Keywords: organisational behaviour theory application
In this newspaper I will express the theme about organisational behaviour and to analyze and explore the areas of organisational behavior theory and its own application in practice.
The term started in the first of 60's (20th hundred years), when several lines of medical disciplines involved in explaining the processes that occur in the company, between organisations, as well as between the external and internal environment put together into a single entity. Regardless of the increasing theorisation of organisational behaviour, it is actively used in practice. Businessmen mocked the principles such as a group work or enrichment work for decades, as long as the consultants started out to sell these ideas under the guise of a fresh propensity called "compressed production. " Initially they mocked "discussion of organisational culture", but accepted these theories when consultants started to post them under the label "organisational benefit, organisational skills. " Sometimes, the practitioners confronted to different problems and became "the gullible subjects" of the organisational fashion, the same ideas and studies. For example, the enthusiasm for "organisational excellence" mostly designed that people got never tried to assimilate and apply the standard principles of organisational behaviour, which were known by at least thirty years before.
Organisational behavior is a organized and scientific research of individuals, organizations and organisations in order to understand, anticipate and enhance the specific performance and functioning of the organisation (i. e. , predicated on personality). Organisational behaviour is a study of people and groups in the company. This is an academic discipline, which helps managers to make effective decisions when working with people in a complex dynamic environment. It combines ideas and theories related to individuals, groupings, organisations generally. In accordance with the latter classification I can differentiate three levels of behaviour problems:
- Group and
Richard Pettinger demonstrates the fact that organisational behavior is concerned with: "the purposes that organisations are created; the behaviour of people, and a knowledge of the pressures and influences that lead them to act and respond specifically ways; the features that folks bring to particular situations; the creation of groups, collections of people brought collectively for given purposes; the backdrop and framework within which activities happen; relationships and interactions with the wider environment with other organisations and groupings; the management and buying of the complete and its parts into fruitful and effective work interactions. " (Pettinger (2000) web page 4).
Organisational behaviour is a systematic study and request of knowledge about how people (individuals and categories) interact within the company.
According to Simms, Price & Ervin the main purposes of organisational theorists are "to revitalize organisational theory and develop an improved conceptualisation of organisational life. " (Simms, Price and Ervin (1994) page 121).
Jablin and Putnam acknowledge that "an organisational theorist should carefully consider levels assumptions being made in theory, and can be involved to help managers and administrators. " (Jablin and Putnam (2000) webpage 146).
The main approaches to the study of organisational behaviour
There are two basic approaches:
- Trial and mistake method, based on the accumulation of life experiences to find effective behaviours.
- Using special techniques and ways of related disciplines. This process entails the mastery of theoretical knowledge and useful skills.
It is important for a administrator to incorporate both solutions. There will be the following techniques in the analysis of organisational behavior: studies, including interviews, questionnaires, assessment. Collection and evaluation of information (based on the study of documents). Observation and experiment.
- Characteristics of organisational behaviour
Organisational behavior manifests itself in the next forms, aspects, happenings: the unit installation, values, preferences, inclinations of people, formed in the mind; behaviour of people with regard to physical items in case there is unexpected information and sociable contacts, behaviour groupings, groups and other organizations, characterised by connecting face to face; conduct organisational systems such as divisions, departments, companies or large concerns; the behaviour of your interconnected group of organisations; conduct the internal and external environment company, such as the development of technology, markets, competition, government regulation, etc.
The types of ideas of organisational behaviour can be divided into two conditions. The first criterion is the existent foundations for an explanation. The main goals of theories are to describe the causes of events, varieties and development, they could be distinguished according to the type of reasons that they offer. Based on the first criterion, the high grade of theories in neuro-scientific organisational behaviour involves pragmatic theories. They clarify the organisational life in the view of happenings, forms and changes. This is a case of "the particular organisation is" discussed by its capacity to meet the requirements or the utilization of inside and exterior environment. Each time when "the particular organisation is" explained by the adequacy of its objectives, context and external environment and strategy, and through the adequacy of its success, productivity and efficiency of such a framework and exterior environment - it is just a pragmatic theory.
Such a theory is obviously based on the kind of behaviour that is rational (in the mindful evolution of different outcomes and classes of action) or by the trial and error method targeted at maximizing the satisfaction or pragmatic dreams and ambitions. However, the proper execution utility can transform. This contradiction attracts focus on the firm's behavioural theory, which is one of the cornerstones of organisational behaviour.
The second school of ideas is the institutional theory. Companies are relatively steady, and typed illustrations or models in the interpersonal structure of society or in sites of social connections. In the institutional theories, effectiveness of the organisational composition is a secondary thing. Things are made by making use of a certain way because institutionalised norms or rules offer the course of an action in the explicit or implicit form. Legality of specific companies, including all types of behavior can be separated from its practical and relative usefulness. Some people can be pragmatics all the time, many people are pragmatists from time to time, but they cannot be pragmatics all the time. Usually, pragmatic direction can can be found only because they're inserted in environment with a little number of institutions.
