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Dangers Of Diabetes And Possible Treatment Nursing Essay

  1. Research design
  2. Population Sampling
  3. Aim
  4. Respondents of the Study
  1. Research Instrument
  3. In the united states - 2007
  4. Symptoms of Diabetes
  5. Here is a list of the most frequent diabetes symptoms:
  6. Frequent urination
  7. Disproportionate thirst
  8. Intense hunger
  9. Weight gain
  10. Unusual weight loss
  11. Increased fatigue
  12. Irritability
  13. Blurred vision
  14. Cuts and bruises don't recover properly or quickly
  15. More skin and/or candida infections
  16. Itchy skin
  17. Gums are red and/or swollen - Gums distance themself from teeth
  18. Frequent gum disease/infection
  19. Sexual dysfunction among men
  20. Numbness or tingling, especially in your legs and hands
  21. Diagnosis of diabetes
  22. What is insulin?
  23. The pancreas
  24. The pancreas has two principal functions:
  25. Etymology (record) of the term pancreas
  26. Discovery of insulin
  27. Type 1 diabetes
  28. Diet for a person with type 1
  29. Complications - the bad reports and the nice news
  30. How to assist in preventing complications
  31. Physical activity helps regulate blood glucose levels
  32. Type 2 diabetes
  33. A person with diabetes type 2 either:
  34. The risk factors for type 2
  35. A long time ago
  36. You can lead a standard life
  37. Balance insulin intake with food and lifestyle
  38. Checking your blood sugar levels
  39. Prevent growing cardiovascular disease
  40. Stop smoking!
  41. A healthcare provider
  42. The goal of diabetes management
  43. High and low blood glucose
  44. A sample of blood
  45. How the meter works
  46. How to choose a glucose meter
  47. Using your meter
  48. Knowing how to use your meter
  49. Using a sugar meter - instructions
  50. Diabetes treatment - taking insulin
  51. Rapid-acting insulin
  52. Short-acting insulin
  53. Intermediate-acting insulin
  54. Long-acting insulin
  55. Pre-mixed insulin
  56. Allergic a reaction to insulin additives

Early 1500 B. C (Egyptian Papyrus) 2000 years later, Arataeus (siphon). Late 17th hundred years, Willis and Dobson (mellitus) 1889, Mering and Minkowski, Paul Langerham 1921 to 1922, Federick Banting and Charles Best 1930's and 1940's longer acting insulin formulation 1 to 2% of the overall People 6% Caucasian 10% DARK-COLORED and Asian American.

15% Mexican American

20 to 50% Native American

Uk 1/3 result in renal failure

2-3 times much more likely to have a vascular disease

50% having amputation

(division of health and british diabetic connection)

Heather Daly SRN, Pat Clarke SRN, Delight Field SRN

Mary MacKinnon MMedSci, RGN

Mayer B. Davidson M. D

Joan R. S. Mcdowell MN RGN SCM DN RNT

Derek Gordon BSc MD FRCP

Review of related literature

According to Mary MacKinnon RGN, treating the diabetes should purpose to begin with to relieve symptom. Assessment of blood glucose level should be come first before assessing the symptoms. If blood glucose level drop the symptoms will reduce also (levels may vary from person to person). A diabetic person will learn the connection between sign and hyperglycemia and benefits associated with the treatment to boost sense of well-being. Educating not only the patient but also the member of the family to improve lifestyle to change necessary for the treatment and monitoring, and help the individual to be indie in the management of his condition.

According to Mayer B. Davidson M. D to treat diabetes an individual needs to understand what the diabetes is through coaching/learning process by the help of diabetes educator. The diabetes educator will continue to work hand to hand with the patient and family. The first step in teaching/learning process is the preteaching diagnosis. The educator must be adaptable enough to adopt the right teaching approach so that he may influence and encourage the patient to learn about diabetes. Adding up it is important also for the educator to identify their own particular values about and ways to learning and the health issues in general. The preteaching assessment is all about collecting information about patients' health background, social background diet/medication, ethnical issues, psychological and coping issues and basic learning abilities such as visual, engine, reading and intellectual talents. In this manner the educator will learn every details of his patient and developed a good plan in how to take care of the disease alongside the patient.

Mayer B. Davidson, M. D.

According to Mcdowell and Gordon diet has been connected with diabetes both its cause and treat. When it was found out that the urine of your diabetic patient was lovely, it was thought that the dietary plan must be rich in carbohydrates to make up for these urinary deficits.

Joan R. S. Mcdowell MN, RGN, SCM, DN, RNT

Derek Gordon BSc, MD, FRCP

Research design

The study made use of a qualitative kind of research design to assemble in-depth understanding the danger and possible treatment of diabetes.

Population Sampling

The researcher use arbitrary sampling method choosing the respondents of the analysis, which are diabetic patient


The study aspires to offer an data for possible treatment of diabetes and its own danger


This will discuss research for methodology utilize for data gathering and evaluation. It is presented in the following sections:

a) research design,

b) society sampling

c) respondents of the study

d) research instrument

Respondents of the Study

The analysis will concentrate on the relationship between your risk and possible treatment for the patient with diabetes

Research Instrument

The researcher formulated a toll predicated on the research literature. The research developed an instrument that aided the experts in determining the risk and possible treatment of diabetes.


Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our anatomies use digested food for energy and progress. Most of what we eat is divided into glucose. Glucose is a kind of glucose in the blood vessels - it is the principal source of fuel for our anatomies.

When our food is digested the sugar makes its way into our blood vessels. Our cells use the glucose for energy and expansion. However, blood sugar cannot enter into our skin cells without insulin being present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.

Insulin is a hormone that is made by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to go the glucose present in our blood in to the cells, and decreases the blood sugars level.

A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of sugar in the blood vessels is too increased (hyperglycemia). This is because the body either will not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has skin cells that not answer properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This brings about too much blood sugar accumulating in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes from the body in urine. So, even though the blood has lots of of sugar, the cells aren't getting it for their essential energy and development requirements.

Diabetes originates from Greek, and it means a siphon. Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek medical professional through the second hundred years A. D. , called the condition diabainein. He detailed patients who had been moving too much water (polyuria) - like a siphon. The word became "diabetes" from the British adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes.

In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is often referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means honey; the urine and blood of individuals with diabetes has unnecessary glucose, and sugar is sugary like honey. Diabetes mellitus could basically imply "siphoning off nice drinking water".

In historic China people observed that ants would be drawn to some people's urine, because it was sweet. The term "Sweet Urine Disease" was coined.

Three(3) main types of diabetes

Diabetes Type 1 - You produce no insulin in any way.

Diabetes Type 2 - You don't produce enough insulin, or your insulin is no longer working properly.

Gestational Diabetes - You develop diabetes just throughout your pregnancy.

(World Health Business)

Diabetes Types 1 & 2 are persistent medical ailments - this means that they are persistent and perpetual. Gestational Diabetes usually resolves itself following the birth of the kid.

Treatment is effective and important

All types of diabetes are treatable, but Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes previous a lifetime; there is absolutely no known cure. The patient will get regular insulin, which became medically available in 1921. The treatment for a patient with Type 1 is principally injected insulin, and several diet and exercise adherence.

Patients with Type 2 are usually cured with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin shots are also required.

If diabetes is not properly controlled the individual has a significantly higher threat of developing problems, such as hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and nonketotic hypersosmolar coma. Long run difficulties could be cardiovascular disease, retinal damage, persistent kidney inability, nerve destruction, poor curing of wounds, gangrene on the feet which might lead to amputation, and erectile dysfunction.


In the united states - 2007

17. 9m people are identified as having diabetes

5. 7m people are undiagnosed with diabetes

57m people have pre-diabetes

186, 300 (0. 22%) people under 20 have diabetes

1 atlanta divorce attorneys 400 to 600 under 20-12 months olds have Type 1 diabetes

2m children have pre-diabetes

23. 5m (10. 7%) of these over 20 have diabetes

12. 2m of those over 60 have diabetes

12m men (11. 2%) have diabetes

11. 5m women (10. 2%) have diabetes

American Diabetes Association

Symptoms of Diabetes

People can often have diabetes and be completely unaware. The primary reason for this is that the symptoms, when seen on their own, seem safe. However, the earlier diabetes is diagnosed the greater the chances are that serious issues, which can result from having diabetes, can be averted.

Here is a list of the most frequent diabetes symptoms:

Frequent urination

Have you been heading to the toilet to urinate more often recently? Do you see that you may spend most of your day heading to the toilet? When there may be too much sugar (glucose) in your blood you will urinate more often. If the insulin is inadequate, or not there in any way, your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back to the blood vessels. The kidneys will need drinking water from your blood vessels in order to dilute the sugar - which fills up your bladder.

Disproportionate thirst

If you are urinating more than standard, you will need to displace that lost liquid. You'll be consuming more than common. Are you drinking more than common lately?

Intense hunger

As the insulin in your bloodstream is not working properly, or is not there by any means, and your skin cells are not getting their energy, your body may react by looking for more energy - food. You will become hungry.

Weight gain

This might be the result of the above sign (intense being hungry).

Unusual weight loss

This is more prevalent among people who have Diabetes Type 1. As the body is not making insulin it'll look for another power source (the cells aren't getting blood sugar). Muscle mass and fat will be divided for energy. As Type 1 is of a more sudden starting point and Type 2 is much more gradual, weight loss is more visible with Type 1.

Increased fatigue

If your insulin is not working properly, or is not there by any means, glucose will never be entering your skin cells and providing them with energy. This will make you feel fatigued and listless.


Irritability can be due to your insufficient energy.

Blurred vision

This can be caused by muscle being taken from your eyes lenses. This impacts your sight' ability to focus. With medicine this is treated. You will discover severe circumstances where blindness or prolonged vision problems may appear.

Cuts and bruises don't recover properly or quickly

Do you will find slashes and bruises have a much longer time than regular to cure? When there exists more sweets (glucose) in your body, its potential to heal can be undermined.

More skin and/or candida infections

When there is certainly more sugar within you, its ability to recuperate from microbe infections is damaged. Women with diabetes think it is especially difficult to recuperate from bladder and vaginal infections.

