This essay is offer with Bandura's social cognitive theory which ultimately shows to people that children or even men and women learn manners and manners from observation and modeling. The first portion of this article will introduce readers on what is child development? Explanations on stages of child development are included. Next, the facts on basic concepts of Bandura's theory and factors influence modeling learning. In third and forth section, readers will come across with the application of social cognitive theory on child development and children of preschool and early primary schools. This essay is concluded with overview of Bandura's communal cognitive theory.
Child development identifies improvement of biological, psychological and psychological that occurs in real human between births to puberty. Development and development are two different aspects. Development shows qualitative qualities of child such as intellectual, religious, emotional and interpersonal connections however growth display quantitative features like physical changes. Growth is the largest changes happen in man. From have to sleeping almost 16 to 17 hours a day until they can dresses themselves is the progress of children. This changes are differing from each stage; newborn, infants, young child, preschooler, school-aged child and adolescent.
Newborn are infants up to 28 times. At this stage, they only develop basic senses such as view, hearing, smelling, coming in contact with, tasting and pain. Then, they become babies; one month till 12 month old. Some said it is 'doing' stage because newborns' sensory and electric motor abilities begin to improve. They begin to cry, coo and mumble the majority of vowels and some baby words that we can't understand nevertheless they can grasping and identify their moms' odour. When infants slowly but surely figure out how to walk, they are simply call as toddlers.
From years 1 until 3, small children' motor, cognitive and terminology abilities begin to strengthening. They can walk with support, and then they can walk together about 10 to 20 minutes until they can ride tricycle. It really is 'pondering' stage given that they will follow to simple demand but at exactly the same time they think for themselves much. In preschool stage; self consciousness and imagination stage, children can hop along and they already begin to utilize adult-like words since their cognitive system can store over 2, 000 words. In addition they in a position to cooperate on using other children and practice more public skills in their daily play activities.
When they move to school-aged and adolescent; 7 to 19 yrs. old, they create more worries as they having conflict with parents and they fare more damaged by peers. At this stage, most girls and boys start to reach puberty thus they having troubles with emotional steadiness, seeking for new identity and begin growing in erotic interest. All this stages involve in mindset and cognitive development as these changes will have an impact on other area of body systems.
Psychology expansion is linked to development of public contact. This improvement is not innate because Bandura and Skinner were two psychologists that said, behavior is learned. Nevertheless, Skinner's patterns learning process was through the complexities and the effects associated with an action but Bandura focus on interaction of individual with one another to learn a habit.
Throughout this article, I will clarify more on Bandura's interpersonal cognitive theory and exactly how it affects in child development. The reasons I choose Bandura's theory is basically because I decided that individuals learn behaviors by imitate others. For instance, my mother always advice my siblings to make use of polite words because our 2 yrs old niece will try to imitate us a while later. Bandura's theory was centered mainly on behavior modeling process since according to Bandura, children study from imitate others' behaviors which entail manners, actions, principles and customs.
2. Basic Concept of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory is about the procedure of learning behaviors through observation, modeling and repetition for positive and negative reinforcement. Bandura thought that human designed and upgraded their tendencies by involved with social framework. To fortify this claim, Bandura developed two methodologies; observational learning and vicarious support. Human being especially children learn new patterns by modeling others' habits through observational learning operations whereas children learn new habits and strengthen their action by observing the effect of others' behaviors and duplicate it through vicarious reinforcement processes.
In observational learning procedures, children require model such as parents, siblings, instructors and peers but not reinforcement. Models are essential because it allows children to cognitively process, encode and store viewed conducts. Models might purposely or not purposely show certain conducts to children and children probably proceed through modeling techniques from various models. After that, vicarious reinforcement procedures need both models and reinforcement and it is often used to remind or inform others the advantages or disadvantages to do something. Tradition of using famous superstars to advertise products is dependant on the idea of vicarious reinforcement. When Aishwarya Rai said she uses L'oreal Paris Total Repair 5 hair shampoo to get ravishing and healthy head of hair, it reinforces others to model her by purchasing and using L'oreal Paris hair shampoo too.
There are three factors which induce modeling tendencies which go through observation learning operations. First is Models' Characteristics including live model, verbal teaching and multimedia. Models' traits effect our possibility to imitate them. We have a tendency to copy somebody who is comparable in age group and intimacy group, in high position and prestige; parents, more mature siblings and educators and models show simple habits. A kid will imitate his / her peers' actions who are already know how to use bubble manufacturer rather than asking their own parents. For the reason that they find it more comfortable to communicate with same get older friends. In modeling learning, children have high tendency to copy simple parents' behavior such as waving, shaking hands and nodding brain rather than intricate action.
