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Children's Knowledge of Food And Nutrition

There has been much attention paid to the diet of children in the advertising of late as concerns about youth obesity continue to expand as more incidences are reported; a search on the internet reveals results around 80, 600 for years as a child obesity media items (0. 32 mere seconds) (web search conducted on 14th April 2010). As diet has an clear link to obesity the article investigating college children's knowledge and knowing of food and nutrition might provide insights to this situation as well as perhaps offer suggestions to remedies that might improve children's diets.

The literature in this analysis is complete citing work from the united kingdom, USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of these countries are British speaking countries with a Western diet and lifestyle so any evaluations drawn from the study of Surrey schoolchildren could keep relevance on the issues discussed. Creators from Health Education Authorities and freelance writers from healthy education and medical backgrounds add work that dates from 1980 to 2001. As this article is dated 2002 some of the info may now be outdated regarding the guidelines provided by health authorities and the programmes of study contained in the Primary Institution curriculum in the UK at 2010 which has gone through changes and is currently known as the National Strategy that comes with food and nourishment education throughout the mix curricular styles and especially in medical education aspect of physical education. The books covers a multitude of topics regarding the inspection including quantitative information caused by diet and nourishment surveys (Gregory et al, 2000), food suggestions (Office of Health, 1998; FAO/WHO, 1998) and qualitative information from research conducted by various writers (Birch, 1980; Dobson et al. , 1994; De Bourdeaudhuij, 1997). All books was totally referenced to permit the reader to check out up sights or to confirm facts and validate boasts.

'The seeks of the analysis were to elicit children's knowledge of:

areas of parental control over food alternatives and food guidelines that interact with food provision;

how diet and diseases are connected, specifically oral health and obesity; and

the categorization of food into organizations and the techniques children use to do this'.

The methods used because of this investigation are evidently stated; they derive from the population from the percentage of Free School Meals (%era FSM) as an indicator of socio-economic position (SES) for 7-11 time olds in Guildford, Surrey. Following a grouping of the quartiles of %age FSM entitlement, a judgmental selection or organized random test was made from the very best and underlying part ends of the computed figures. Children at either end of this size were chosen to provide a clear evaluation between attitudes relevant to get older and within the sample the sample framing was arbitrarily achieved by selecting the recognized category through solitary gender alphabetical list from subscription rolls. Thus seven women and seven guys were decided on from each participant institution with reserves in case any child should drop out or be unavailable. Desire and understanding form the two criteria being investigated regarding food options by this pre-adolescent generation.

Though the analysis is bound to a small number of individuals, 390 in every, it is hoped that generalisations might be produced regarding the increased population. Concentrate group discussions were used to obtain data with open-ended questions (as prompts) on four core issues providing the instrument to be utilized by the same moderator for every single group. Audio tracks recordings were manufactured from the conversations for transcription and narrative research. The moderator also broadened, where necessary, with further verbal description to stimulate discourse. Although the test was sophisticated and the questions pre-set, the group talk method may well not offer valid results as the terminology skills of children may vary greatly and prompting may have included leading questions which could skew results. The analysis involved putting appearing themes or templates into categories from participant quotes by two split researchers working 'blind' on the data sources. As the information related to teams somewhat than individuals, the machine of analysis had to be the group and for that reason possibly a dominant voice which is a weakness in this research. The experts also declare that descriptive summaries form the foundation of the examination which, "No formal statistical tests were put on the data, which can be qualitative in character. " Having less formal statistical results is another weakness as a more structured questionnaire may have provided a way of analysis with testable results. Using something like a Likert range to show increased or lesser contract with statements may have allowed this particular review/investigation to be used elsewhere with independent interviewers more than a much larger sample, both in volumes and geographically. Perhaps also utilizing stratification in the sampling would expose clearer perceptions and attitudes specific to age groups and gender to separate the SES changing in replies.

