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Cultural Factors and Marketing Management Practices

The most difficult hindrance a global company may face today is how to overcome the fear of the influence of social factors on the marketing management routines in the international marketing. The starting point of globalization has made the earth become an essentially small place when associated to world-wide business. Everything has been intertangled in an elaborate global connection making countries interdependent of other countries and other organizations as well. Therefore, businesses should think about further their packed local, countrywide and traditional market to stay their competitive aspect against other organizations.

Global marketing management routines are indeed seen as a a host that is enormously uncertain. Hence, businesses should be on the belvedere for the uncertainties available environment and become qualified for them as they combat so as to continue to be their competitive aspect against other international firms. In lined with the competitive advantage of the business, their task is to utilize their knowledge of their customers, products, services as well as their resources which could be presented in the culture that the companies set. This is actually the key factor as global organizations take part in international marketing practices. Besides culture of the organization, the culture of the united states out there can significantly influence marketing management procedures of the global firm. Actually, a country's cultural factors have long been recognized as vital environmental quality elemental systematic dissimilarities in behavior. These ethnic norms and values are ascendant effects which shape a person's perceptions, individuals and behaviours. Additionally, culture is mirrored in "general tendencies of consistent preference for particular states of affairs over others, consistent preferences for specific social procedures over others, and basic guidelines for selective attention, interpretation of environmental cues, and responses''. (Tse et al. , 1988, p. 82) [1]

This task will be concentrating on defining the effect of ethnic factors as an important part in effective marketing management practices of global companies. Meantime, the project task is to examine and examine how social factors are conceptualized in books, publications and in marketing management tactics as well. On top of that, the assignment may also be evaluating the role of culture in global marketing. At the conclusion of the talk, there will be personal remarks about the implications of ethnical factors in effective global marketing management procedures.


Defining Culture

Commentaries which one of the main causes of many business failures has been linked to the failure for taking account of social variations between countries. Furthermore, many marketing ideas are limited in the sense that they have been developed and affirmed in American countries only, specifically in the U. S and European countries. The beyond development of marketing as an academic discipline requires that there will need to have complete examination of the soundness of the theories as well as the models in other cultural settings as to identify the amount of generalization also to discover some boundary restrictions and conditions.

What is culture anyways? States that the term "culture" branched out from the Latin main "colere" which means to cultivate, to create on, to foster, to inhabit, etc [2]. There were umpteen reflections on the meaning of culture in all sorts of versions of its use. Until now, various institutions of though about the term have emerged; for instance, in the 19th century the idea of mass culture and popular culture surfaced [3]. That was the epoch when culture was seen as shared values amongst distinctive social organizations and classes in societies. Hofstede (2001) identified that "culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the users of 1 group or category of folks from another" (p. 9) [4]. This somehow identifies culture as a set of values and traits of a given group and the relationship of the given individual to culture and the individual's acquisition of these values and qualities.

Culture is absolutely not an easy sensation to measure in any way. It has numerous definitions like the above meaning that this can be a distributed system of perceptions and ideals or an organization writing a certain system of perceptions and prices. This means an organized body of guidelines concerning the ways in which individuals in a human population should communicate with one another, think about themselves and their conditions, and act toward one another and toward items in their environments. The rules are not universally or constantly obeyed, nevertheless they are identified by all plus they typically operate to limit the range of variation in patterns of communication, opinion, value, and social behavior for the reason that human population [5]. In a more or less similar idea that culture is not as much what people do and how they express themselves, as their knowledge of the behaviuors and cognitive maps of these in-group. It's the familiarity with certain forms of behaviour and ways of thinking that makes people believe that they belong to the same culture [6]. In another way, these said meanings give us a straightforward understanding of the meaning of culture as the sub-groups which share beliefs and basic assumptions of deriving from the group.

In connection of the ethnical settings of the marketplace behaviours, culture is a common group of values, types of social group that influence tasks and position positions as well as the conventions, rituals, and procedures that guide behaviour, and a communication system which includes not only languages but non-verbal components as well, almost all definitions of the term "culture" points out to a primary thing which is 'a shared communication system and common means of thinking and behaving' [7]. As noted, culture is 'distributed by an organization of individuals and hereby identifies the restrictions of the group' [8].

