Posted at 04.10.2018
R. P. Utter and G. B. Needham, who claims "every heroine in fiction "is" a princess of Pamela" (1), comment on the origin of Pamela's narrative system: "if Richardson know all the folk literature of the world, and got deliberately researched it, he could hardly chose a more popular theme. It is the fairy tale of the sort we name for its most widely known heroine, Cinderella (329). J. M. S. Tompkins also remarks about how the potboiling narratives of the overdue eighteenth century discovered from Richardson "to decorate the old theme of Cinderella, Virtue Persecuted" (34). Indeed, "Cinderella" is one of the very most convenient tags to categorize a heroine and her history. Michael adelstein (28) and Kristina Straub (43, 154, 164) add it to the story elements in Frances Burmey's writing; Annis Pratt applies it to Mrs. Smith's books (26-27; Tony Tanner (10) and D. W. Harding ("Introduction to Persuasion" 24; "Regulated Hatred" 73)connect it with Austen's protagonists; Karen Rowe (" ""Fairy-born""" 72), Richard Run after (469), and Gilbert and Gubar (342) refer to this widely circulated term in discussing Jane Eyre. And Mary Stratton communities together several famous heroines-from Pamela to Fanny Price-and labeling all of them "bourgeois Cinderellas" (351). Unlike these casual sources, which presuppose the reader's familiarity with the fairy tale and give no more definition of the word "Cinderella, " today's review take the Cinderella structure really, both as a well liked narrative paradigm in the British novel, so when an illuminating interpretative key. Such a crucial enterprise needs a closer study of the fairy tale itself.
In today's studies the term "Cinderella" pertains specifically to the tale retold by Perrault, who provided the story the form where it is known throughout the world today. Perrault's history belongs from what Jack Zipes telephone calls "the literary fairy tales, " which, as he stresses, happened with the appearing bourgeois modern culture and were in lots of ways fundamentally not the same as " the folktale, " that was rooted in the precapitalistic lower-class culture (Fairy Tales 6 - 11). There are many reasons for having Perrault's revisioning that are worthy of consideration. The first is that he Christianized the story. in the Brothers Grimm's-there will be more violent elements and the heroine is by much less submissive than Perrault's Cinderella (Opie and Opie 118; Bettelheim 251). Perrault's heroine, degraded to do "the meanest work, " to dress in "low-quality clothes" and stay static in ashes, not only "bore all patiently" (123) without the noticeable resentment, but "offered herself" to help her spoiled stepsisters plan the grand ball Toward the end of the storyline, when she is recognized as the "beautiful female" sought by the prince, she still requires no chance to avenge her wrongs, but embraces her discomfited sisters and instructs them that she forgives them with all her heart. This does not signify, as Bruno Bettelheim assumes, that. it does not make all that much difference whether an example may be vile or virtuous"(252). On the contrary, by enduring injustice patiently and returning ill - utilization with love and benevolence, this Cinderella changes her passive innocence and hurting into a cutting down power, which makes her a "happily - ever - after" stopping and converts her world from a house of petty cruelty in to a harmonious, merry judge. In her unrivaled humbleness, patience, and kindness, she is quite definitely an incarnation of positive Christian virtues. Remarkably, in Perrault's story, the Religious godmother substituted all the pantheist helpers-trees, seafood, birds, or cows-that we meet in many other versions. But the actual function of the fairy godmother is not very not the same as that of a bird or a cow, the change carefully show Cinderella's life within the Christian world Inside the "Second Moral" that conclude the story, Perrault teaches the value of godmothers. This means that how self - conscious he's when deciding the personal information of the powerful helper, whether or not he is fully serious or 50 % - mocking get back "Moral.
