while carrying out his job. Sharma (2001) argues that for a management system, to be effective, it has to be rooted in the ethnic soil of the united states, where it is practiced. Many neighborhoods and countries on the globe are now attempting to discover and explore their own system of management, which include accounting and financial management, human being resource management, commercial governance, and also CSR (Muniapan, 2008).

Not only eastern world but the western business world is also recognizing the necessity to reconnect to the roots of their religion and culture and also to infuse their dealing with morals and ethics. Management thinkers, all over the world, are developing types of management by imbibing information into their scriptures. These models have become powerful catalysts for transformation. A command and management paradigm that transcends narrows chauvinism, neo-conservation and jingoism, with a common, egalitarian and magnanimous methodology, is necessary (Noor, 2004). Also models are being framed on world leaders with a semblance of altruistic inclinations. To really understand leadership, we need to put our hearing to the bottom of record and listen closely carefully to the ragas of individuals hopes, needs, and aspirations, and the follies, disappointments, and triumphs of these who led and those who implemented them. According to the Confucius proverb, a guy who reviews the old to be able to find out the new is licensed to teach others.

Management needs to be sprinkled with ideals of faith. For the sustainable development of the business the need is to consider long term benefits associated with all stakeholders, not bottom decisions for short-term advantages to the individuals. The best way out in the problem, is to consider shelter under the coaching of the scriptures. In our faith based vision we see God at work in the world and in all creation moving mankind towards an environment of justice, tranquility and love. That is cultural humanism. Management being truly a worldly venture and part of creation must position itself in alignment with this divine purpose, our policies and mega programs are to be attuned to the divine plan over percent and productive in creation (Xavier, 1999). Various studies have been completed to study the result of interplay between management and religious beliefs and results depict positive results. In a study conducted at the European College or university Viadrina, Frankfurt by Tan and Vogel (2005), it was noted that trustworthiness rises with religiosity and folks with more impressive range of religiosity, are more likely to trust and become respected in their romantic relationships. In a doctoral research conducted by Werner (2006) discovered that religious beliefs (Christianity) play an important role in SME business behavior in both the UK and Germany (Uygur, 2009).

Since management is primarily concerned with managing people, managers needs to take guidance of specific magnitude of man-management such as believing and being available to people and their ideas, acknowledging them in a variety of assignments of life, providing and caring them. Need of the hour is to build up managers with give attention to human brilliance comprising competence, conscience and compassionate concern along with educational and technological competencies. The common limited view of education with an exclusive focus on educational excellence and technical competence is fraught with problems even as can produce folks who are advanced intellectually or qualified technically however in the meantime remain emotionally underdeveloped and morally and spiritually immature (Xavier, 1999).

Ryuzaburo Kaku, Chairman, Cannon Inc. in 1988 envisaged the organization philosophy to get started a new phase in the 50 calendar year old company's development. He indicated this school of thought as "the accomplishment of corporate expansion and development, with the aim of adding to global prosperity and the well-being of humankind. " This is the idea behind kyosei. According to the idea of kyosei, a corporate should make every effort to build a fortune by good means and, in conditions of the circulation of profits; it should play an extremely dynamic role as a firm that assumes global public duties. The view, that kyosei boundaries competition is way from the mark. Although it is crucial to eliminate unfair competition, kyosei is seen as being a prerequisite to good competition between unbiased corporations. The idea of kyosei was also followed by the Caux Circular Desk (CRT), founded in 1986 and named after the Swiss town of Caux where it started out meeting. It really is an informal group of business market leaders from European countries, U. S. and Japan who got the converging experience that corporate business can, without burning off performance, act as a tool to provide a much better service to modern culture when the goal of serving the normal good is not forgotten, let alone rejected. The group had written its own recommendations for corporate honest standards based on the Japanese idea of kyosei, which Mr. Ryuzaburu Kaku, chairman of Cannon Inc. and most dominant participant in the CRT, translated as "living and working together for the normal good. " The other key word was "human dignity, " without that your "common good" can disintegrate into despotism. In fact, both keywords, "common good/kyosei" and "human dignity", could be found in the document of the MCCR (Minnesota Middle for Corporate Responsibility).

