This essay will look at the relationship between schizophrenia and bio psycho social issues it will explore the idea of restoration and also look at a few of the methods that are being used to promote the recovery process. The Country wide Health Service (2005) explains schizophrenia as a mental condition with substantial brief and long term consequences for individuals, family, health and clinical services and contemporary society. One in hundred people experience schizophrenia in their life-time with highest occurrence of the disease in late teens and early on 20s. People with schizophrenia suffer problems and long term disability and there is a lot of accompanied stigma and prejudice involved with the disease that can have unwanted effects on employment, associations and life satisfaction. A person's family is totally ruined with schizophrenia and carers and family members also carry the burden of the disease and caring the person for a long period.
"Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, impacting on language, conception and thee sense of do it yourself. It often includes psychotic experience, such as reading voices or delusion. It can impair working through the loss of an acquired capability to earn a livelihood or the disruption of studies" (WHO, 2009)
Schizophrenia is not triggered by a unitary factor but a blend of different factors these factors are biological, psychological and interpersonal. This is what is known as the bio psycho interpersonal style of schizophrenia (Santrock, 2007).
There are thought to be many causes of schizophrenia one of these are genetic factors. Riley & Kendler (2006) declare that 70% of people who develop schizophrenia have a member of family who has schizophrenia, the nearer the relation the more likely one is to get the disease if a person has the same twin with schizophrenia they have a 50% chance of developing schizophrenia.
There is a genetic component to schizophrenia this means someone may be predisposed to developing schizophrenia but it does not mean that they are pre-determined to develop the illness. Biological factors can include get older or a virus and environmental factors for example life stressors can trigger an onset of schizophrenia. Stressful life events that occur can include having a baby, losing a job, moving house or shedding somebody who is close but not everyone who goes through these difficult situations will be identified as having schizophrenia as a lot of people can handle tense situations much better than other folks will.
Risk factors may vary for different individuals - while one person may develop schizophrenia as a consequence largely to a strong family history of mental condition (e. g. a higher level of hereditary risk), another person with significantly less genetic vulnerability could also develop the disease scheduled to a combination of pre-pregnancy factors, pregnancy factors, interpersonal and family stress or environmental factors that they experience during their childhood, teenager or early on adult years. This suggests that individuals have got different degrees of vulnerability to schizophrenia, which can be dependant on a combo of biological, social and/or mental health factors. It is proposed that vulnerability to schizophrenia will cause the introduction of problems only once environmental stressors can be found (Riley & Kendler, 2006). When the vulnerability of a person is sufficiently high, relatively low degrees of environmental stress might be sufficient to cause problems. In case the vulnerability is much less, problems will develop only when higher levels of environmental stress are experienced (NHS article, on Schizophrenia 2005).
In mental health restoration has a lot of different definitions and does not always refer to a person having complete restoration from mental health problems just as a person can totally recover from having physical health problems. A person not only must get over the distress and trauma of psychotic encounters there is also to cope with sociable exclusion, discrimination, stigma, lack of position in world, feelings of hopelessness, possible obligated hospitalisation and the stress of receiving a identification.
The Country wide Institute of Mental Health (2009) suggests that there is absolutely no single meaning of the concept of recovery for folks with mental health issues, but the simplest way to explain the restoration model is one of anticipation and that it is possible for someone's important life to be restored, despite serious mental illness. Recovery is often referred to as a process, perspective, vision, and conceptual construction or guiding process (Watkins, 2007).
The Mental Health base (2007) declare that the recovery process should provide a all natural view of mental condition that targets the person all together and not simply their symptoms. They also believe that restoration from severe mental disease is possible and it is a journey rather than destination but it does not necessarily mean getting back to where a person was before their prognosis recovery may happen in 'meets and begins' and, like life it has many pros and cons, calls for optimism and dedication from all worried, is very much indeed influenced by people's prospects and attitudes requiring a proper organised support system this can be from family, friends or experts it also requires mental health providers to simply accept and take on new means of working.
Recovery highlights that while people might not exactly have full control over their symptoms, they can have full control over their lives. According to the National Institute of Mental Health restoration is not about 'getting rid' of mental health problems. It is about having the ability to help people beyond their problems helping the person to be able to recognise and develop the opportunities that hook up their abilities, hobbies and dreams. Mental illness and social behaviour such as stigma that still surrounds mental condition could impose restrictions on people experiencing unwell health (Hinshaw, 2007). Restoration looks past these limitations to help people achieve their objectives.