Next aspect is Observers' Characteristics. Modeling learning is effective when someone is at low self-confidence and self-esteem and when someone is reinforcing to duplicate the modeled manners. Children especially newborns, infants and toddlers will be more likelihood to imitate other as you may still find in 'doing' and 'thinking' stage. They learn by observe and imitate others. The third factor is Results of the Manners. Satisfying and punishment give effect on observers' imitation. When someone is satisfying for imitate modeled behaviors, its strengthen them to continue the action. If someone get not significant rewards for imitate modeled habits, its reinforce these to discontinue the tendencies. In preschool level, children already face with limitation from parents especially affecting home rules and norms. At this time, children love to play outdoors and be friends with others; as they imitate their parents' interpersonal skills. This concerns the parents as the children might become too friendly with strangers or even with kidnappers. Thus, parents will stop them from playing outside of the house for a certain time. This restriction depressed the kids and influences their development.
3. How social cognitive theory apply on child development?
In tendencies development, children will view and imitate their models around them. Children are leaning from observation as early as they born. For example, relating to Harris and Liebert (1992), a six times old baby young lady stick out her tongue after her mom exhibited the action frequently in front of her. Based on theory of modeling, newborns are having problems to immediately imitate their models' action. For the reason that newborns' brain outfitted with 100 billion brain skin cells or neurons. Only few of them are linked through connection or synapses. A lot more the newborns interrelate with environment, the more the process of synapses take place which can increases the growth of intellect of children. Because of this trend, there are two basic ideologies children' models especially parents need to know.
First, parents need to do it again their action many times. Associated with newborns' cognitive capacities such as recollections and imagination aren't completely developed yet. Secondly, action of parents that they wish the infants to imitate need to done within the development of sensorimotor of the babies; about 2 years old. Before time two, children begin to imitate their models' action a while later. It really is due to the development of their sensorimotor and cognitive system. After get older two, children can imitate their models' action immediately in form of verbally response or repetition activities.
Young children imitate their models' habit due to reinforcement. Earlier in this essay already bring in to reinforcement but what is exactly encouragement means? Encouragement is process of offering rewards or consequence to someone for successfully or fails to gratify someone's expectation. For instance, mothers always train their newborns to call them "mom" and they'll give kisses to the babies if indeed they can utter it in their own terms. It serves as an incentive to the babies. Frequently children are reinforced by food, devotion and abuse in modeling process. The question is how this reinforcement methodology by Bandura impacts child development?
The parents and caretakers will be the one who established some requirements of the young children performance in reinforcement process. As the procedure of reinforcement continues, the children will normalize numerous manners. Models will show some patterns like pronouncing words, displaying face expression, having things and more so that young children can imitate it. If indeed they can imitate it, models will praise them. For instance, a mother tries to instruct her little kid to carry his toy. She keeps it first before the son hence the child can imitate it. She consistently demonstrates the steps and when she gives the toy to her kid, he successfully holds it. She will hugs and kisses him as a reward for his work. This will encourage her boy to try hold the toy again. Eventually, these rewards strengthen the children' self efficiency; feeling of capability to make it through in life.
Self effectiveness or self performance will slowly and gradually develop in infancy stage as they begin to involve in physical and sociable environments. They commence to learn about the consequences of their own action which they imitated from models and these results give them strength or weaken their development. The tiny boy might feel that a lot more he tries to hold his toy, a lot more kisses they can get from his mom. Same will go as aggressive patterns shown by children because of their family environment; violent fathers, short-tempered siblings or even being overlooked by the mothers will have an effect on the children' personal efficacy. They could having worries and phobias with adults, feeling insecurities to make friends and be a silent, gloomy child or entail in bullies. This certainly affects children performance as they expand.
For occasion, siblings who show assault in the families of bullies will encourage the kids in demonstrating the same ambitious activities towards other children in university (Duncan, 1999). As I remembered, after i tried out to snatch television set remote control from my younger sister, I accidently pulled her locks. My two years old niece observed that and unexpectedly she tried to imitate our 'tugging' wild hair action with her baby toy. Fortunately, she done that intense action to her toy but out of this experience and link with the theory, it will not a delight if my niece will move her friend's locks in preschool later. As mention before, it is because, children observe and imitate people' habit.