"This study directed to get an insight in to the current awareness of nutritional issues amongst primary college children and the language they use in colaboration with these matters. " This assertion contained within this article does not uphold the original aims (mentioned before in paragraph 3) and so the integrity of the piece is jeopardized by the advantages of 'terms' as a contributory factor to the outcome. None of them of the prices or analysis assertions qualifies 'excessive fat' to be overweight/obese/health risk. "The concentration group methodology demonstrated successful in achieving this objective with lots of key themes growing from the discourse which will be used to give food to in to the development of food centered dietary suggestions for children. " As the objective failed to point out the affect of terms in its variables this assertion also does not uphold the original aims. Despite stating, "Through the use of qualitative methodology, it was anticipated that the full range of reactions would be captured whilst steering clear of 'pigeonholing' this dynamic population with pre-existing beliefs. Analysis was made to study how these areas of enquiry varied with gender, time and SES, " the arguments presented derive from a subjective analysis that evaluated the quotations on implied testimony and the particular authors thought the children intended in their reactions.

There are clearly difficulties and obstacles to get over when collecting qualitative data and taking into consideration the language factor and the limitations on verbalisation particularly from youngsters, the questions offered should perhaps have been more sympathetic to their cognitive capacity and been reinforced by visual stimulus with foodstuffs and benefits shown as picture alternatives that may be chosen to express the results of certain alternatives rather than relying on verbal language by themselves. Particularly as the study was responding to SES as a contributory factor to diet plan and knowledge and understanding of food the experts failed to look at the effect SES may have on the capability to exhibit well any intended meaning which in the end is available to interpretation by the researchers. "Although food-health links were reported more frequently by low in comparison with high SES groups, the previous were less likely to be accurate in the associations made (44 and 84% correct for low and high SES communities, respectively). Gender distinctions in the reliability of food-health and food-nutrient links were also clear (85% correct for women and 65% accurate for young boys). "

The article does provide a base for further research but the methods used, especially the look of the instrument, need further refinement to get rid of other influences on the final results. As this article is provided by the Centre for Nourishment and Dietetics, University of Biomedical and Life Sciences, School of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK it would be reasonable to expect greater account to get to the educational inconsistencies and terminology skill and potential to effectively articulate particularly if the literature contains referrals to Piaget, the Section of Education and Job, children's interpretation of nutritional messages and Focus Groups: A Useful Guide for Applied Research. The writers do confess, "Our test was attracted from a small demographic population therefore these results can't be generalized to the British primary school society as a whole. " Plus they further point out, "The concentration group methodology itself has both benefits and drawbacks when applied to this age group. Although it performed allow the children more flexibility expressing their ideas, highlighting terms and trains of thought which wouldn't normally have been covered by a more organised approach, many of the children were hesitant to take up the possibility to 'discuss' matters, being quite happy with brief, succinct answers. In these cases, probing by the moderator undoubtedly leads to more immediate questioning and the prospect of unintentionally leading questions. In the same way, the problem of children 'parroting' discovered responses or those, which they perceive to be right regardless of personal values, has been brought up by other research workers (Lytle et al. , 1997). The consistency of apparently correct food classifications in the current study that were not substantiated by appropriate justifications would support this sensation. " Rather than seeing distinctions in frame of mind in direct relationship to SES the study learned that gender difference was the largest factor in the study. The findings record, "the necessity to develop cognitively appropriate age group and gender specific food founded dietary rules for children. " Though this can be interesting it was not area of the initial objective or aim of the research and on paper this information there must have been a clearer classification of the expectations and how extraneous parameters were to be managed. The questions used didn't solve how much information the kids had received off their studies in institution but assumed that much of the information was gained from peers, TV advertising and parents. There should have been an evaluation with the knowledge already shipped (if not learned) at the Key Phases from the curriculum with the information expressed from the children and a clear differentiation between where they gained their information from. Dental health found as an educated area which is unsurprising as it is delivered as part of the curriculum from nursery age but elements of healthy living like cardiovascular disease etc aren't dealt with until much later in the institution programme of review.

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