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Causes of Dyslexia

Possible Causes of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a learning disability that causes reading and dialect difficulties, in conditions of spoken or written. Today, there are many researches actively taking place regarding the important factors behind dyslexia (Temple, 2002; Ramus 2001; 2003) and lots of prospects are starting to emerge but the specific cause is yet to be discovered. However, there are several ideas suggested by specialist doctors and researchers and also some facts which can help in clarifying the origin of the condition and they believed these will be the possible causes which are hereditary inheritance, neurological distinctions, phonological disorder and lastly, ability to hear problem.

Genetic Inheritance

Dyslexia is inherited in people, and it is often combined with left-handedness which presumed by the majority of the research workers. However, it also cannot be generalized that dyslexic parent will have a dyslexic child or a left-handed child will have dyslexia, yet relating to them, it can determined that between one third. 5 of children who have learning difficulties' history and over fifty percent who have a member of family who is left-handed are dyslexic people.

That genetic makeup run in the family have a defect that will cause a difficulty with the development of a particular kind of nerve cell in the brain. The defects for the reason that genes which associated with problems in reading performance are known as DCDC2. It had been found by a team at the Yale School of Drugs which also reported that this defective gene seems to connect to KIAA0319, another dyslexia gene. Within the journal Dyslexia, Dutch researchers reported that dyslexia is a "highly heritable learning disorder" which has a complex genetic architecture. In addition they added they can identified several applicant genes which related to the reading performance which may contribute to dyslexia susceptibility.

Fortunately, there are many researches are completed in the modern times due to the improvement of technology in brain-scanning. Start, they are able to look at and compare the brain of dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. For evaluation, the research workers have diagnosed that bunch of cells are located beneath the surface of dyslexic children's brain which rest on the surface in the brain of non-dyslexic children. These cells are supposedly moving when the brain was producing in the foetus which is to the top of brain nonetheless they failed and these defected skin cells are known as 'ectopic' cells (as an ectopic pregnancy, where the egg fails to reach the womb and is also fertilized in the Fallopian tube). They can be found generally in the front and left area of the brain which are extremely important for reading and writing capability. Besides that, in addition they traced an area of the brain called magno-cellular system is smaller where it handles the capability to see moving images. Because of this, dyslexic children will have challenges in reading process, where the brain has to interpret the various words and words quicker as they check words and sentences with their eyes.

Neurological Differences

Neurological or brain differences is the cause of dyslexia where right hemisphere of the brain is larger than non-dyslexic children and they are having strong activity in the right area of their brain. Due to that, dyslexic children are always recognized to have significant talents in areas which managed by the right side of the brain such as musical talent, artistic, athletic and many more. Due to that, they may be interesting this area frequently while performing language duties. However, language tasks are known to be most efficiently performed in the remaining side of the mind. These variations lead to dyslexia which involves structural and practical brain variances.

Firstly, in structural, the brain is made up mainly of two types of material which are gray subject and white matter. Gray matter can be found at the low area of the brain whereas white subject is at the deeper elements of the brain. Gray and white matter are comprised of nerve skin cells and connective fibers covered in myelin, the layer designed to facilitate communication between nerves respectively. The principal function of gray matter is processing information while white matter is in charge of moving information around the mind. According to Booth and Burman (2001), they found that children with dyslexia have less grey subject in the left parietotemporal area than non-dyslexic individuals. This may lead to problems processing of the sensible structure of words (phonological consciousness).

Furthermore, it could be said that dyslexic children who've less white subject in this same area, which is important as more white matter is correlated with an increase of reading skill (Deutsch, Dougherty, Bammer, Siok, Gabrieli, & Wandell, 2005). If the white subject is less, the ability or efficiency of the parts of the mind to talk to each other is less as well.

In functional brain differences, Practical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is actually a method that measures physiological indications of neural activation by using a strong magnet to identify blood flow. This method is called "functional" because members perform jobs while in (or under) the magnet, allowing dimension of the working brain rather than the activity of the brain at break. Several studies using useful imaging techniques that likened the brain activation habits of readers with and without dyslexia show probably important habits of variations.

For example, a research is carried out by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Boston Childrens' Hospital where 40 children possessed their brains' scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In addition they acquired their pre-reading skills assessed. The children are in this where they will be the newbies in reading process. The mind scans were looking at the arcuate fasciculus (a junction that links the areas of the brain responsible for written and spoken terms). From the study, it can be recognized that the better quality this brain section in children, the more likely they are to perform well on the pre-reading test of phonological consciousness.