A care and attention pathway can be an outline of expected care, placed in an appropriate timeframe, to help an individual with a specific condition or set of symptoms move steadily through a scientific experience to positive effects. The Section of Health Dual Analysis Practice Guide (2002) declare that someone with dual identification Schizophrenia and element misuse issues will have a health care pathway as their care can be sophisticated as there is likely to be multi agency participation.
The Summary of Assessments of Risk and Need (SARN) is an instrument designed to be used in mental health services for describing service users' needs for care and attention. (Personal et al 2008). It provides a brief description of the needs of individuals getting into Mental Health services or showing with a possible dependence on change in a attention plan. It had been developed to assist along the way of building a classification of service users based on their needs so that appropriate service responses could be developed both at the individual and service level. It allows professionals from a range of backgrounds to summarise their assessments in a shared format. Thus it provides a common vocabulary for describing health says and related sociable conditions and increases communication between different users including service users themselves (Country wide Health Service, 2009).
There are several strategies used to market the recovery process and these range from pharmacological interventions, CBT, family therapy.
Those who've family profit most if their families are well informed about the illness have support and skills to cope with the ill relative.
Social skills training, vocational assistance and environmental modification help support recovery because if someone is in control of their finances have employment they can go to the will probably help with their personal development and their self-confidence.
Cognitive behavior remedy can help reduce the problems and disability induced by symptoms of schizophrenia. Improve understanding and self management, decrease the threat of further relapse, improve feeling and self-confidence it involves client as a dynamic participant in treatment. NICE recommendations (2009) state that mental interventions should play an integral role in the treating schizophrenia and that the best facts is perfect for CBT and family treatment. NICE suggestions now explicitly recommend CBT to be offered as a treatment option and family interventions should be accessible to households who are living with someone with psychosis or who are in close contact with someone with psychosis.
CBT offers a collaborative way ensures client reaches the centre of good care and is an dynamic participant in decisions about treatment; this increases proposal with services (Freeman & Felgoise, 2005).
Motivational interviewing was formerly developed as a treatment for drugs and alcohol obsession. However, it is now used with clients with psychosis to improve compliance with medication (Rollnick & Miller, 2002). It is also used for clients with a dual identification of medicine or liquor use and psychosis (Haddock et al, 2002). Motivational interviewing is based on the idea of levels of change or pattern of change (Proschaska & Diclemente, 1982).
According to Rollnick & Miller (2002) the several levels of change are; In 'pre-contemplation' the individual does not recognize a problem is present. In 'contemplation' the person is ambivalent - they can be in two thoughts about what they want to do. In 'action' the person is preparing and planning change. If they are ready the decision to change is manufactured and it becomes all eating. In 'maintenance' the change has been introduced into the person's life. Some support may still be needed through the maintenance level. 'Lapse' is a temporary return to 'old' unhelpful thoughts, feelings or behaviours. 'Relapse' is a complete go back to the old behaviour. Lapse and relapse are seen as natural area of the Cycle of Change and do not assume failure. It generally does not mean that lapse or relapse is appealing or even always to be likely. It simply means that change is difficult, and it is unreasonable to expect anyone to be able to change a habit perfectly without any slide ups (Rollnick & Miller, 2002). When a relapse occurs, several travels through the stages may be necessary to make enduring changes. Each and every time the individual is encouraged to examine, reflect and learn from their slip ups. Rollnick and Miller (2002), state that motivational interviewing is especially effective when clients are either in the 'pre-contemplation' or 'contemplation' phases.
Relapse rates in psychosis are really high, even if people stick to their medication so it is obviously good practice to work meticulously with your client and their family and list early on indicators (Witkiewitz & Marlatt, 2007). This can lead to the action plan that may be implemented to help place signs or symptoms of relapse. Once a list of early warning signs has been completed an in depth action plan can be used this will most likely include, that your client and their family must do if signs of relapse are discovered. These plans can include what services should react to the client and people concerns and present a set of available resources e. g. extra medication, telephone numbers to call in crisis. Doing this is empowering for both client and their family it can enhance the relationship between them and mental health services providing them with more control over their treatment and also permits them to feel backed in useful ways (Witkiewitz & Marlott, 2007).
As with all remedies there's always problems the key ones associated with CBT and motivational interviewing are first engagement, encouraging people to talk about their symptoms and problems, funding, time restrictions and resources and ensuring that skilled mental health workers have sufficient training in undertaking these solutions.
Being identified as having schizophrenia shouldn't mean that a person can't live a complete and happy life. With the right help and advice and continuing support from mental health services somebody who suffers from schizophrenia can work, build interactions and live a standard life just like anyone else. Regarding to Mind (2009) this is due to a better understanding of schizophrenia the introduction of far better medications and the increasing use of restorative interventions.