Posted at 08.10.2018
A creative process could be thought as "an unexpected combination of elements which provides a surprising means to fix an issue. " (Biltion, 2007) With the development of modem world, especially the emergence of the data economy, poses a fresh need to education. It needs the education, especially the primary education, to focus on the creative imagination of students. However, there's a great contradiction between the requirement of the time and the reality, which makes the duty increasingly more essential and urgent to develop creativity.
On the duty of nurturing imagination, there are diverging items. Some hold on that elementary education could not develop creative imagination for students, neither is it necessary. Others opposed that the development of creativity is a kind of training to the thinking skill of the students. Both of these might be the incorrect cognition after incorrect understanding of creativeness. In addition, the creativeness of students in elementary educational stage is the creative imagination in the sense of specific, and the importance of the development of creativeness should be fastened on the imagination of the whole. Meanwhile, creativity is a sophisticated capability which consists of knowledge skills, thinking, as well as personality, plus they interact with each other. (Sternberg, 1999) The introduction of creativity in primary level while is a process from low to high is effective for the introduction of higher standard creativeness of students in future. Thus, not only that elementary education could develop the creativity for students, but also that should it attach more importance to the development of students' ingenuity. The duties in creative imagination development that the primary education should assume are making students master knowledge skills which are necessary for creating as much as possible, creating the characteristics which are advantageous for creating, and producing personalities that happen to be helpful for creating.
This essay is going to discuss that creative imagination can be nurtured and developed in three following aspects. Firstly, it will generally discuss if the factor of primary education could take the responsibility of creative cultivation. Secondly, whether subject matter curriculum is the need in developing imagination will be debated. Next, it'll prove that study evaluation is also an important indication for creative ability. At last, this essay will finish up with a finish.
There are variations of knowing that elementary education can cultivate creative imagination for students. There is a view that: creative imagination is not really a training of specific skills so that creative abilities are impossible to foster. (Downing, 1997) This cognition mainly came from the practice of creative capacity building in primary education. The practice through considering trainings to cultivate students' creativeness is at the mercy of lots of questions by Downing. He opposed that it would simplify the introduction of creativity. Additionally it is found in practice that due to the learning of creative thinking techniques are often highly situated. Actually, setting up to foster innovative thinking is lack of ecological validity, which is difficult to reconcile with true to life. Furthermore Weisberg (1997) pointed out: some creative thinking training can indeed improve test scores of individuals in specific duties. But few studies show that such these trainings of nurturing creativeness are consistent or stable plus they can be long beyond the specific test. It really is acknowledged that creative capacity is not skill training in fixed steps so that creative imagination absolutely can't be nurtured in this manner. Consequently, primary education is questioned which it cannot cultivate creative capability.
There is another view that primary education lays on the building blocks education to future creativities for students. Therefore, the duty of higher education is building and shaping creativity so that the stage of elementary education does not need to cultivate creativeness for students. (Build, 2002) The formation of this view, which includes two potential logics, is still related to both understanding of students' creative ability and the right understanding of the impressive capacity development. On one hand, students will in a natural way develop their imagination if they have the foundation knowledge and skills. The basic education is mainly for students to construct a good groundwork of knowledge and skills, which are primarily based on the results of individuals knowledge and ethnical heritage. Additionally, students would normally start expanding their creativity after they obtain these knowledge and skills. Because of this, elementary education does not need to emphasize the development of creative capacity. On the other hand, there is absolutely no significance of specific creativity for students that it's not too past due to foster creativity when they surface finish their primary education. What students create mainly predicated on the re-discovery of yielded or past research results. Ingenuity in students has less sociable relevance so that elementary education would not focus on the cultivation of imagination so long as they master a good foundation of varied knowledge and skills. Because of this, creativity cannot be cultivated in primary education.
In reality, most imagination of students belongs to specific senses of creativity while there are a little variety of students who could carry out significant creativities to the complete society. But it will promote creative capacity for the social significance. From learned knowledge, creative thinking and personality characteristics, which can be conducive to foster creativity in elementary education, students would get innovative knowledge and skills that may become useful basis for the introduction of creativity in a high level. (Meador, 1997) At exactly the same time, from the acquisition of knowledge and skills students will be inevitably along with a certain quality of considering as well as the formation of personality characteristics in educational and coaching activities. On the other hand, rigid and systematic ways of pondering as well as blind obedience or conformity to specialist of personality characteristics aren't conducive to the development of innovative potential for students. Therefore, creative ability of students in the level of elementary education is a basis in advanced of imagination development. At the same time, researches of psychology, philosophy and pedagogy also show that there is an essential period to nurture creative functionality. Only seizing that period to teach students will better promote their imagination and creative capacity development. In addition, Eysenck and Keane (2000) observed that "learning capability is no infinite and squander source for children. If students' attention as well as their innate senses of questioning have never been awakened or protected but rather greatly repressed and obstructed, they might eventually lose out and fade away. Furthermore, the intellectual overall flexibility, spirit of trip and self-confidence are very necessary and valuable characteristics to explore new things. If they were abused or non-used in quite a while, the above attributes will lose their original functions. Although there is less creative capabilities which could own social relevance in the low phase of education, elementary education can still provide good conditions for the introduction of future innovative skills within an advanced stage. As a result, it can't be negated the value of imagination and creative capacity-building in level of elementary education let alone as specific jobs in a higher education.