As mentioned above, the term "culture" has its own numerous of meanings. Narrowly defined, it is simply a system of beliefs; broadly described, it involves values, value systems, norms, mores, common myths as well as structural factos of a given group, tribe or society. Correspondingly, culture operates as an incorporating power for a given system which gives a bond to carry along the cognitive, affective and structural components of the system that the particular level or amount of the incorporation is mostly dependent on how strong the given culture is: the better the culture, the better the integration; in the mean time weak ethnicities offer less integration.

Culture, Cultural Factors and Cultural Primary Values

Culture is an significant element of most behaviours. For instance, an enormous offer of modern cognitive consumer behavior theory embodies culture. Additionally, the behaviour of people in market-place, in exchange business and in every of life's activities generally is determined by pieces of store knowledge or cognitions as ideals, viewpoints, ideas and behaviour, etc. These cognitions are fundamentally discovered and obtained from the enculturation process or from experiences and social connections wherefore people develop values and norms that are products of culture. This development begins since the early child years and continue throughout the life span. It is all over and consistent that influences almost areas of an individual's activities: how a person works, takes on, sleeps, eats, interacts with others and acquisitions goods or services.

Commonly, societies have developed their own main cultures like the individual's most primal values and values that happen to be mirrored in their personal life-styles. Some countries have very similar core ethnicities whilst the others are essentially different. Pretty much all countries surrounding the world have various basic meanings of the means of living. Tongren, Hecht and Kovach (1995) aptly state that every culture has its own a unique set of core prices that demonstrates how its people feel, act as well as what's proper or poor to do and believe that [9]. Those main values are applied and understood whether it's abstract, not usually codified or put into written form. Studying culture then will not be in depth unless people will examine these values and exactly how they relate to behaviours in the market-place as well as the work-place.

Components of Culture

Aside from talking about general definitions of culture and its own role in marketing routines of global companies, it is also important to examine the tremendous the different parts of culture that may be defined as the numerous ways where culture is manifested in thoughts, words and actions of the world. The components of culture may be defined as: (a) communication, that can be classified as verbal and non-verbal; (b) religion; (c) aesthetics; (d) education; (e) interpersonal organizations; (f) technology; (g) ideals and norms; and lastly, (h) time.

Role and Affect of Cultural Factors in Marketing Management Practices

Today, business activities are a primary source of social globalization. As global companies find new potential markets, they somehow distribute cultural text messages of how people should talk, dress, think and feel, etc. Many international experts and business professionals have argued the conception that we are living in a so-called "borderless world", which has no limits as the needs of the customers are converging day by day. According compared to that, to meet the needs of the consumers, global companies must try to produce the standardized products and services that'll be able to serve all global needs. Indeed, they ever more impact and change cultural habits and values of different countries in different cultures. Global companies, however, are realizing that there must be local adaptation due to cultural differences throughout the world.

Some studies of the role and influence of cultural factors in marketing management practices of global companies train us that 'the many ways where our ideas and paradigms are a reflection of the culture in which these were developed' [10]. For instance, famous ideas and approaches including cognitive dissonance, desire, attribution theory, modeling and specific choice modeling might not connect with collective culture without making some modifications.

Cultural differences play a major influence in figuring out the role that the proper manner of transacting business between global companies with the variety of cultural backgrounds. Preferably speaking, global companies which get excited about businesses that are cross-cultural should as a matter of fact have a simple knowledge of social variations and must respond in a way that can be satisfactory to the other culture. Prior to the effort of marketing goods or services to a international region, global companies should have a complete understanding of other ethnicities and their intrinsical distinctions due to the fact that the nature of marketing is get together the needs and wants of the customers, plus, the actual fact that such needs and needs are culturally based mostly. This must be noted as one of the most importance that the understanding, esteem and approval of another culture and the capability to reserve companies' own ethnic customs and practices appreciably distinguishes the marketing of an effective global firm from others.

Examining the role and impact of culture in marketing management procedures is considerably significant as it helps global companies to clarify the real reason for the difference of notion of one group from others that 'in international business dealings, ignorance of social differences is not simply regrettable, it is bad business' [11]. Numerous companies have didn't acknowledge this. Culture has always offered problems and problems for most global companies. It is 'generally the lack of understanding and knowledge posting in relationship to culture which includes brought culture under the limelight' in the problem of marketing management practices [12].