The third course is the cultural studies theory. It attracts values, personal preferences, significant symbols and mental programs in the wide sense. This is a programming on a level of the individual's consciousness, which has a sense. In this process, the utility is secondary, but it all of a sudden looks as a function of the mentioned personal preferences and values. Ethnical studies targets the fact that the utilities vary with regards to the category of factors and these classes change depending on distinctions in the socialisation process. Followers of this theory are also willing to the fact that the organizations are units, which add up to the individual mental programs. Even though this, in concept, does not contradict the concepts of electricity and institutionalisation, the proponents of the culturological theory repeated over and over about their comparative importance in conditions of culture. Different people behave differently in the same organisational environment. A man always has independence to choose behaviour habits: to simply accept or not to acknowledge the organisational forms and norms of behavior. The specialists explain four types of organisational behavior.
The first style of organisational behavior is a dedicated and disciplined person in the company. He fully allows all the organisational prices and norms of behavior. In cases like this a man attempts to behave in a way that his actions do not contradict with the passions of the company. He sincerely tries to be disciplined, to handle his duties in accordance with accepted norms of the organisation and behaviour habits. Therefore, the results of his actions largely be based upon his personal capacities and talents and how correctly determine the content of his role and functions in the organisation.
The second model of organisational behavior is a timeserver. A person does not accept principles of the organisation, but attempts to behave completely following norms and behaviour habits of the company. Such a person is a timeserver. He does everything right and by the rules, but it will not certainly be a reliable person in the organisation, as if he is a good and professional employee, however, they can leave the organisation at any time or make the steps, which can unlike the interests of the organisation, but correspond with his own interests. For example, a person may easily leave the firm, when he will be offered better conditions. The timeservers are the most typical type of behaviour among the personnel of any company.
The third style of organisational behaviour is an eccentric. People accept the organisation's goals, but do not admit existing practices and norms of behavior. In this case, an individual can generate a great deal of troubles in romantic relationships with fellow workers and market leaders. He looks like "rara avis" in the team. However, if the command of the company detects the courage to get away from well-established guidelines of do for specific employees and give them independence to choose behaviour patterns they can find their put in place the organisation and bring it the significant gain. This sort of the model includes a lot of skilled and creative people, who are able to make new ideas and original alternatives.
The fourth model is a rebel. The individual does not recognize any ethics or values of the organisation. This is an available rebel, who always makes issue with the organisational environment and creates a discord. The "rebels" by their behaviour create a great deal of issues that significantly fill the organisation's life with hurdles, and even cause it harm. However, it would be wrong to expect that this kind of organisational behaviour is absolutely unacceptable, and people who behave in this manner, do not need the organisation. Regardless of all inconveniences they create, there are a great number of talented individuals among them, whose presence bring the fantastic profit to the organisation. For example, there is a special program "Free worker" in IBM. Leaders select employees from the notorious "rebels" (it is just about 50 employees in IBM). Then, these staff receive full liberty of actions for five years with one goal - always shake the machine of the company throughout.
The inspiration of internal or external forces towards a person, which provoke enthusiasm and amount of resistance to run after a certain course of actions. Corresponding to Baron and Greenberg "Although determination is a wide and complex idea, organisational scientists have decided on its basic characteristics. Sketching from various social sciences, we specify inspiration as the group of functions that arouse, immediate, and maintain individual behaviour toward attaining some goal" (Baron and Greenberg (2008) page 248).
Ian Brooks in his publication "Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Organizations and Organisation" observed that "All organisations are present in a sophisticated and usually vibrant environment. The "business" environment includes a range of forces which both effect an company and are framed by the company. These makes may be categorised. One such typology is the Infestations model, where the environment is thought to comprise political, economical, social and technical makes. If we add legal, ecological and competitive procedures to this we have included most aspects of the exterior environment. It could be argued that organisations react in response to environmental forces and, in turn, their behavior, or strategy, influences their environment. " (Brooks (2006) site 3).
In addition, the human factor plays a crucial role in the company. One of the main problems of organizational behaviour is the condition of execution. The practice of real human source management and personnel, of course, is an essential element of the organisational context. Employees' knowledge and skills, their professional competence, state of mind, attitude with their duties, productivity and work, socialisation and job - all these qualities are tightly connected with the organisational structures and practices. Subsequently, there are extremely close relationships between the theory of employees management, research and organisational behavior, their domains coincide in many respects. Organisational phenomena can usually be explained only if the reason takes into account the human factor, and vice versa.
Langton and Robbins affirm that "a field of research that investigates how individuals, communities and structure impact and are damaged by behavior within organisations, for the intended purpose of applying such knowledge toward bettering an organisation's effectiveness. " (Langton and Robbins (2006) webpage 3).
To summarize the above-stated information I can draw a finish that I identified the theme about organisational behavior, examined and explored the areas of organisational behaviour theory and its application in practice.