However, it is associated with obstacles that subject matter curriculum will inevitably impede and even stifle creative capacity for students. Subject matter knowledge omitted many regions of exploration while knowledge-oriented display is simple. Therefore understanding of subject matter curriculum is simpleness of logical links in concepts, facts and rules. Additionally it is presumed that the teaching of subject matter curriculum deviate from activities of students, which may undoubtedly lead students to study without determination. (Ansubel, 2002) Popularity of learning identifies a trend that main material which students learned were found independently. During the period of learning, which is mainly an activity of assimilation of knowledge, how a lot of the key content is shown to students in a designed form. Study found the contrary. On the contrary, learning discovery is the fact that the key content in research process is not given nonetheless they dependant on their own before they internalized the data and skills. The difference between the two learning styles is whether there's a substantive link between your old and new knowledge. In Ausubel's point of view, a meaningful learning process has three conditions: To begin with, students have important learning mindsets in actively psychological preparations for the establishment of substantive blend of the new knowledge with their own cognitive structure of ex - knowledge. In the second place, there can be an appropriate basis for students to assimilate new knowledge in their cognitive buildings. Finally, learned new knowledge itself has a logical meaning since there is a clear reference to the relevant knowledge and their cognitive constructions to become assimilated in appropriate conditions. In other words, as long as students are in effective learning claims, besides there is an organic link between your acquisition of new knowledge and set up experience of old knowledge, it is just a meaningful learning. In contrast, rote acceptance of learning is a predicament that students are obligated to internalize relevant knowledge with no corresponding experience in subject curriculum teaching. Therefore subject curriculum may lead students rottenly recognizing study. Additionally, during learning activities the way of thinking could be relatively passive and rigid so that students might be subject to distortions in the development of personality. As a result, subject coaching activities are not conducive to the introduction of creative capacity for students.
Despite there's a phenomenon that students' knowledge divorced from other experience in the teaching of subject matter curriculum so that students accepted rote review. However, this isn't a pedagogical need to hinder the introduction of ingenuity. Students who take part in the mixture of experience and academic knowledge would be in significant learning that breakthrough can be executed. The development of students' creative capacity is dependant on certain knowledge and skills in the level of primary education. They can be comprehensive so a certain amount and wide selection of knowledge and skills can form an acceptable knowledge structure. Additionally, mastery of knowledge and skills means that there must be a logical link which can achieve a structure, especially an aspect of linked network within knowledge and skill mastery. The attribute of subject matter curriculum driven that curriculum research would help students to master and systematically form a comprehensive and organised knowledge and skills in a brief period. In Kliebard's (2004) research, the introduction of American modern culture required obvious demands of people's innovative ability in the early 20th century. Therefore most American schools canceled the topic curriculum in instructing activities because the use of knowledge and skills cannot solve real problems and new issues in real works and life, which is not helpful for cultivating students' creativeness. Relating to ideas of Rousseau's natural thinking in key points of education, they claimed that the development of creative imagination should be give attention to students' pursuits and needs. Therefore, subject curriculum was changed by activity curriculum which was divided into mother nature, Labor and sociality three aspects.
However, the training of canceling or really neglecting subject matter curriculum disclosed handicaps soon. It had been found that activity curriculum easily led to one-sided passions and needs for students. Furthermore, the lack of rigorous teaching and learning activities in university education programs could make students not understanding systematically knowledge and skills. In this regard, Klein (1991) described those factors such as: intensifying education movement of looking over traditional curriculum mirrored on various humiliating situations of American education. For example, academic expectations of primary education were fallen behind other countries. A growing number of college or university students are inadequate in basic knowledge. Actually a few of them were unable to read. Undue emphasis on activity curriculum had been widely criticized. In 1957 the first dish was efficiently launched in the Soviet Union, which has greatly shocked america.
