Posted at 03.10.2018
"The type of study and understanding of specific and group behaviour, and habits of structure to be able to assist in improving organisational performance and performance. " (Robbins, 2007). Organisation is one of the main parts and serves important needs of the culture. So the decisions and activities of management in organisations have an increasing effect on individuals, other organisations and the community (Mullins, 2008). Hence it is important, to comprehend how organisation functions. For that people need to learn the behaviour of people, just how do they respond and perform as users of an organization as individuals.
This article is talking about the performance and behaviour of an individual while employed in a group. The survey emphasise on three interrelated parts which are concerned with: describing the forming of the group, distinctions between group and team, how individual perform in an organization and their performance as an individual, and finally some conclusions on importance of the behaviour and performance of an individual in an organization.
Groups are a range of folks who interact with one another; are psychologically alert to each other; and understand themselves to be always a group (Schein, 1988). An organization is several individuals getting together with each other to accomplish a common goal (Ivancevich, Konopaske, & Matteson, 2008). Any ways organizations are not same as that of groups. Teams are older groups which can be motivated and they're interdependent on each other for a typical goal. Team can be of set size but groupings can defer deliberately of the work. All teams can be a group but all organizations can not be a team.
Learn to pay attention others perspective of other member in a group and take their considerations.
Learn a whole lot from individuals personalities.
Learn group co-ordination and Common understanding.
Learn to separate work and complete the work faster.
Learn to connect to different kind of individuals.
If there a wide range of people in an organization then there could be group discord.
There may vary viewpoints on doing ditto so sometimes it requires time to start out the work.
Every person in a group should know its role and should work consequently.
Self esteem of an individual can be center while his thoughts and opinions is not considered or not put in place.
Humans are social animal, they can't stay alone. They want someone to connect to each other. People join night clubs, different groupings and societies simply for interacting with one another. This is human being psychology that they can not stop communicating with one another. Working in a group is a fantastic way of creating the effective social relationship that organisation needs (Heller, 1997). There are some of other reasons why people prefer to be in an organization and they are: Security, Process achievement, Social needs and Power (Ellis & Cent, 2000). People feel safeness while they are simply in a group for a good example working in an organisation some decision needs to be used people feel safe for taking decision in an organization rather than taking independently. Task achievements is also a primary reason people join organizations there are extensive task which can't be done alone. Some individuals join groupings for interpersonal needs say by creating a group they are forming some special romance. Power is the primary reason people form a group for an example if many people are doing a particular talk it can be done easily but that's not true for folks.
People join groupings because groups are able to accomplish things that individuals cannot accomplish working together and employed in group fulfils the public needs of individuals. The useful theory of the formation posits that communities are the only way to survive the needs of the surroundings (Stewart, Manz, & Sims, 1999).
As jobs are more complex credited to technology or other factors, categories become a great way to take care of the complexness (Levi, 2001). Furthermore, joint management has a solid ability to get capital beyond the founders or owner's resources from private and capital raising backers (Timmons, 1999). Personally i think some work in an organization can not be done by individual it requires an organization of individuals for better knowledge of a intricate situation.
The craving to try something new and to change the plan of action improves when the performance is low (Boone, C; vehicle Olffen, W; vanWitteloostuijn, A; De Brebander, B, 2004)
. Hence there is a fear of failure when a person is working exclusively but that's not always true when organizations are working. People know their own responsibilities while employed in a group and they make an effort to fulfil each and every thing.
A small business owner may not have the sufficient knowledge and skills to ensure significant organizational expansion (Weinzimmer, 1997). If the firm sizeincreases, more people are needed for effective management (Weltman, 2001). Groups are in charge of the development of an organisation. Hence group should always take into account the development of the company.
The great things about teamwork in general management relate with both work and organization performance (e. g. (Hunsaker, 2001; Eisenstat & Cohen, 1990)No human is ideal, but groups can be. Man has some or the areas where they can not work. But while employed in a group man can cover their weaknesses.
Companionship can assist in problem solving also to diminish challenging working conditions as support develops among the team members (Hunsaker, 2001). One of the most compelling reasons why people join organizations is because they believe regular membership in a particular group will help them to meet one or more important needs.