Peter Drucker also stressed that religion can have a positive effect on the world of work and, indeed, on the entire world most importantly. "Society must return to religious values-not to offset the material but to make it completely beneficial, " he asserts that people need to reconnect to faith to imbibe compassion and empathy in commercial relationships. Drucker carries on, "It needs the deep experience that the Thou and the I are one, which all higher religions talk about. " The concept of "whole home" is catching up with the organization world. Religion is considered by many to be a constituent element of individuals anthropology. The change in orientation by professionals and consultants fit well with today's experience market paradigm, which wants distinctive personal experience for the clients predicated on endemic human qualities such as individuals values. Ultimately, then, organizational models which allow the whole person to come quickly to work are looked for as a way to enable employees and perhaps subsequently for those employees to meet unique and personal needs of the customers. For instance, Mitroff and Denton (1999) performed that companies which may have a spiritual sizing and allow the complete person to come to work have employees with higher loyalty, lower absenteeism, and increased imagination (Miller and Ewest, 2010).

People working in the organization sector around the world do not want to segregate their life but wish to live a alternative life and bring their complete personal to work, including their beliefs. This concept has been referred to as the 'Trust at Work Movement or Spirituality and Work Activity' by David Miller. The worldwide monetary turmoil elicited in 2008 has strengthened this concept.

Religion exists at work as per the researchers and academicians. The necessity is that they offer the business specialists with a couple of universal religious manifestations to allow business professionals to comprehend, measure, so that as appropriate adapt the policies regarding the spiritual environment of and effects on their group.

Max Weber was main thinkers in the modern times to depict the interconnection of religious beliefs and management in 1905 but his observations of the influence of religious principles on current market activity were suppressed due to organizational and economical set ups and normative techniques but now his ideas have resurfaced. The business enterprise world is spotting the need to integrate faith with work since it encompasses issues such as ethics, authority, diversity, human privileges, and globalism and managers and employees will benefit both corporately as well as privately.


The idea of modernization without westernization is catching up with management thinkers, especially in the eastern world. Need is to do something globally while keeping rooted to the neighborhood prices, norms and culture. Corporate and business world in the eastern region is going under the safe haven of faith. All of the religions encourage serving the contemporary society, promoting the people's well being and safeguarding the natural resources. Buddhism lays focus on ethics, virtuous behaviour, morality and precept. It advocates purity of thought, word, and deed. Christianity is devoted to the life and teachings of Jesus from the New Testament. Its teachings call for ethical, spiritual, and just behaviour. Taoism advocates imbibing of three gems of Tao i. e. compassion, moderation, and humility. Islam is convinced that fans should make an effort to attain spiritual and moral excellence. Confucianism focuses on human morality and right action. It really is a system of moral, sociable, politics, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought. Hinduism preaches: haven't any personal interest in the event but carry out the work as the work of god, the father and don't be influenced by the results.

1. 6. 1 Management and Hinduism:

Indian overall economy is today the cynosure of depends upon because of its consistent growth which is resulting in augmentation of interest in India, and its own culture. As, the burkha attempts to raised understand Indian culture, they may as well unearth that India's historic scriptures present insight into cultural customs and principles and develop lessons for the organization world to effectively used in and outside India. It has been reported that lots of of the top business institutions in the United States have introduced "self-mastery classes" using Indian beliefs to help students enhance their leadership skills. One of the more popular and useful of the early texts is the Bhagavad Gita. Using contextual analysis, this paper explores the leadership implications within this classic word, and offers present day managers useful advice, no matter their social orientation (Rarick and Nickerson, 2009).

