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Case analysis: Developmental Theories

This paper will compare three developmental theories we have learned about throughout this class: social learning theory, psychoanalytic theory, and the psychosocial theory. Developmental ideas are beneficial to comprehend the patterns of a kid, and though some may appear very different, they can share many similarities. These ideas help visitors to understand the advances in childhood and the different stages they arise in. These three theories can help parents have a good idea of what to expect during different periods throughout their child's life. We will discuss the key concepts of each of these theories and how they assist in the cognitive, physical, and mental development of children. Also, having a better understanding of your son or daughter's development will help you identify and help them reach their full probable in each stage.

First, we will discuss the sociable learning theory which was produced by Albert Bandura, an American psychologist. Other theorists feel that the environment operates upon the kid and is also the driving power of child development. Bandura on the other hand felt a child can action upon the environment just as much as the surroundings can act upon the child; he called this reciprocal determinism (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). For example, if a kid acts out at university, because he/she doesn't like it, they can make things harder on the educators, which make the school system seek changes.

One of the key principles of the public leaning theory would be observational learning. It claims how children study from observing or imitating others from other parents, teachers, or just someone they admire. Children are always watching people and modeling their behavior after them, positive or negative. Matching to this theory, imitation of models is the most important component in how children learn a vocabulary, deal with aggression, develop a moral sense, and find out gender-appropriate behaviors (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). We have to set cases for our kids so they can follow by example. A child watches the people around them and uses the information gained as a model for their own actions and behavior. As being a parent if you deal with problems with aggression your son or daughter can do the same. Parents and instructors also assist in creating a couple of morals for children. Just about everyone has heard the key phrase "monkey see, monkey do!"

Through feedback on their behavior, children gradually form expectations for judging their activities and be more selective in choosing models who exemplify those benchmarks; gaining a sense of self-efficacy (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). Self-efficacy allows a kid to create goals and solve their own problems and understanding the results of the options they make.

The key ideas of Albert Bandura's Friendly Learning Theory are that people are able to learn from each other, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, storage area, and determination (Learning Ideas, 2010). The cultural learning theory has the potential to permit parents to model a kid in the right way.

Next, we have the psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalytic theory originated with the task of Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that childhood activities and unconscious dreams were able to influence patterns (Davis & Clifton, 1995). He could breakdown his theory into a series of psychosexual stages that could assist in the development and the lifelong affects it might have on a child's personality and tendencies. Freud theorized that a person's personality was made up of the identification. , the ego, and the superego.

The id, Freud said originated during infancy. Newborns are governed by the id, the couch of unconscious instinctual drives; it looks for immediate gratification under the pleasure theory (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). It really is related to the needs and needs of a person. They do this without thinking about consequences just wanting to be satisfied by their wants and needs. When a child exists he or she cries in order to let the parents know they may have needs or desires, and nothing else matters to them besides having them attained. When an infant sees something they want, they simply take it without thinking of the fallout.

The ego is known as the logical part of someone's brain and is categorized under the truth principle. The easiest way to explain the ego is that it needs to make decisions that make the identification and superego happy. It creates sensible decisions and helps offset the pleasure rule in an suitable manner to the outside world. The ego gradually develops through the first year or so of someone's life (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008).

The superego is developed around the age of 5 or 6, provides the conscience; it features socially approved "should" and "should nots" into a child's value system (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). The superego balances both the id and ego which is what ends in the thoughts of guilt and remorse if the incorrect decisions are created. It is what allows children to believe through the results of their actions.

Freud theorized the personality is shaped through unconscious conflicts between inborn urges by the id and the requirements of civilized life; these conflicts would arise in 5 stages of psychosexual development (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). This development is when pleasure moves in one body part to some other to include: the mouth area, the anus, and genitals. Each level symbolizes a change in development.

The first stage is the oral stage, which is the key function of newborns. They use their mouths for eating, teething, and making noises. Next, we have the anal stage, it is now time when the child learns about their physiques waste which is when parents will start the process of potty training. The phallic level or the genital level is where the child becomes infatuated with the parent of opposite love-making, and is realizing the variations between males and females. During this level Freud also claims that girls go through what is called male organ envy. That's where they wish they had a penis predicated on the actual fact they noticed it carried electricity. If you believe about enough time when this analysis was ran, this may easily be believable. During that time, women didn't have rights they do today and it might be easy for these to see men on a higher level than themselves. The latency stage is enough time whenever a child places their hard work into things such as hobbies and school. They call this the stage of calmness in a child's life. Finally, we've the genital stage, this is when their sexual drive reemerges but this time, and it is directed toward the correct people.

Each stage represents another change in someone's life. Though Freud's ideas have been highly controversial as he feels the reason a person doesn't bear in mind having these thoughts through the phallic stage is because they have been repressed and are a part of our subconscious. Through his theory, Freud was able to make us more alert to the value of unconscious thoughts, emotions, and motivations; the role of years as a child experiences in developing personality; the ambivalence of emotional responses, especially reactions to parents; the role of mental representations of the home and other in the establishment of personal relationships; and the path of normal development for the immature, centered state to an adult, interdependent one (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008).

Lastly, we've the psychosocial theory. Erikson presumed that childhood is vital in personality development. He accepted many of Freud's theories, like the identification, ego, and superego, and Freud's theory of infantile sexuality. But Erikson turned down Freud's attempt to describe personality entirely based on sexuality, and, unlike Freud, thought that personality persisted to build up beyond five years of age (Cherry, 2010). Erikson's eight-stage theory of psychosocial development details expansion and change throughout the lifespan, focusing on sociable interaction and conflicts that occur during different stages of development. He sensed that each stage of development needed not just a positive characteristic but also a negative one. We read about basic trust and basic mistrust which claims that folks need to hold some trust in the globe and the folks in it, but also need to have some mistrust to safeguard them from risk (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). If we respected everyone and everything we would constantly be let down. I have put together a chart to show each of the eight phases and what virtue is gained from each as shown inside our reserve (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008).

Erik Erikson's 8 Levels of Psychosocial Development


Basic Conflict


Birth to 12 to 18 months

Trust vs. Mistrust


12-18 months

to 3years

Autonomy vs.



3 to 6 years

Initiative vs.




Industry vs. Inferiority



Identity vs.

Role Confusion


Young Adulthood

Intimacy vs.



Middle Adulthood

Generatively vs. Stagnation


Late Adulthood

Ego Integrity vs. Despair


Each of the eight periods shows what a person benefits throughout each stage in their lives form labor and birth completely adulthood.

Social learning theory, psychoanalytic theory, and the psychosocial theory all three works a vital role in the development of children. Public learning theory supplies the facts of how children learn from modeling and imitating others. They learn cognitive and sociable skills from seeing other folks. Unlike other theorists Bandura believed a child can act upon the environment up to the environment can respond up the child. The psychoanalytic theory is what makes up our personality. Throughout the development of our id, ego and superego we learn to control our impulses and understand the results of our actions. The psychosocial theory explained our personality developed more than a life-span unlike that of Freud who believed it originated in early childhood only. All three theories give a different information into our imagination and how we develop socially, mentally and physically inside our environment. After checking and contrasting the three developmental ideas you will have a full knowledge of how each theory is important in the development of people from infancy to adulthood. Understanding how the mind works and in what levels allows people to help their children reach their full potential in life.

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