According to Sherif (1936), norms will be the "customs, traditions, guidelines, values, fashions, and some other criteria of do which can be standardised because of contact with individuals". Later, (Steers, 1981) called norms a shared group standard which regulates member behaviour. Norms also have been identified as the casual rules that groupings adopt to modify and regularise people' behavior (Feldman, 1984).
Although norms generally can be found in the formal framework of group functioning, rarely come in written form, and are rarely talked about, they still employ a powerful and constant effect on group behavior (Hackman, 1976). After analysing all this definitions I feel norms are rules which are created by individuals which work in a group for its smooth working.
Norms are created by an organization, so there may be different norms for different kinds of a group. For instance, there are communities of folks who are in a university every group will have its own norms. Secondly, there are numerous degrees of popularity by a group member. Which means some norms are followed by every group member and other norms are limited to some individuals only. A number of the norms are also applied all group users and some norms are requested few people in an organization. For an instance, an organization is working in an organisation, some norms are accompanied by all group customers plus some norms are just for the position holders, say managers in a group (Ivancevich, Konopaske, & Matteson, 2008).
Organisation has two different kinds of groups they are formal groups and informal organizations. The major difference between both this types of groups is that there is friendship between your associates of the group. In informal group the whole member knows the other person so they know what strength and weaknesses every individual has according to that everyone can work out knowing one another. And formal groupings are made by the organisations they don't really know each other they are made for a specific goal. "A planned system of cooperative work where each participant has an established role to play and obligations or tasks to execute" (Katz, 1965). These kinds of groups are created only for even functioning of organisation. People don't know each other so are there less chance of getting friendly environment, and getting better results. Matching to Palazzolo (1981), "a collection of person whose common work experience bring about the development of a system of interpersonal relations beyond those expected of them by values with their employment". In this type of group people know one another and they're friends with common goals so they can coordinate with each other without the problem. There is absolutely no communication gap between your people, so work can be done in better way. The only real problem with this type of group is the fact that it offers friendly environment so many times it does not work with a company. But informal groups are better than formal categories.
"A function of thinking that folks engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the member's strivings for unanimity override their inspiration to realistically
Appraise alternative programs of action" (Janis, 1972). With the idea of Groupthink group behavior and performance can be increased. Groupthink can make any type of decisions within an organization. As we have notice individual will not take any decisions, all the decisions are been considered by the organisation are discussed before utilizing it. It is because all specific has different thought process in an organisation so everyone should know what is certainly going on and can get ideas from everyone. Using this method the chances of putting into action a risk gets decrease and on one in an company can regret the fact after putting into action the new task.
Numbers of specific symptoms on groupthink are as fallows.
There is an illusion of invulnerability with high optimism and risk-taking.
The discounting or discrediting of negative feedback which contradicts group consensus results in rationalisation to be able to explain away any disagreeable information.
An unquestioned perception in the natural morality of the group which leads participants to be convinced of the rational correctness of what it does and to dismiss moral or moral implications of decisions.
The group's desire to keep up consensus can lead to negative stereotyping of opponents or people outside the group, or to the approval of change.
There is pressure on individual people to conform and reach consensus so that minority or unpopular ideas may be suppressed.
Each member of the group may impose self-censorship in order to reduce their own goals, or personal uncertainties or disagreements.
As a result of self-censorship, there is an illusion of unanimity with too little expressed dissent and a wrong sense of unity.
In the improbable event of dissent or contrary information, this gives climb to the emergence of 'head guards' who become filtration systems, guarding group leaders, deflecting opposition and making use of pressure on deviants. (Mullins, 2008)
Psychological research on creativeness has tended to focus on individuals and intra-individual factors (e. g. , drive; Amabile, 1982). Ford's (1996) Theory of Creative Individual Action also links the work environment with intra-individual factors to make clear individual creativity. Ford's theory identifies three specific characteristics which overlap conceptually with the components of Amabile's (1988, 1997) model, via: sense making, drive, and knowledge and ability. Specific personality makes a major effect on his psychological behaviour in an company. Also all the employees must be motivated by some or the different ways. There could be a few of the distinctions while employed in an organization but individual must ignore them. All the group members is there for a purpose so everyone should know their role and appropriately they have to perform while they are really in a group.