It was sensed by the Indian Management thinkers that the american models needed certain adjustments for implementation in the Indian Environment. European model advocated the idea of knowledge worker whereas Indian model demands the idea of wisdom staff member. Depending completely on the western model might lead to success with stress and anxiety while in Indian model of management, success is accompanied with harmony and joy, not limited to leaders but also for supporters also. Bhagavad Gita, and for that matter several other traditional Indian texts, give a unique value proposition. We are able to have spiritual progress; we can have material progress too in an exceedingly balanced way. We can have enjoyment, not only success. This may be one of the good reasons for us to check out some of these and make our own notes. There is a greater promises and prospect of much larger perspectives in ancient Indian wisdom and far better propensity to draw out of it and apply in a number of situations (Mahadevan, 2009). Globalization demands extreme changes and it has become essential for the managers to identify and adopt unified management theory to accomplish excellence comprising guidelines, methods, tools, and systems suited to their companies. Organisational fineness may be accomplished by developing sensible and reliable people concerned with accomplishing the targets of the company and inculcating beliefs for appreciating the purpose of obtaining goals. Success is dependent greatly on the engagement of people in the organisations, willing to bring an alteration in melody with the global environment. Business methods should be changed and aligned with the growing needs and anticipations of the stakeholders. The lure of using isolated techniques will not be enough for transforming the industrial world. To bring superiority, the integration of the Vedic studies with modern knowledge and scientific research is necessary (Talwar, 2004).

Indian management models predicated on the Hindu scriptures assist in creating brain enrichment in employees which is more important than job enrichment. It stresses the introduction of insight because it leads to development of internal resources like courage, eyesight and social awareness, and integrity, durability of identity and assurance which is more important than exterior resources.

1. 6. 2 Management and Christianity:

Western world, sick and tired of being materialistic, is looking for solace by reconnecting to their religion and making use of moral precepts with their business romantic relationships and business activities. Just five years ago, there was only one discussion on spirituality and the workplace; there are about 30. Academic endorsement keeps growing, too: The School of Denver, the College or university of New Haven, and Minnesota's College or university of St. Thomas have opened up research centers focused on the topic (Conlin, 1999). Academicians are also probing other religions of the world for awakening. One of these of incorporating religious values running a business is of Reell Precision Manufacturing Corporation of St Paul, Minnesota. Their objective statement declares: Reell is a team united in the operation of your business based on the request of spiritual worth to promote the growth of people and advance the common good for the benefit of co-workers and their families, customers, shareholders, suppliers, and community. Rooted in Judeo-Christian beliefs, we welcome and bring on the richness in our religious by diverse community. We are committed to provide an environment where there is harmony between work and our moral/honest prices and family responsibilities and where many people are cured justly (Longenecker, McKinney and Moore, 2004).

According to a declaration for trade in the service of the economy of life, the Preamble constituted following the consultation presented on January 11 - 14, 2004 in Stony Point, New York, USA expresses, "We gathered as folks of God via churches in Canada, america and Mexico and also from other regions of the world. Obligations to make repayments on illegitimate money cause a net drain of prosperity from impoverished countries to rich creditors. Therefore, a just and good trade regime, by itself, is not sufficient. We reiterate our Jubilee Call for the cancellation of illegitimate, paralyzing, unjust and odious debts. We demand the creation of new monetary relations between North and South, predicated on the Biblical concept of restorative justice. Our worldwide ecumenical dedication to unity in Christ permits and compels us to witness to the ever-resilient seeds of desire when justice, real human solidarity, and look after creation take concrete appearance in activities for change initiated by churches, civil contemporary society organizations and community groups. We have been churches who think that the overall economy of God includes moral and spiritual guidelines that offer instruction and route in the search for the very useful alternatives to ensure trade and investment respects the important role of authorities, increases the common good, and will serve an economy of life not fatality" (Just Trade Declaration, 2004).

Christian management lays emphasis on working for folks within a system that promotes all and brings glory to God. The success in business ventures is realigned to the biblical point of view as while rewarding, God does not go by results but by motives. Management has everything to do with the steward's worldview and his romantic relationship with God. God reveals that man "will have ability over the seafood, the birds, and all animals home and wild and all the planet earth" and assigns to man the task "to cultivate (develop) it and defend (preserve, take care of) it". So, although we have the function of authority (right to decide) over resources like the earth and the things on the earth, we likewise have the responsibility of attaining an objective, which is to develop, improve, and cultivate it in harmony with all that is on the earth, guarding it against decay and deterioration. White identifies a steward as follows: "A steward recognizes himself with his expert. His master's pursuits become his. He has accepted the obligations of a steward and he must work in the master's stead doing as the expert would do if he were presiding over his own goods. The position is one of dignity in that his get good at trusts him" (Oberholster, 1993).