The second point I wish to mention about Perrault""s "Cinderella" is its puzzling textual ambiguity, which stick out strikingly in spite of the authorial work to show the written text with Christian morality. People often juxtapose Cinderella with Snow White or the Sleeping Beauty without differentiating among these archetypes of the passive and submissive girl. Simone de Beauvoir is quite typical in this admiration when she says in The Second Love-making that "Girl is the Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Snow White, she who will get and submits" (328). That is, however, an inaccurate observation. Perrault""s Cinderella, though seemingly more passive than other of her sister cinder women, does share her will and take the effort at the key tips of her life. Notably, it is her crying that calls forth her godmother, whose existence is not hinted before. She sobs out her inchoate discontent and desire before that fairy protector and obtains the needed outfit to visit the ball. Later, when the slipper test is going on in her house, she once more recognizes the ability and talks to royal envoys: "I want to see if you won't fit me" (127). On both situations Cinderella is lively, somewhat than passive, and forges her own great deal. Her action after her first sensational appearance at the ball is even more perplexing. Having got home before her stepsisters, she goes to the door to meet them, "gaping, massaging her eyes, and stretching herself, " and chatters with them about the inexplicable girl at the ball: "She must then be very handsome indeed; Lord how happy have you been, could not I see her? Ah! Good Madam Charlotte, lend me your yellow suit of clothes that you wear every day" (126). Even allowing for her justifiable wish to keep the secret and avoid probable harm, there is absolutely no dependence on such inventive and self thrilled improvising. At this moment she looks more like a born celebrity and a skilled schemer than a submissive heroine. This difference from the Sleeping Beauty, who essentially will nothing except sleeping and dream, is important and factors to the central paradox of the story: on the one palm, the heroine is praised on her behalf humility, her tolerance and self-effacement; yet on the other hand, all the vivid details hint at a longing and plotting woman, person who is the required underside of the Christianized heroine. With her partially suppressed and partly suggested needs (as conveyed by the destroyed sentence "I wish I could) coming true in the end, that aspiring girl is finally affirmed and recognized by the narrative structure. We will see in the next conversations how this ambiguous routine lends itself quickly to the novelistic thoughts, and how women novelists, with special eagerness and anxiousness, respond to this structuring paradox of the Cinderella theme.
There are some interesting feminist interpretations that are equally biased. In The Madwoman in the Attic, Gilbert and Gubar view the story of "Snow White" as an archetypal design in women's writing. In their opinion, Snow White is the patriarchy's angelic daughter" (39) who constitutes only the " surface history, " and the wicked queen is the rebellious, angry woman, the active plot maker and the artist who provides the strong narrative energy (3 - 44, 146 - 186). Perceptive as many with their ideas are, Gilbert and Gubar have sometimes projected too much of their interpretive objective onto the written text, due to their eagerness to redress the age-old andocentric bias in literary study as well as in communal life. Typically, they browse the huntsman who refuses to destroy Snow White as "a surrogate for the King, a parental-or, more specifically, patriarchal-figure" (39). Such a reading, though valid in its own way, shouldn't overshadow other interpretive choices. Fox example, the queen, regardless of her gender, is seen as the "parental-or more specifically, patriarchal-figure, " whereas the huntsman, as a servant, is as a result more sympathetic with the persecuted young lady. For the young, the powerless, and the deprived, the wicked stepmother might be just the personification of oppressive specialist. Though the wicked mother in a way produces a self-assertive desire, she does indeed so chiefly through her position as the rep of parental expert. Perhaps this is more exact for "Cinderella, " where the mother shape is less individualized and psychologized than in "Snow White. Although Gilbert and Gubar's view of "Snow White" is very relaxing, it is sometimes far-fetched when applied as a common design to literary works by women. In the end, in classic British novels, it's the virtuous young little girl, not the bad stepmother, who occupies the spotlight. My suggestion would be that the growing tribe of seemingly virtuous women is to a more substantial degree patterned on Cinderella, who is much more dynamic and complicated than our cursory first impression shows. We do not have to read every wicked mother figure, such as Mrs. Norris, into an anti patriarchal subverted to find a fermenting female consciousness and powerful textual intricacies.