Reinforcement and do it yourself efficiency which learn by modeling parents' tendencies and action give impact on child development; child years till adolescence. It is because children will steadily build their self-esteem and self-awareness that affect their life progression. Inspiration of 'I think I could do it' will enhance their self-assurance level to socialize with others. When children in kindergarten found their friends can make an attractive Mother's Day Greeting card, they think 'if they can do it, I could get it done too'. Hence, they will try hard to make the best credit card too. As they increase, children need to handle new obstacles and pressure such as making peers, learning new things, personality problems and more. Level of do it yourself efficacy and assurance will assist them either they can effectively proceed through each stage of improvement and expansion or they might fail to adapt.
4. How sociable cognitive theory apply on children from preschool and early on major level?
As mention in this article, children learn behaviors by observation. Thus, we need to clearly understand the procedure in observational learning. These process always arise in preschool and early on primary stage; 5 to 8 years old in Malaysia. Observational learning is run by four connected processes.
First is Attention Operations. Cognitive system and perceptual ability in children are growing in order to aid them in watching model. They'll take notice of the displayed patterns of model effectively in order to imitate it a while later. Next is Retention Functions. Children use their cognitive system to keep in mind the models' habit so they can imitate it later. Ways of remembering displayed habit are through either forming mental images or verbal descriptions. Third, Production Operations. The children need to translate the mental image or verbal information same as the displayed models' action by produce it literally and they'll receive feedback from models either they done it correctly or they want some modification. Lastly, Incentive and Inspiration Process. After observing the models' behaviours, children realized that the models will be worthwhile either by physical objects, affection or feeling of satisfying come from other person or themselves. Hence, children planning on that if they effectively imitate and perform the models' action, they'll get the same rewards.
However, Bandura said that reinforcement nearly can stimulate children to learn. Sometimes, reinforcement is not necessary for learning techniques to occur but it might be environment factors, psychological factors or attention factors of the children themselves to see, imitate and perform models' actions.
Although, close models of the kids such as parents, caretakers or siblings wish the kids increase in positive manners, but children have more tendencies to effectively imitate aggressive behavior of models. Regarding to Bobo Doll Studies conducted by Albert Bandura, it is possible that children can give reactions that they never shown before when they keep observing the models' habit. In short, the object in this study was a Bobo Doll and the subjects were several preschool children. They viewed an adult strike and kick the doll while shouted curse words. 80% of the children were repeating the aggressive activities to the doll when these were left by itself with the doll. They imitate the mature behaviors towards doll and this demonstrates children can react aggressively as they replicate models' action that they saw live, from tv set and cartoons.
A child modeled intense actions towards doll after watching the model's actions
In 2012, police force of Malaysia released a reports that 432 youths were arrested scheduled to bullying problems aged between as soon as seven to 18. 341 children aged between 16 and 18, 87 youth aged 13 to 15 and that is means 4 bullying cases involved seven to 12 years old children! (School bullies getting youthful, say law enforcement, 2012). According to the report, the highest number of saved bullying situations among children is Selangor with 66 cases.
The main factor of the problem is impact of family environment which include negativity surroundings, limited environment and development and chaotic family relationships. Seefeldt, Castle and Falconer (2010) discovered that children use the image of parents' social life to get started on their own work in life. When the parents exhibited good social interaction, the children will progress in life as effective as the parents. Alternatively, if the parents demonstrated violent behaviors, the children will imitate it and encounters many problems in life. Thus, models have to be careful using their actions; behaviors, attitudes and manners since it give impact on children especially preschool and early on major children.
Social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura targets learning of tendencies through observation and modeling which in some situation, reinforcement is necessary. Reinforcement can be in any form such as food, passion, punishment, limitation or even money. There are three factors behind modeling behavior which can be models, observers and impact of the imitation.
Cognitive system of children is producing by stages. They go through changes from basic senses development, imaginational skills and sensorimotor gradually shows progression until they move to much challenging phrases, adolescents. Children learn behaviors from parents, siblings' interactions, teachers' instructions, television set cartoons and other mass media sources. Many of these medium play important tasks in children observation and modeling learning.
In observational learning, there are four functions engaged; attention, retention, creation and motivation and motivational procedures.
Result from Bobo Doll studies shows that children can learn all types of tendencies, positive manners or negative activities. Hence, the impact of the theory can cause either helpful or hazardous behaviours learning.
Bandura analyzed that tendencies learning are linked to cognitive expertise. However his studies excluded the individuals areas of personality such as motivation and emotion affect. He also failed to explain exactly on the influence of cognitive capabilities on tendencies learning.