1. 6. 3 Management and Islam:

Various studies have been carried out to explore the effect of the Islamic thought on the management thinking and practice. Based on the conclusions and by studying the Holy Quran, analysts have developed the concepts and models of management. Islam is just how of life for the Muslims and it serves as the moral regulator and strategic guide to the organization people for ethical business routines. The Quaranic concepts and the Prophet's prescriptions serve as a guide for Muslims in performing both their business and family affairs. The Quran instructs Muslims to persistently work whenever and wherever it is available, "disperse through the land and seek of the bounty of God" and "God hath permitted trade and forbidden usury". Prophet Mohammed preached that vendors should perform duties that were not only morally required, but that were essential for the survival and flourishing of the world. He declared, "I commend the sellers to you, for they will be the couriers of the horizon and trusted servants on earth" and "the honest, truthful Muslim vendor will stand with martyrs on your day of View" (Ali, 2005).

In a research carried out by Fouand Mimouni in the Middle East regarding implications of Islam on management theory and practice, the analysis of two organisations confirmed that they were trying to institutionalize the Islamic ideals such as honesty, responsibility, justice, self-discipline, performance brilliance, responsiveness, integrity, dedication and empowerment in their setups. In another of the companies, all out efforts were made to imbibe these values in the employees, old as well as new. Sessions were held to teach these organisational principles and means to convert these beliefs into action were also proven. The other company implemented these Islamic principles as a code of moral carry out. The effect of experiencing shared Islamic beliefs brought employees alongside one another for common goal and resulted in social and economic development.

Many such researches are being carried out on the coaching of Quran and Prophet Mohammed on the matters of leadership, desire, corporate cultural responsibility, management functions generally, accounting etc. It is being noticed that management paradigm is in for change and ethics is making a return. The complete fraternity of business can reap the benefits of these studies. Muslims are beginning to invest closely in education and knowledge management and results are tangible. Muslims are noticing that the real source of riches is not exhaustible petrol resources but intellectual pre-eminence. This realization is leading Muslim countries throughout the world to invest in themselves and in the education of future generations on an enormous size (Beekun and Badawi, 1999).

1. 6. 4 Management and Buddhism:

Buddhism has its own distinctive management theory and practice based on the Sangha community that was a well-developed administration system. Buddhist Sangha neighborhoods were organizations which outshined in managerial skills. The machine was open to alterations and therefore developed better and refined methods of management and management. Emphasis of the management in today's era is on group dynamics, on organizational discussion and on coordination and Buddhism has always emphasized group dynamics, as evidenced in the creation with the Six Items of Reverent Harmony, the Code of Communal Living, and the Bai Zhang Guidelines of Proper Carry out. Buddhist management advocates the guidelines such as self-discipline, self-motivation, self-monitoring and repentance. In the Buddhist perspective, two practices towards attaining broadened and purified consciousness will be included: the Seven-Point Mind Training and Vipassana. Within the Western perspective, David Hawkins' works on consciousness will be utilized as the key guide. Furthermore, several important concepts that donate to widened and purified consciousness will be offered. Among these principles are impermanence, karma, non-harming (ahimsa), ethics, kindness and compassion, mindfulness, right livelihood, charity, interdependence, wholesome view, cooperation, and fairness (Marques, 2011). In another of the studies undertaken by the research workers in Portugal show that Buddhism and Confucianism have a positive effect on the working and conduct of the businessmen and their success rate.

