In Villains of most Nations, Marcus Rediker argues that piracy in the Atlantic increased in direct reaction to the fundamental issues of the time - around, 1710s to 1720s. Specifically, those issues are, as Rediker contends, concerns of class, questions of competition, gender issues, and political rhetoric. Within the chapters of Villains, the over-arching themes of work, school, and power are used to tie jointly the federal government and religious specialists of the Atlantic with the pirates who plundered against their legitimacy. In section one, he argues that pirates were bold politics "terrorists" who challenged eighteenth-century public order by creating a far more egalitarian seafaring lifestyle. Rediker contends that on both factors of the piracy concern - religious/political information and pirates - was an environment of terror. This terror, utilized by either area to, ironically, avoid preventing, was used to intimidate either part into submission. The writer details terror as an instrument that either side used to guard their views of how the cultural order should be established and maintained. Relating to Rediker, pirates were "made-up of all countries, and [attacked] the business of the world without respect for country or property" (17). Chapter 2 presents the seafaring world of the eighteenth century through the unique eyes of the sailors. Next, the sociable demographics of pirate crews are described as usually poor men who either mutinied and seized a vendor vessel or volunteered their sailing services when pirates boarded their vessel. The next three chapters (4-6) discuss piracy in conditions of race, communal, national, and economical backgrounds. In these chapters, Rediker argues that the true nature of pirate life a balance of contradictions: democratic, egalitarian, economically fair, yet rebellious, anarchical and predatory. Section 6 reveals the reader with images of the feminine pirate where Rediker explores the political, financial, and symbolic proportions of gender among pirates and the eighteenth-century Atlantic world. In chapters 7 and 8, Rediker argues that the "golden get older" of piracy is an example of class warfare, which pitted the pirates from the growing capitalism in the nation-states of the Atlantic. Within chapter 8, he talks about "the interrelated themes of death, apocalypse, hell, and self-destruction - fundamental things of life and loss of life and what they might have meant to these poor, motley, seafaring people in the first eighteenth hundred years" (153). The final outcome essay nicely ties up his main contention that piracy increased as a response to the essential issues of the eighteenth-century Atlantic world. However, it does leave the audience with the evaluation of modern-day authorities to those of the eighteenth century and romanticizes the enigmatic pirates of that period.
Rediker provides his information through the use of magazine articles, travel accounts, sermons, established correspondence, state paperwork, admiralty records, and other court papers. Also, he uses the painting Liberty Leading the folks (Delacroix, 1830) in an effort to have the audience visualize piracy within the idea procedure for the eighteenth century, as compared to the 1724 General History of the Pyrates by Captain Charles Johnson. Importantly and astoundingly, Rediker has compiled a set of 778 pirates that he uses for statistical examination.
While Rediker engages the reader with his band of protagonists, there are a few areas of the reserve that remain questionable. He romanticizes the pirate and pirate culture: "These outlaws led audacious, rebellious lives, and we should remember them so long as there are powerful people and oppressive circumstances to be resisted" (176). Rediker paints the pirate as a struggling, poor man (or girl) responding to issues of school, work conditions, competition, gender, and political and religious rhetoric in the eighteenth hundred years. Additionally, Rediker game titles his publication Villains of most Nations, yet the pirates he decides to describe decidedly Anglo instances. Finally, he contends that piracy's impact on the Atlantic seafaring trade was a major hit to the budding trade economies of the area, but does include other Atlantic countries in his discussion. Like the Spanish, People from france, or Portuguese in his contention would serve to give more evidence for his contention. Despite these short-comings, Rediker does indeed support his contention that piracy was consequence of the socio-economic issues of the eighteenth century. Through the use of quantative data and juxtaposing it against modern sources of the era, the guy can construct a proper founded case that pirates, although terrorists of the period, were heroes to the population using their Robin Hood myth-like reputation. He says appropriately, "we love pirates almost all of all because these were rebels" (176).
Villains of All Nations is a symbol of what popular culture has designed out of this period of pirates, and symbolic that scholars have had the opportunity to see styles of rebellion and anarchy translated into ideas of democracy and egalitarianism that identify this era of the eighteenth-century Atlantic world. Though the book romanticizes the image of the pirate as a patriot of socio-economic equality, it can so through an analysis of quality data - sermons, magazines, court documents. Pirates, as Rediker has colored them, will be the early eighteenth-century variations of the North american patriot. He gives, "pirates compared the high and mighty of your day and by their actions became the villains of most countries" (176). That phrase may possibly also interchange pirates for colonists and nations for Britain in the discourse of the North american Revolution. The history of piracy brings with it a place in the context of Atlantic background as a location of political, social, and economic interaction.
Throughout the readings and discussion in class of the eighteenth hundred years, the fundamental issues Rediker talks to - course, work, race, gender, and politics - are changing throughout this period and can only continue to achieve this with the impending North american Revolution. In both Chesapeake and New Britain colonial societies, these issues are brought up consistently. For example, in Many Hundreds Gone, Ira Berlin contends that slavery makes dark through a interpersonal construction that impacts colonial America through slavery's development of race. Similarly, pirates make villains and terrorists, regarding to Rediker. Finally, in Jon Butler's Becoming America, he argues that People in the usa were create through the style of simplification to elaboration to differentiation. For the reason that model, politics play a role in the development of a differential American contemporary society. In Butler's model, he uses five categories of analysis: peoples, overall economy, politics, material things, and spirituality. In all these categories, there are rebels to the norm and in those rebel, are they not what Rediker identifies a pirate as? Though Rediker clearly defines a pirate as a seafaring person, his explanation can be applied to any person who attacks the social norms of the period. Hence, Rediker Villains of most Nations belongs in the discourse of the colonial world for example of early patriotism on one hand, and a good example of terrorism on the other. Both examples work towards detailing a style of differentiation in becoming America, which is what the course was made to try to answer.