Richardson's Pamela is totally aware that she actually is gloriously transformed when she has traded her humble name "Andrews" for the more consequential "Mrs. B. " In her own words, she used to be always a "poor creature" (25, 29, 69). Later she begins to discuss "the dignity" her man has "raised" her to (424): "times. . . are much transformed with me at night, " says this newly-made lady to a servant of her insolent sister-in-law, "and I have already been of late so much honored with better company, that I cannot stoop to yours"(414). The miraculous metamorphosis is enacted, as in Cinderella's case, by marrying into a higher social school. With this young servant female, Richardson effectively recasts the age-old story into a popular bourgeois misconception,  whose tenor is that a helpless gal, being "honest, even poor" (17), may eventually gain love, respect, money, and everything suitable by dint of her moral superiority. The similarities between your two narratives are striking enough for individuals to mention Pamela's report after her better known forerunner-Cinderella. Two features about the new Cinderella misconception are decidedly bourgeois. Is that for a female, perfect worldly glory and contentment no longer are attained by joining the royal family; alternatively, she has a lot more "realistic" goals-becoming a female and gaining entrance to the interpersonal club called "gentility. Secondly, the lady-to-be is recognized mainly by her unwavering virtue and her impeccably proper patterns. If Christianized moral goodness is implied in Perrault's story, in Richardson it is overtly and tirelessly stressed. As the finally "reformed" Mr. B confesses: "these were the beauties of her head, that made me her man" (427). In Pamela, the noticeable simplicity and naturalness of the fairy tale has disappeared, while its ambiguity has been acutely grasped and developed as a structuring stylistic and thematic dialectic. Distinct and conflictive discourses are ushered in, partly as a result of author's didactic goal. The cinder gal is merged with the Christian hero; the fan initially takes the voice of the Repair rake, when it was altered into a novel, the Cinderella theme, enriched and complicated, grew into "a trend multiform in style and range form in talk and voice" (Bakhtin 261). Both Pamela and Mr. B take a look at their lives in the light of existing literary plots. At a very sensitive point in the evolution of their relationship, Mr. B needs from Pamela her journal words: "There is certainly such a pretty air of relationship, as you associate them, in your plots and my plots" (242). For Mr. B, the upper-class libertine, this verbal/erotic wrestling is one of the few favorite "sports activities" in which he is able to exert his intelligence and energy, and possession of a fairly virgin will surely increase his credit and glory  But "a good popularity and a chastity inviolate" are Pamela's "best Jewels" (198-201), her passport to respect and final salvation.
Though Mr. B is prohibited equal chance on paper out his own story-as Lovelace gets in Clarissa-still he can be been told through Pamela's diligent saving. I will price here for example, one of the numerous exchanges of words; it occurs early on in the book when Mr. B has just made clear his "ignominious" objective:
if you could be so afraid of your own servants knowing of your tries upon an unhealthy unworthy creature, that is under your safety while I stay, surely your honor ought to be more fearful of God Almighty, in whose presence we all stand, atlanta divorce attorneys action of our lives, and whom the best, as well as the least, must be responsible, let them think what they list. He took my hands, in a kind of good-humored mockery, and said Well urged, my very preacher! When my Lincolnshire chaplain dies, I'll put thee on the gown and cassock, and thou"" It make a good physique in his place. -I wish, said I, a little vexed at his jeer, your honor's conscience would be your preacher, and then you'll need no other chaplain. Well, well, Pamela, said he, no more of this unfashionable jargon. . . . Well, said he, you are an ungrateful baggage; but I am considering it would be pity, with these reasonable soft hands, and this lovely pores and skin. . . that you should give back again to effort, as you must if you go to your father's; and so I would suggest her [Mrs. Jervis] to have a house in London and let lodgings to us participants of parliament, whenever we come to town; and such a fairly daughter as you might pass for, will usually fill her house, and she'll get a great deal of money. I got unfortunately vexed at his barbarous joke; but being prepared to weep before, the rip gushed out. . . . Why you will need not take this matter in such high disdain! -You have a very pretty romantic switch for virtue, and everything that. . . . But, my child (sneeringly he spoke it, ) do but consider what an excellent opportunity you will then have for a tale everyday to good mom Jervis, and what subject matter for letter-writing to your father and mother, and what quite preachments you may carry forth to the young gentlemen. (66-67)
This contrast of their speeches instructs much about both dialogists, and about the book as a whole. Pamela the speaker/writer is conscientiously building a desired verbal image for herself as a God-fearing, virtuous "undesirable maiden" (67). She is constantly alert to her triple listener/reader-the licentious expert/lover, the demanding dad/judge, and the heavenly Father- the threefold patriarchal mastership she has to cope with. As a result, she carefully formulates her every word and word. Knowing well her powerless point out, she attempts to front her own claims in the name of all sorts of authorities, religious or secular. She never forgets the modifier "dutiful" whenever she signs and symptoms her name. Neither she will overlook a chance to name "God" in defense of herself. "On God all future good depends, " Pamela once declares in her verses (90). As the source of her courage, the final justification of her action, and her only refuge (107), God is at the core of all her words. By taking "God Almighty" into the conversation, she not only voices her righteous objective to reproach Mr. B, but also alerts her subtle wish in persuading and switching the young rake. Another "authority" she frequently appeals to is the middle ages code of the chivalrous protection of the "fair making love" and the feudal lord's responsibility toward his vassal. Not for little or nothing does she frequently describe herself as little, poor, and worthless. Indeed, Pamela respects quite definitely Mr. B's position as the expert and the aristocratic landowner. When expressing her annoyance a get better at of his honor's level demeans himself to be so free. . . to such a poor servant as me" (29), she noises more annoyed about Mr. B's breach of the proper types of an honorable master/protector than about the actual insult to herself.