In response to the question about the contributions of Confucianism and Buddhism to business in China, the respondents considered tolerance (important Chinese language ethnic value) with 47. 9% answers as the most important aspect, followed by the cooperative concept and politeness, devotion and the win-win concept, showing the importance of these beliefs in Chinese business. No matter where they are located, Chinese employees from overseas, joint-ventures or state-owned companies, discuss the same social ideals and determine just how they offer with issue management. These ethnical values make Chinese people work harder. Confucianism and Buddhism ideas like harmony, the cooperative principle, politeness, the win-win rule, loyalty and strength are exercised in the manner they are doing their business (Li and Moreira, 2009). Several other studies show that the economies of Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and more recently China are evolving at a better rate than the economies of the traditional western economies due to influence of deep rooted religious and cultural ideals of religions like Buddhism, Confucianism and Shintoism.

1. 6. 5 Management and Jainism:

Jainism is one of the oldest religions of the world and it owns a cluster of very successful and persevering business owners. They have a name in the Gemstone Industry. They may be successful in India as well as in other countries. Prices like trust, romantic relationship, human being capital and employee morale, service and devotion, have always been named vitally necessary to business success and durability (Shah, 2007). The Jain viewpoint of collectivism stimulates being one with other associates of the city, planet and world. This concept will keep at bay the vices of selfishness, egoism and individualism and induces virtues like humility, camaraderie, moral conduct and cooperative behavior, which let us them prosper as an organization. Greed and materialism of the globalised world hasn't created a dent in their design of performing business activities because they stay firmly rooted to their religious and ethnic values.

Atul K. Shah, in his analysis on Jain Business Ethics, asserts that Jain Business community succeeds in their projects because of the religious beliefs and cohesiveness which further regulates their behaviour and warns that if they steer away from their values then they are doomed. Like all the religions, Jainism stresses the concept of home development. Limited option of resources and their limited probable is everybody's concern. But the Do it yourself within a human being has unlimited probable. That's why the concept of self-management is very important. Self-management improves efficiency; it bestows peacefulness, cheer and equanimity and equips us to handle many of the complexities of life well. Jainism advocates conquering pesky vices like krodha or anger, mada or vanity, kama or gender and lobha or greed. Jainism advises the practice of five primary virtues: Ahimsa or non-violence, satya or truth, achaurya or non-covetousness, Brahma-charya or celibacy and aparigraha or non-possession (Jain, 2005). The essential elements of Jain thought are self management and attainment of religious energy. This brings originality and creativity, and therefore success in professional and personal sphere of life. This helps to growing above oneself which fits with the management concept of the hot-air balloon approach. In a report on Jain metaphysics, ethics with regards to modern management thought, it was mentioned that Jain school of thought tackles the issues at the basic level of individuals thinking as the grade of activities and results will improve once there is improvement in the basic thinking of the man whereas the traditional western design on management deals with issues at superficial, materials external and peripheral levels.

1. 7 BRIEF Benefits TO SIKHISM:

The Sikh faith is the most modern, scientific, unique and everything embracing religion. It is modern because when we go through the history of main religions of the world, it not only appears to be the youngest of all- rarely 500 years old- but also demonstrates to be the most time-relevant. It really is methodical because, though it is assumed that beliefs and logic can't go mutually, the whole of the philosophy which Sikh religion is situated, is more often than not, fully logical, logical, objective and methodical. The religion is unique not only in its form and faith however in its content, school of thought, traditions, culture and background as well. It is all embracing since it is based on the concept of fatherhood of God and brotherhood of mankind, not confined to individuals owned by any particular class, creed, community or geographical area but consuming its fold the complete mankind.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scripture of the Sikhs, which manifests the knowledge of great sages and saints. It contains the Hymns of thirty- six holy spirits of whom only six were Sikh Gurus and of the rest of the thirty, fifteen were Hindu and Muslim saints, four were followers of the Gurus and eleven were Bards who were called `Bhatta' or Brahmin scholars - thus giving it a pluralist outlook and universal appeal. The scripture has been available to the complete mankind which is not confined to anybody sect, community or geographical region. The decision of the tenth Sikh Expert to pronounce Sri Expert Granth Sahib as the Expert is very new in the history of religions and it offers given the Sikh religious beliefs a new meaning, a new path and a fresh dimension. The knowledge enshrined in Sri Master Granth Sahib can enhance the mankind from regular to extra-ordinary, propounding a whole life-style and demolishing away the wall surfaces of falsehood, ignorance and ego.