Phonological Disorder

Usually, for regular children, they have the ability to understand spoken words that can be purchased easily and effortlessly from an extremely early age group. Regular children have the ability to recognize the letters that make up a phrase, and then utilize them to recognize the phonemes, and put them mutually to seem sensible of the word in terms of reading and writing. However, matching to theNational Health Service, reading and writing is difficult for dyslexic children because of "phonological processing impairment". They have troubles in knowing phonemes and for that reason, they have to struggle to be able to connect the sound and the letter symbol for that sound and also to blend tones into words. It really is most visible in their indigenous languages with a great deal of irregularity of spelling, such as Malay, British and others. For example, the term 'dog' can be broken down into three phonemes. This is, of course, a three letter expression made up of three phonemes. Nevertheless the term 'read' is a four letter word that only has three phonemes. This creates confusion when dealing with the smallest units of speech sound (phonemes).

 

 

Moreover, dyslexic children generally have poor short-term verbal memory which is a very common cognitive difficulty. Usually, regular children use verbal recollection to blend sounds in words collectively when reading them for the first time. This is why an inability to read non-words (made-up words) is one of the most powerful indicators of phonological dyslexia. Issues with short term verbal memory normally lead to difficulties with long-term verbal storage area. For example, dyslexics may often your investment names of individuals they have attained before or what that they discovered in two times before. This shown that short-term memory space also influences their phonological control. Besides that, it can be seen that for a children with dyslexia, it requires them lots of time to appear out a word. They are usually have trouble in spelling and expressing themselves in writing and even speaking.

The phonological disorder theory is one of description for possible cause of dyslexia. The actual fact that the majority of dyslexic children have problems with verbal short term memory offers weight to the theory of phonological disorder. Indeed, they are struggling in phonological processing.

Hearing Problem

Hearing problem is one of minimal possible factors behind dyslexia. The research workers believed that if a kid suffers repeated colds and throat infections throughout their early age, range from 1 to 5 calendar year, the ears will be clogged every once in awhile and eventually it leads to hearing problem. This problem is recognized as 'glue ear canal' or 'conductive hearing damage'. The parents of the child should take this into account as it'll affect the developing brain that web links the audio it hears.

At this aspect, the training of may seem and words are essential in developing their ability to take care of and web page link the audio to words and content material as well. If they cannot hear plainly, they will be unable to listen to the difference between words like 'pin' and 'slim', or 'lover' and 'vehicle'. The lack of clear reading will also wait the child's phonemic awareness - the capability to listen to that words are made of smaller sounds and syllables, like 'c-a-t', or 'in-ter-est-ing'. Therefore, to be safe, a corrective action should be taken at a very early age to prevent the phonemic issue of their children as it causes lifelong difficulties which might lead to dyslexia.

Conclusion

In this research study, it can be concluded that working storage skills have an impact on dyslexic children in terms of reading, writing and spelling as there is certainly research that stated children who've problem in reading may have severe working memory space deficits. They are unable to store the informations for a long period but for dyslexic children, they could just forget about it the next day.

However, teaching methods or strategies are employed by the educator in Pacific Speech Therapy and Learning Centre to be able to attract their attentions such as doing offers, reading from books, guessing predicated on pictures, constructing phrases and spotting syllables. The children are also taught singularly which is between your tutor and the student only. The instructions for students with learning dissimilarities should be explicit, systematic, set up and multisensory.

There are extensive researches completed by specialist doctors and analysts regarding dyslexia which lead to possible factors behind dyslexia. You can find four possible triggers where they believed that these are the famous and found by the majority of the researchers that are hereditary inheritance, neurological dissimilarities, phonological disorder and lastly, hearing problem. They are connected to one another as the hereditary inheritance will be the root of the cause as it performs an important role of brain development and it goes on and to reading problem which is obviously true. However, the specific cause is yet to be found out but still remains unclear.

Regarding to the consequences of dyslexia, it could varies in line with the seriousness of dyslexia and success of the remedy accompanied by them. There is absolutely no treatment for dyslexia as it is a specific learning disorder which need supports from educational institutes to boost on the reading, learning and spelling skills, it can be done in a special educations lessons and with the right and appropriate restorative methods bound with differences of every dyslexic individual, the difficulties encountered by them can be reduced.

References

  1. Kaufman, Lorna N. , PH. D. , and Pamela Hook, PH. D. , The Dyslexia Puzzle: Putting The Pieces Collectively, Newton, Mass. International Dyslexia Contemporary society, New England branch, 1998.
  2. Carrion-Castillo, A. , Franke, B. and Fisher, S. E. (2013), Molecular Genetics of Dyslexia: A SYNOPSIS. Dyslexia, 19:214-240.
  3. Snowling, M. J. (2000). Dyslexia. Blackwell Publishing.
  4. http://www. solasbt7. com/Causes-of-Dyslexia-6809. html

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