The other story book motif-the contrast and conflict between the kind godmother and the evil stepmother-is also orchestrated and subsumed in to the central Pamela, Mr. B confrontation. The mom like senior servant Mrs. Jervis is a rather ineffective protector and a faint echo of Pamela, however the "wicked" Mrs Jewkes, whose name and cultural situation tolerate a dazzling resemblance to the other more mature woman, is on the other hand eloquent, active, and powerful. During Mr. B's absence she not only serves in his passions as a turnkey, a spy, and a bawd, but also speaks on his behalf and keeps on the dialogue with Pamela for him She argues with a acoustics reasoning and a down-to-earth realism not so not the same as that of Mr. B the seducer: "Aren't the two sexes made for one another7" (111) Or sometimes she coldly sneers at the girl, sounding almost like an ironical wit: "Mightily miserable, indeed, to be so well beloved by one of the finest gentlemen in Britain" (112). Mrs. Jewkes is unsightly and heavy, in physical form unfeminine looking, and moreover, "has a hoarse, man like tone" (116, my emphasis). The textual tensions of the novel, however, do not start or end with Pamela's contention with Mr. B; they go more deeply than the top opposition and negotiation between the protagonists Self-perceived as the true Christian hero resisting the Satanic tempter, Pamela forcefully denies in herself any worldly ambition or desiring material fulfillment: "For what indeed is enjoyment, /But conscience innocence and peace?"(89). through the image of relationship, both plots-the divine one and the worldly one -are gladly welded collectively. William and Malleville Haller's research, "The Puritan Art of Love, " shows that even before Milton hailed "wedded love" in Heaven Lost (4. 750), the English Puritans already got an energetic books idealizing and celebrating relationship. Richardson is very much indeed in line with this tradition when he presents the wedded family as the castle of order, goodness, and harmony. Wedded love, associated with Eden in Christian misconception, is envisaged as an earthly heaven. While using transfiguration of relationship into a kind of divine reward, both plots combine into one. Needless to say, this sacred matrimony as a trope is abundant and ambiguous. It half-conceals and half-reveals the heroines individualistic dreams, since on the main one hand the concept is itself freighted with religious connotations, yet on the other hands it inescapable details to the sublunary sociable, financial, and mental transactions a relationship actually requires.
Fielding was quick in realizing the unspoken "asides" of desire in Pamela. His Shamela is regularly self-seeking:"I thought once of earning a little lot of money by my Person, I now plan to make a great one by my Vartue (53). His parody is shrewd and amusing, however, not very original. Having deployed in Mr. B a cynical speech against Pamela, Richardson not only anticipates but in a way forestalls this interpretation. Shamela, the boldfaced and consciously, snaring hypocrite, reveals a deliberate blindness on Fielding's part to the textual tension between your various voices and inclinations that inhabit Pamela and Pamela. Understandably, the tiny class-climber Pamela, with her interior complexity, is never to be deflated easily. Regardless of Fielding's burlesque, this middle-class cinder gal lives to be a most successful heroine, and the fact that she has so many literary progeny proves her vitality. With its structuring image of "war, " with its curious and continuous dialogue between your apparently self-effacing protagonist and the wish-ful-filling narrative design, and between the prevailing moralistic discourse of modesty and the individualistic desire that propels it, Richardson's word establishes the paradigm in the British book for the later flourishing Cinderella theme. This sort of doubleness, self applied generating, multileveled and multidimensional-the double plot, double debate, and doubly focused language-forms a energetic "internal dialogism" (Bakhtin 279), and pulses the narrative onward. Here we aren't chiefly concerned with the widespread dialogic nature of most novelistic words, though I in essence agree with Bakhtin on that time. What I wish to highlight is the value of the textual dialectics within the Pamela/Cinderella structure, which enable and energize a robust female novelistic custom. The thematic and stylistic pressure and contention we have noted in Pamela are neither isolated nor fortuitous. Lovelace once compares his private "warfare" with Clarissa-which