Sikhism, the fifth most significant and one of the youngest religions of the world is considered as the most right down to earth and useful religion of the world. It really is a faith of the modern. It really is an egalitarian religious beliefs which preaches a message of love, devotion, truthful living, liberty, equality, fraternity and remembrance (Simran) of God all the time. It really is a universal trust with a note of tranquility and prosperity for the whole world. It is a life affirming faith with positive attitude and high spirits. It really is heartfelt adoration, devotion and surrender to 1 God. It really is a completely modern and progressive religion which evolved in India as a remedy to the catastrophe that plagued Indian contemporary society in the fifteenth century.

The credit would go to Expert Nanak that he created real reforms and laid the foundation which his successor, the tenth Sikh Grasp, Expert Gobind Singh created a new nation. Guru Nanak preserved his followers from those shortcomings to that your disciples of several other religions had been falling victim to for years and years. He taught people worship of God and purity of persona. In this way, he started a new religion which was simple, indie, non-communal and free from rites and rituals (Cunningham, 1994).

The Sikh religious beliefs differs as regards the authenticity of its dogmas from almost every other great theological systems. Many of the great teachers the planet has known never have left a type of their own structure, and we really know what they taught only through tradition or second-hand information. If Pythagoras published any of the tenets, his writings havent descended to us. We know the teachings of Socrates only through the writings of Plato and Xenophon. Buddha has left no written memorials of his coaching. Kungfu-tze, recognized to Europeans as Confucius, still left no documents in which he complete the concepts of his moral and social systems. The founder of Christianity did not reduce his doctrines to writing, and then for them we could appreciated to trust the Gospels corresponding to Matthew, Symbol, Luke, and John. The Arabian Prophet didn't himself reduce to writing the chapters of the Quran. They were written or compiled by his adherents and fans. However the compositions of the Sikh Gurus are preserved and we realize firsthand what they taught (Macauliffe, 1909).

According to Sikhism, man's salvation lays not only in his trust, but also in his identity and his eagerness to do dynamic good. "Life without virtue runs to spend, " says Expert Nanak. The Master gives sensible tips to attain the goal. Every Sikh is expected to replace lust, anger, greed, undue worldly connection and pride with their virtuous counterparts, self-control, forgiveness, contentment; love of God and humility before making a decision to visit the next step of doing effective good. It is like sweeping the ground. Generally; where the broom does not reach, the dust particles won't vanish off itself. "The new thing will fill up the vessel only when the existing one is destroyed, " says the Guru. The basic school of thought of Sikhism can be summed up as under:

Belief in one God who's omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient; who is formless, shapeless and timeless; who is self made and self led and who does not have any individuals incarnation but is within everybody, every living thing and every thing of nature, and; who is able to be realised (not seen, touched or physically fulfilled) by pious living.

Considering the Holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib, as the eternal Guru and seeking advice only from it. Consequently, no Sikh ever before worships any individuals Guru.

Neither indulging in idol worship nor following any rites, rituals or ceremonies which can be associated with other religions. Instead, the Sikhs are ordained to lead a straightforward, clear-cut and pious family life. It should be remembered that Guru Nanak was not a priest either by delivery or by education, but a family group man who exalted his spiritual vision to the loftiest heights, not by renouncing the entire world but by moving into it.

Adopting the following three principles as one's life-style: Earning one's livelihood by honest means; Praying to the Almighty, and; writing one's profits with others. Thus, based on the Sikh trust doing one's job/responsibility honestly and posting one's surplus with others are as important as praying to God.

Adopting rational strategy and never dropping a victim to blind beliefs and superstitions. Person who has faith in God and considers that He is always with him, do not need to fear any evil spirit or ill- omen.

Leading an honest, truthful and uprighteous life-never revealing lies, never betraying anybody, never trying to own what rightfully belongs to others and never falling a victim to temptations.