In addition, the main element function of culture is to "set up forms of carry out, benchmarks of performance and ways of dealing with social and environmental organizations that will certainly reduce doubt and increase predictability, in so doing, promote success and growth amidst the associates of any contemporary society" [13]. In this context and the process of social evolution, it is available out that individuals find particular behaviours and principles to be adaptive and useful while others are located to be non-adaptive or even dangerous. Useful tactics are shared and rewarded whilst dangerous practices are really discouraged and discarded. Over enough time, useful behaviours, values and artifacts have become institutionalized and integrated as part of the cultural practices.

We often notice more definite obstructions of global companies when marketing across edges: tariffs, fees and regulations. Some of these hindrances are covered however; they are simply cultural barriers. Each of us is put through more ends of ethnic factors such as dialects, manners and mores. Often we listen to, read and even experience those inside our very lives. The belief of cultural dissimilarities is purely a common sense and difficult to determine. So what marketing management methods that global companies sometimes neglects to note are the simple cultural signals. Civilizations speak themselves in codes which requires global companies to decode them. As the computer terms, these rules are somehow encrypted that it could be very difficult to make sense of. Hence, in cross-border marketing management, global companies should figure out how to seek and decipher cultural differences in conditions of attitudes, the methods of transacting businesses and even targets. Cultural variations, in this framework, are defined by the way people think rather than by the way they look.

Understanding this impression is essential to the success of global companies in marketing management techniques. It importantly influences and affects everything they can do from activities such as product selection, to the composition of the offer, to the choice of the firm's works, to the implementation and execution of the design and most significantly, to its results on the business's customer services. For an international marketing management to be successful, global companies should attempt to understand the social custom of the country which is the central advantage of the marketing effort. In lined to this, if products or services of a worldwide company will not sufficiently meet to the particular cultural values of your society, then that company must prepare yourself to modify or revise the said products or services.

For example, compared to the U. S. generally, Japan has its people stay in a much smaller enclosure device. Therefore, their needs in housing are for smaller and more compact refrigerators. Additionally, Japan also drive on the left-hand part of the street like British. So that it was reported that one of the most issues that one Detroit-based auto manufacturer had in its work to penetrate japan market was to constantly send vehicles with steering wheels located on the left part for driving on the right-hand side of the road which is correct for Americans, nevertheless, definitely wrong for japan. The question is that who would ready to buy an automobile with steering wheels on the left side for generating on the right-hand aspect of the road whenever your country is training traveling on the remaining hand aspect of the road? As consequence, global companies which may have identified consumer needs such as these induced by culture have prospered; whereas, the firms which endeavoured to sell standard and similar American products as refrigerators, autos or others into the Japanese market have failed. Wherefore, there's a great demand for global businesses to address a prospective market from the cultural viewpoint.


In finish, the influence of culture factors in the idea of marketing management procedures of global companies is an extremely large principle. Culture is recognized to be very important in international marketing; however, not much theory underpins culture as an important tool for the success of international marketing.

Culture is known to have a sophisticated and tremendous effect on markets. The challenge for global companies is to identify, answer and change consequently to the variations in prices and stress given in each of the cultural variances. For a continuing and enduring romantic relationship, a win-win situation is envious. The key to success is to make a setting where both factors cooperate, unthreatened and are dedicated to getting a mutually advantageous solution. Finding out how to deal effectively with conflict and vitality, to apprehend the marketing practices as an exchange process.

For success for global companies doing cross-cultural business in terms of international marketing are as follows:

Firstly, global companies should become aware of other teams or countries that will vary and unique in their own nature: in perceptions, desire, beliefs and outlook, etc. Then international companies must acknowledge, understands and value other teams' cultural distinctions.

Secondly, global companies should be culturally natural as it will imply that the business allows and respects other's norms within their civilizations.

Ultimately, global companies should be hypersensitive to other's social norms, dos and taboos, then make an effort to understand what they are simply and how one's behaviour may impact them.

It must be remembered that each of the have extended to contribute for the growth and the development of global companies.

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