is, he says, far, far from an amorous warfare" -to the most far-reaching civil battle in English background: "if I must be forsworn whether I answer her targets or follow my very own inclinations (as Cromwell said, if it must be my head, or the king's) may i hesitate a moment which to choose?" (401-402). The connection is made, though it is slightly blurred by Lovelace's playfulness and hyperbole. With Richardson, the problems of writing are always intricately entangled with issues outside the text-the problems of gender, manners, morality, and class have difficulty. When Mr. B first makes his erotic advance toward Pamela, he speaks at the same time of making "a pretty story in Relationship"(26). In the farcical field of his attempted rape, Pamela gives Mrs. Jewkes a formal accounts of her "record in brief" (211), which 50 % disarms the tuning in Mr. B even before her timely fainting totally frustrates him. Mr. B threatens to remove the lady to get her "papers" (245). And, significantly, his last change from an evil seducer into a Prince Charming is brought on, as it is explained, by Pamela's writings (248-253). In Richardson's world there can be an amazing slippage between your "word" and the empirical life. The paragons officer their writings as vigilantly as their individuals, and the profligates who target at erotic conquest take all the pain to grab, intercept, or read their "words. " It isn't the fairies, but the right "words" that contain the magic power to transform "life" dynamically. When Pamela, expressing her unwillingness to surrender some of her journals, says, "all they contain, you understand as well as I, " Mr. B answers: "But I don't know the light you put things in" (250-251, my emphasis). What goes on next is usually that the gentleman is stressed by her "light, " and reforms into a significant lover.
The desire for the Cinderella type occurred at the idea with time when the "woman problem" possessed become one of the main issues in private and general public discussions. From Defoe's ambivalent display of the aggressive and unscrupulous Moll and Roxana, or from the self-indulgent amorous heroines populating the semipornographic novels of Mrs. Manley and Eliza Haywood, it can be inferred that there is by then some sort of wide-spread moral dizziness over the norm of female behavior. In that era of excursion and new prospects, industrialization and colonization, had fundamentally corroded the old hierarchy and old morality. As middle-class women were eliminated of the economic fields, they found themselves thrown into a dazzling yet precarious leisure by the unprecedented prosperity created by more and more specialized means of production. A large quantity of do literature were eagerly produced and consumed in eighteenth-century Britain. They are in once a solution for, and a sure indication of, the prevailing moral anarchy. All the best pens of England spared no time or energy upon this problem: female behavior was no trifling matter for the new bourgeois order. "The Chastity of Women, " said Dr. Johnson, very candid about the patriarchal aspect of the shaping feminine code, is "of the utmost importance, as all the property depends after it" (Boswell 2: 457). By the time Pamela came into being, the perfect image of the new ladylike female had nearly crystallized. Chatting of her unfitness for poor, rural life, Pamela provides detailed list of her "accomplishments" in singing, dancing, drawing, etc. , which, regarding to Utter and Needham, " covers exactly the components of a lady's education at the time" (10). These skills, as well as her unswerving virtue, sensitive entire body, and maudlin sensibility, are hallmarks of a genuine lady. Girl was just as much a circulating "signifier" in the trades among men as she had been for the Restoration rakes, though she was placed into the circumstance of your different social episode. By this I mean not just to reassert, as much feminist critics have already eloquently confirmed, the patriarchal bias of the Cinderella desire, but to call focus on the actual fact that on the ideological spectrum, the dream to a considerable degree overlaps with an increase of overtly male-concerned and male-centered conceptions like "gentleman. " The girl is the gentlewoman, as Cinderella has her more practical guy counterpart in the renowned hard-working apprentice who eventually marries his master's little girl and makes the ownership of the business enterprise. They will be the complementary areas of the same cultural myth, and therefore in many ways share the same kind of interior dichotomy and dialectics.