Leading a life which is very free from hypocrisy, pleasure and arrogance. Spiritual rites like taking ritual baths, browsing places of pilgrimage, keeping fasts, doing penance and wandering in forests in search of God- are worth nothing unless one's heart is clean and he does good deeds. However, when one's heart is 100 % pure, one does good deeds and one has not neglected his Creator, he do not need to be concerned about any rites or rituals. A saint has no need to take a holy shower and a thief will remain a thief inspite of taking such baths, says the Guru.

Adopting service of others as a way of life and providing something to the needy in charity. It is through selfless service and home- sacrifice that one can please the Expert, get honour and attain salvation.

Shunning all types of intoxicants, bad food, bad company and negative traits. These make a person dissolute, lead him astray from the correct path, tarnish his image and degrade him in Master's eye.

Keeping one's personality above board and great deal of thought as one's biggest treasure and possession. Man should treat all other women except his wife as his moms, sisters or daughters, corresponding to their age and the same basic principle applies to women with regard to men.

Conquering one's brain by controlling / sublimating one's passions like lust, anger, greed and too much attachment. Victory over your brain is victory around the world.

The Sikh way of worship and prayer is also very simple. One doesn't need any ritualistic paraphernalia for this purpose. He doesn't even need to visit any particular place for it. He can do it anytime, from anywhere and in any way.

Keeping one's poise, equanimity and cool under all circumstances. Taking pleasure and pain, honour and dishonour, yellow metal and clay in the same way and with the same heart. Feeling no pride if one is made a ruler and no dishonour if one is manufactured a beggar; all of this is in the hands of God.

Exercising extreme restraint, patience and endurance in the face of hardships and most detrimental calamities. Following humility in term and deed, considering oneself as most affordable of the lowly. However, being humble doesn't signify battling humiliation. Nor does indeed being tolerant mean being a silent spectator to injustice, excesses and atrocities. It really is as bad to endure a wrong as do a wrong.

Neither scaring anybody, nor getting worried by anybody. Taking on arms and struggling with with all one's might from the perpetrators of injustice and atrocities when one feels that weapons of peace are failing woefully to produce the desired results.

Believing that all men are similar and they are all the kids of the same God. The distinctions of caste, creed, gender, dynasty etc are false and misleading. The only rule to be adopted is the principle of fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of mankind.

  • More than 7,000 students prefer us to work on their projects
  • 90% of customers trust us with more than 5 assignments
submit a project

Latest posts

Read more informative topics on our blog
Shiseido Company Limited Is A Japanese Makeup Company Marketing Essay
Marketing Strength: Among the main talents of Shiseido is its high quality products. To be able to satisfy customers, the company invested a great deal...
Fail To Plan You Plan To Fail Management Essay
Management This report will concentrate on two aspects of project management, their importance within the overall project management process. The report...
Role of High-protein Diet in Weight Management
Nursing Structured Representation: Probably one of the most wide-spread and popular problems on earth is the weight problems that people is suffering...
Waste To Prosperity Program Environmental Sciences Essay
Environmental Sciences Urban and rural regions of India produce very much garbage daily and hurting by various kinds of pollutions which are increasing...
Environmental Studies Pollution Introduction Many people across the world can remember having walked on the street and seen smoke cigars in the air or...
Soft System Methodology
Information Technology Andrzej Werner Soft System Methodology can be described as a 7-step process aimed to help provide a solution to true to life...
Strategic and Coherent methods to Recruiting management
Business Traditionally HRM has been regarded as the tactical and coherent method of the management of the organizations most appreciated assets - the...
Religious Healthcare Organisation
Health Religious Health Care Introduction I help the firm of consulting. Spiritual HEALTHCARE of Middleville community have appointed us to identify and...
Enterprise Rent AN AUTOMOBILE Case Analysis Business Essay
Commerce With a massive network of over 6,000 local rental locations and 850,000 automobiles, Organization Rent-A-Car is the greatest rental car company...
Check the price
for your project
we accept
Money back
100% quality