No individual should back-off at last movement while employed in a group. By doing this he can develop psychologically as well as probably. He is able to get different ideas from all the group participants. He won't be restricted to a limit, and can also are better as an organization member. This is because we realize no individual is perfect and group can be, this says group people can cover weaknesses of a individual. But for carrying out better in a group person should be determined on a regular basis. Maslow's theory of inspiration gives an idea how specific can be determined.
Motivation is the factor that each group head should give to their group member. Motivation is better explained by Maslow's theory.
Abraham Maslow attemptedto formulate a needs-based construction of human inspiration and based after his clinical activities with humans. From Maslow's theory of drive, modern leaders and executive managers find means of staff inspiration for the purposes of staff and labor force management. According to the theory humans are determined by unsatisfied needs and certain lower needs. All individuals should fulfil physiological needs first. If these needs are not satisfied then there are chances for an individual to leave the organisation, as he is de-motivated from the organisation. After concluding these needs other more impressive range needs should be completed like he should be safe from other activities that happen to be in and out of the organisation. Along with the hierarchy continues on till Self-Actualization. Hence Abraham Maslow's model signifies that basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safe practices must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfilment are pursued. (Anonymus, Abraham Maslow Biography, 2005)
Peer pressure is an alteration in behaviour, ideals, or behavior personally to conform to group norms (Anonymus, 2010). This person cannot be the member of the group. Peer pressure can be because of change in anything in the company. This is often a environment change or change in need. And due to this pressure group member leaves the group and may join other group which he don't like to be a person in that group, and thus they react adversely relating to that group's behaviours. Peer pressure can cause people to do things they might not normally do, e. g. start taking in, may take least affinity for the company, etc.
Group conflict can occurs when you can find difference in opinions within the group member. Turmoil in a group can occur because of pursuing reasons age, contest, gender, education, functional record, and tenure. And because of this time we feel to stay away from an organization. This type of conflict can be seen in formal group. But that isn't an instance of casual group all the group member is aware each other so they may be understanding and many a times casual group may be of same age group and same kind of education so due to this reason the pace of discord reduces or often conflict does not take place. There is also conflict in the informal groups but this kind of conflict will not last for more than a day.
This I can say with my own experience, I have already been a member of an informal group while I was in my college, I had been an associate of social committee of the university from five years. Right up until completed my graduation. We used to organise the university celebration called Utkarsh, I always had taken part in event managing stuff. And for last year or two I had been elected as a co-ordinator of Roars, with is IT and comp-science happening under Utkarsh. There have been almost 15-20 peoples group who used to be a member if Roars and Utkarsh, so while organising a event there are always turmoil between a group members whatever event will need place and where might it be held in the college, this is because there are almost 4000 people arriving for the function hence everyone want to keep more event and all the event at one place hence there are issue between group members. But once everything is resolved there are no personal regrets in virtually any one's mind. That is a big good thing about been a member of a informal group.
In casual group also there must be someone who manages the group. In my case I been a co-ordinator had to provide for the group. I had fashioned to look after personal problems with some other group members some other problems group member has while organising the celebration. In intra group discord I had to manage to solve the situation. This I was doing on the Maslow's theory. If indeed they need any necessary things for the function I typed to fulfil that by demanding it from the college or university authorities. The authorities should provide them with some safety precautions by asking professors to have the lectures which they have missed and do not mark them as absent while they will work for the college event as well as providing them with equal expectations so that everyone gets an opportunity to give their own judgment. To supply them a self esteem so that they can be confident while working for a college event.
Work done by specific always speak time then work done by a group. Everything will depend on the average person personality and his subconscious and potential behavior. Say there is a expression written "impossible" one person may read it as "impossible" and other may read it as "i m possible". Hence it depends on how the individual think. But employed in an organization always helps for specific to development himself. He gets to know how other individuals in a group think and what's the approach of other people on a specific work. There is always conflict in an organization individuals should take these in a confident way as the group turmoil is due to betterment of the work which group does. The turmoil in a group can be minimised if the group can be an informal group. It is because all the group member has learned each other and they're almost of same age group so there thinking are also almost same. There must be a head in a group to regulate the group. Group leader should always encourage people so that people can work in better way. Finally, I believe group is definitely an improved option to work somewhat than working as a person.