This dichotomy between self-denial and self-fulfillment, in various forms and expressions, underlies most British bourgeois moral ideals When I say that Pamela has reshaped "Cinderella" into a modem myth, I mean not only that Pamela, as the finally victorious cinder female, is in a natural way the embodiment of the social ambitions of the middle category would be females, but more emphatically that the book ingeniously grafts the central dialectics of Protestant individualism onto the structural ambiguity of the initial story. Thus we come to a simple assumption of the present study-the fundamentally dialectic aspect of Puritan ethics and of ideology in general. On this point I differ from Bakhtin noticeably. Bakhtin, though stressing the "inner dialogism" of all words and dialects in a general way, boasts that authoritative discourse" is by its very nature not capable of being double voiced; it cannot enter into hybrid constructions" (344).  WHEN I understand it, ideology, being truly a class awareness, is automatically polemic and posed against other ideologies; and, as a full time income and effectively operating terms system, it must constantly acquire feedback and become under continuous structure. Even the ideology of the ruling group, that is, "the authoritative discourse" in the. interpersonal and ethnical spheres, can only just strive to unify and monopolize language; but it can never accomplish that end, else it would wipe itself out. The dynamic initiatives to censor words, as Richardson performed with his own word, testify to, instead of eliminate, the recognized heteroglot quality of the discourse. "Ideology always consists of contradictions, " Mary Poovey argues, exactly because it explains or naturalizes"" the discrepancies that inevitably characterize lived experience"(xiv).
All cultural strata and/or classes build their ideological apparatus with inherited linguistic materials; therefore, in a sense all the words and concepts followed by the "new" system are undoubtedly "kidnapped" and "violated. There exists, then, a continuing friction and negotiation between the inert and even more crystallized linguistic form and the new emphasis and new goal imposed onto it. Such a self-conflicting system is the whole group of Puritan ideas about sin, virtue, and salvation, with all the current semantic sediment accumulated since Old Testament time. So are the conceptions of the "lady" and "gentleman. " Sketching on both their medieval root base and the new middle-class moral matter, the signifying procedure for these terms is some sort of oscillation between different poles, or perhaps more accurately, a dancing around through various aspects and layers of the "signified. " This ambiguity is self-consciously exploited by the middle-class people who cash in on their moral goodness. When Elizabeth Bennet says: "He [Darcy] is a gentleman; I am a gentleman's daughter, so far were equal" (Delight and Prejudice, 366), she is carefully playing on both the communal and moral implications of the term "gentleman. " Neither does it need amazing acumen to understand how Puritanism is intercepted and permeated by other ideas, say, the Bent Amite rational affirmation of the quest for personal joy, or the Lockean empirical focus on subjective sensations. The Cinderella tale as an equivocal and encouraging narrative structure provides an ideal meeting surface where different methods of philosophical and ideological thinking can confront, work out, and merge with one another. Pamela's ready tears and Emmeline's cool computations reveal more than their personal idiosyncrasies. These Lady-Cinderellas are ideological chemical substances and register the intrinsic compatibility as well as the contradictions of these value systems.
As a result, the Cinderella myth has functioned as a double-edged (or multiage) ideological weapon. On the one palm, the code of propriety is carefully woven into a myth that romanticizes woman's subordinate and domesticated role within the patriarchy; on the other side, the Protestant individualism that is concurrently programmed into the plot inevitably arouses in women (and underprivileged people in general) a feeling of individual dignity and an craving for self-realization. We hear Clarissa insist upon her "freedom, " which is her "birthright as an British Subject" (934). We also witness how those proper ladies, imaginary Pamela's or "real" Frances Burney's, display a profound fascination with themselve and a remarkable faith in the meaningfulness of their private lives. Such self-consciousness, once it begins to ferment, can hardly be safely imprisoned in the slim space of any bourgeois matrimony. Even Pamela, the model partner, sometimes sounds dangerous. When her husband gives her an extended list of guidelines to check out and specifically requires her obedience to his unreasonable purchases, she says to herself, " this might bear a smart question, I fancy, in a Parliament of Women"(477). A Parliament of Women! Truly, there is no declaring what can enter women's minds once they are established to thinking and fancying by Richardson Ian ideologues. It isn't surprising that they would push the rules they are trained one step further, as Mary Wollstonecraft does from the proper of Man to the proper of Woman. In this particular sense the Cinderella misconception is self-defeating as far as its patriarchal goal is concerned. The kind of individualism it conveys is too enthusiastic and ambitious to be comprised by the ideological closure in which the happy matrimony symbolizes a reestablished patriarchal order.