From the aforementioned historical review it can be seen that cancellation or overlook of the topic curriculum is not conducive to systematically learn a variety of cultural and clinical knowledge for students, which is an important basis of fixing problems and creativeness cultivating. Meanwhile, subject curriculum is the main element to academic creative imagination and staff training. Why United States emphasis on building up the topic curriculum, especially in technology, mathematics and spanish, is to teach and develop creative people in high-level scientific and technical areas. Therefore, the cultivation of creative capability cannot neglect subject curriculum coaching, which can be an essential component of nurturing ingenuity.
Examination can be an academics and summative evaluation, which is merely an recognition and selection of worried students. Besides, this evaluation is aimed at selecting appropriate education for students, thus it could prematurely differentiate marks of students' ingenuity. (Eikleberry, 1999) As a result, academic analysis will hinder the future development of creative ability. For example, the introduction of creativity is also required to concentrate on the analysis of students which an important element of academic achievement. It is a process that appropriate and effective methods are put on judge the worthiness of the analysis level for students. In other words, it is designed to measure or analyze whether students have achieved the educational aims and goals. Exam is one test to judge academic achievement. Regarding to Sriraman's (2008) research, the results of each question is objective. Therefore, the examination is also seen as a only a certain group of evaluation standards, which is able to smoothly ensure improvement of tests to be able to reach the accomplishment of the test's goal. Like 3+5=8, 8-2=6. However, only one model answer would impede creative ability of students because not every student is good at the mastery of mathematics knowledge. Students have to correctly answer questions in only one way of manifestation in the greater part of the questions in the evaluation. Consequently, examinations actually constrain students' thinking. If so, rigid minds are unable to promote the cultivation of creativity so that creative capacities of students would be limited.
A single evaluation of academic achievement is not good for the cultivation of creativeness for students. A new method is real evaluation, which is defined as a proper evaluation of shows and manifestations through the learning activities (Villa and Thousands of, 2005) A couple of three factors to acceptable evaluation in the combo of academic and authentic assessment. Firstly, from details and data collection of students' personality characteristics which are reflected along the way of learning activities, there may be an obvious evaluation that students are in positive affirmation or they complete tasks on time. Second of all, to the mastery of sophisticated skills which can be integrated multi-disciplinary in the utilization of intricate situations, authentic evaluation could affirm features of the students in review process. Besides, problems which came across can be well-timed fed back to students, which might overcome existing problems and improve creative skills. Finally, it can gain access to a mastery and understanding of comprehensive knowledge in handling real-life problems in the community for students. Through the evaluation of educational achievements which is difficult to assess inspection, their creative talents and performance will moderately evaluated.
It can be shown a reasonable analysis has its advantages which can identify different personality and characteristics for different students, including creative skills in various aspects of knowledge learning. Students may possibly also find their insufficiencies via an objective evaluation so that the result could more or less motivate their passions, which is a significant signal for developing creativity. Meanwhile, creativity located in the intersection of individual, willpower, and field. (Gardner, 1993) At the same time, the evaluation knowledge, skills and personality is a substantial manifestation to the cultivation of impressive capability, which would recover the inefficiency of an individual evaluation in academics success and promote the development of creativity.
To summarize, the article just from a starting place does a study of the creative imagination development of students in the elementary educational stage. Creativeness development should concentrate on teaching contents, educating methods, and instructing assessment in the institution coaching activities, which is set by the key tasks of primary education. Nevertheless, there will vary views on these factors. To begin with, it is generally believed that what are helpful for imagination development are activity curriculum, finding study and genuine assessment. Subject curriculum and review achievement assessment in the old days not only are harmful for development of ingenuity, but also do get in the way for students to create and find out new things. For another, additionally it is considered that it might be in a problem for the totally negating subject matter curriculum and review achievement analysis.
Moreover, this article takes the divergence of the cognition as the key things, basing on the study of coaching practice and summarization of the practical experience, expressing and settle the personal view details by analyzing and clarifying some cognition. It perhaps obviously factors on the teaching contents that subject curriculum is essential for creativity developing somewhat than that it will baffle students on creative imagination development. However, solitary subject matter curriculum can create the sensation of "high marks, low ability". On university teaching, it will arrange activity curriculum because both of these curriculums became a member of with one another would be an advantage complementary on creativity development. For teaching method, elementary education does not actually baffle students on imagination development. Subsequently, the teaching of subject matter curriculum is principally objective and useful, but single subject curriculum is not helpful for students' imagination development. In addition, creative development needs finding analysis while mechanic discovery review is not ideal for imagination development. On coaching assessment, study accomplishment assessment is necessary for creativity development. On the contrary, unscientific study success analysis is handful for creativity development. Finally, creativity can be developed and nurtured within the responsibility of elementary education while creativity development should incorporate subject matter curriculum and activity curriculum as well as success assessment and authentic assessment in a thorough and objective method.