Posted at 02.10.2018
This article will differentiate the major schools of thoughts that are scientific approach and behavioural approach. It will also talk about the theorists of each approach and exactly how they occurred and will also cover concepts and theories about them. After all the literature review and the reason of the discussion finish will be searched upon as to which of the are more well suited for management in business.
By looking at this essay we are able to understand how management theory concerns with appropriate management methods and how it has been used in today's time.
The classical management ideas includes clinical management, which specializes in matching person-task to maximize efficiency and behavioral management, which concentrates on how managers should lead and control their employees to raise the performance.
The Scientific Institution Of Thought
Another branch of the classical college of management is the scientific management way. It stresses the idea of researching and developing a thorough management solution. Professionals apply the concepts of clinical management in an accurate and precise manner. The duty of increasing the efficiency of an organization through scientific management is the main responsibility of the administrator. Frederick Winslow Taylor is a major representative of the medical school of thought.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor, an American mechanised engineer who wished to improve the industrial efficiency. He was known as the daddy of technological management. Relating to Frederick Winslow Taylor "Scientific Management is the artwork of knowing precisely what you want your men to do and since they are doing it in the least expensive way". It means executing business activities relating to standardized tools, methods and trained staff to be able to boost the productivity improve its quality and reduce cost and wastage. He presumed that by exactly studying work it would be possible to find 'one best way' to do it.
The Behaviorist School of Thought
It is the analysis of how professionals should act in order to stimulate employees and built self confidence to perform at a higher level and be there focused on the achievement of organizational goals.
Behaviorist management targets the whole group. It specializes in managerial concepts relatively than working methods. Based on the Behaviorist Approach good working conditions would expand morale and worker's satisfaction which in return increases efficiency of the business. Elton Mayo has played out an important role in the study of human resources. One of his most popular works is the Hawthorne studies. He conducted lots of investigations to improve the output, for example changing light conditions at work. Thus, the behavioral school focuses on seeking to understand the factors that have an impact on human behavior at work. Elton Mayo and Hawthorne Studies will be the major representatives of this school of thought.
Elton Mayo (1880-1949) was an Australian created psychologist, sociologist and company theorist, who emerged as the creator of the human relations movement scheduled to his knowledge in field of professional sociology. Elton Mayo is well-known for his research, the Hawthorne tests which explained the value of teams that affect a person's behavior at the job. Mayo stressed on the fact that folks and firm needed each other. Corresponding to him a competent manager is one who is capable of combining specialized knowledge with social proficiency.
The Hawthorne tests which is also called the Hawthorne result was conducted among employees of the Hawthorne Works factory of the European Electric Company in Chicago in 1927. THE BUSINESS co-ordinate with the countrywide research council to explore the connection between the enthusiasm of explanation at work and the end result. The checks were conducted for another five years in the relay assessment test room among six feminine personnel, five of whom possessed to assemble cell phone relays and one would supply parts to them. These were subjected to changes like hours, wages, rest periods, lighting conditions, business, and amount of supervision and consultation in order to know what conditions would influence performance or work outcome. Accurate documents were placed of what they do their feedback about work and different other activities that kept in the spirit of the workers. Five years later when all the changes were withdrawn and the workers were made to get back to their original function of work there was significant increase in the end result.
The Hawthorne experiments helped in sensing the significance of informal firm. These experiments proven that people will continue to work harder when they are being observed and it also emphasized the meaning of team work.
The College of Scientific Management was found by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He presumed in the idea that management could be better if it was seen as a science. He previously four principles of management.
1) Research not guideline.
2) Separation of planning and functional work.
3) Harmony not discord.
4) Co-operation not individualism
Elton mayo found both Individual Relations and Industrial sociology. Mayo started out his engagement in 1928. Among the countless companies he worked well for, one of the mills in Philadelphia he launched certain changes in the working conditions which increased efficiency and reduced the labour turnover. The Hawthorne Experiment that was one of the turning things in management background was conducted by Elton Mayo and it was seen through Hawthorne tests that workers had a need to cooperate and communicate with fellow workers, and thus there was a finding of the casual group. The Hawthorne studies have had a dramatic influence on management in
Organizations and how people respond to different situation (Ray Donnelly 2000, pg 11/4 and 13/6)
Taylor was of the idea that a increase in pay determined the personnel to work harder. Taylor presumed that in order to encourage the individuals, the management has to pay the staff member some form of incentive. This motivation could maintain the form of higher salary, bonuses for extra parts produced if the pay is regarding to piece rate or it could be any kind of fringe benefits like accommodation, car, health services etc and it was for this reason workmen would work harder thus it could increase the efficiency of the firm and earn higher profits. (Derek S. Pugh and David J Hickson 1996, pg 102-106) On the other hand Elton Mayo had a view that folks are willing to work harder if indeed they feel their work makes a difference and is loved. Relating to Mayo, changes in the working conditions like employed in teams, developing a team heart can improve output and efficiency of the task. (Peter Stimpson 2002, pg. 229)
Taylor's approach towards management was to develop co-operation between the staff and the management quite simply workers were picked and trained by the management in such a way that the worker performs the work which is given to him by the management, when the management asks the worker to work he works so when he is told to relax he rests. In case the worker has to say something about the work area and he says that I think the management replies that it is not what you think it's you are doing. Scientific management viewed people at work more as machines, with financial needs, than as humans in a cultural setting. There is absolutely no question that money is an important motivator but Taylor also over looked that folks also work for reasons apart from money Taylor also got very less matter for mental health or human aspects of work. (Derek S. Pugh and David J Hickson 1996, pg 102-106) Scientific management has its very groundwork the strong conviction that the true interests of both are one and the same; that wealth for the workplace cannot exist through the permanent of years unless it is associated with success for the worker, and vice versa; and that it's possible to provide the workman what he most wants--high wages--and the company what he wants--a low labor cost--for his producers.
The targets of mayo implemented guidelines which included the concern for the betterment of the worker who caused them. They directed to build an organization which fulfilled the needs of the employees so that they use satisfaction and develop a sense of responsibility towards their group. In this manner he could find out about Human aspect that was his major concern.
Mayo was clear about the idea of work satisfaction for the staff, in order to achieve this particular objective the company had taken steps such as producing new consultations. The professionals were given tools that was called the cultural needs it included activities such as communication with worker and fixing their issues to turn out with reliable results. co-operation can be taken care of throughout the business if the various tools are used properly by the supervisor. Informal communication should be encouraged. An informal innovator helps set goals for each group. (Ray Donnelly 2000, pg 13/6 )
Other than the variations there have been a lot of similarities between the two Schools, the key similarity seen between the two institutions were that they both focused mainly on increasing production, Taylor attempted to raise the productivity giving bonuses to the staff whereas Mayo's method were team work and co operation with the other associates of the team so that productivity could be increased. The other similarity that was observed in both of the methods was the others pauses. Leftovers pauses were unveiled by both Taylor and Mayo so that workers would not get worn out and would work for longer time so that firm could earn high income. The work which is being given to the personnel is the same in both systems.
To infer, it could be seen that even though both academic institutions thought on management differed on many grounds, they aimed at maximizing production and professional efficiency. In the modern management situation the manager must blend all the ideas and practice them to attain organizations aims. Both ideas have their own advantages and disadvantages, but if seen from a broader point of view, neither is right or wrong. Scientific management is a far more flexible system as it pertains to managing the staff member whereas, Human Relationships Movement offered more importance to the needs of the worker and that employee should be happy with his job. If used well, the management can buy an extra edge in conditions of efficiency and efficiency.