Itchy skin

A sense of itchiness on your skin layer is sometimes a symptom of diabetes.

Gums are red and/or swollen - Gums distance themself from teeth

If your gums are soft, red and/or enlarged this may be a sign of diabetes. Your teeth could become loose as the gums distance themself from them.

Frequent gum disease/infection

As well as the previous gum symptoms, you might experience more frequent gum disease and/or gum infections.

Sexual dysfunction among men

If you are over 50 and experience frequent or constant sexual dysfunction (erection dysfunction), maybe it's a symptom of diabetes.

Numbness or tingling, especially in your legs and hands

If you can find too much sugar within you your nerves could become destroyed, as could the very small arteries that give food to those nerves. You may experience tingling and/or numbness in your hands and legs.

Diagnosis of diabetes

Diabetes can frequently be detected by carrying out a urine test, which realizes whether excess glucose is present. This is normally backed up by a blood test, which steps blood glucose levels and can confirm if the cause of your symptoms is diabetes.

If you come to mind that you will find some of the above mentioned symptoms, you are advised to talk to your Doctor or a professional health professional.

What is insulin?

Insulin is a hormone. It creates our body's skin cells absorb blood sugar from the blood. The sugar is stored in the liver organ and muscle as glycogen and puts a stop to your body from using excess fat as a source of energy.

When there is very little insulin in the blood vessels, or none at all, blood sugar is not taken up by most body cells. At these times the body uses extra fat as a source of energy. Insulin is also a control transmission to other body systems, such as amino acid solution uptake by body cells. Insulin is not equivalent in all pets or animals - their levels of power vary.

Porcine insulin, insulin from a pig, is the most comparable to individual insulin. Humans can get pet insulin. However, genetic executive has allowed us to synthetically produce 'real human' insulin.

The pancreas

(1. click for large diagram) - 3d Medical RF

The pancreas is part of the digestive system. It really is located high up in your abdominal area and lies across your body where the ribs meet in the bottom. It is formed such as a leaf and is about six inches wide long. The large end is called the head while the narrower end is called the tail, the mid-part is called the body.

The pancreas has two principal functions:

It produces pancreatic digestive juices.

It produces insulin and other digestive hormones.

The endocrine pancreas is the area of the pancreas that produces insulin and other hormones.

The exocrine pancreas is the area of the pancreas that produces intestinal juices.

Insulin is produced in the pancreas. When health proteins is ingested insulin is released.

Insulin is also released when sugar is present in the bloodstream. After eating glucose, blood glucose levels surge.

Insulin allows for glucose to enter in our body's skin cells - without glucose in our cells they might not have the ability to function. Without insulin the blood sugar cannot enter into our skin cells.

Within the pancreas, the Islets of Langerhans contain Beta skin cells, which synthesize (make) the insulin. Roughly 1 to 3 million Islets of Langerhans constitute the endocrine part of the pancreas (mainly the exocrine gland), representing just one single fiftieth of the pancreas' total mass.

Etymology (record) of the term pancreas

It is said that the pancreas was described first by Herophilus of Chalcedon in about 300B. C. and the organ was known as by Rufus of Ephesus in about 100A. D

However, it can be an established fact that the word pancreas had been utilized by Aristotle (384-322B. C. ) before Herophilus.

In Aristotle's Historia Animalium, there's a line declaring "another to the so-called pancreas". It is considered that what "so-called pancreas" imply that the term pancreas had been popular during Aristotle, but it was not approved yet as an anatomical term.

However, the term pancreas presumably has been accepted as an anatomical term since Herophilus.

The term pancreas comes from the Greek pankreas, indicating sweetbread.

Discovery of insulin

In 1920, Dr. Frederick Banting wished to make a pancreatic remove, which he hoped could have anti-diabetic features. In 1921, at the University or college of Toronto, Canada, along with medical university student Charles Best, they were able to make the pancreatic extract.

Their method involved tying a string around the pancrease duct. When evaluated several weeks later, the pancreatic digestive cells had died and been utilized by the disease fighting capability. The process left out a large number of islets. They isolated the ingredients from the islets and produced isletin. What they called isletin became known as insulin.

Banting and Best managed to test this remove on dogs that got diabetes. They found out insulin. In fact, they were able to keep a dog, that had acquired its pancreas applied for, alive throughout the whole summer by administering it the draw out (that was, in fact, insulin). The draw out regulated the pet dogs blood sugar.

At this point, Professor J. MacLeod, who acquired placed the lab at their removal, said he wished to visit a re-run of the whole trial. After doing this he decided to get his complete research team to work on the creation and purification of insulin.

J. B. Collip joined the medical team, which now contains Banting, Best, Collip and MecLeod. They were able to produce enough insulin, in a 100 % pure enough form, to be able to test drive it on patients.

In 1922 the insulin was analyzed on Leonard Thompson, a 14-year-old diabetes patient who place dying at the Toronto General Hospital. He was given an insulin treatment. Initially he endured a severe allergic reaction and further shots were cancelled. The scientists performed hard on bettering the draw out and a second dose of shots were implemented on Thompson. The results were amazing.

The scientists went to the other wards with diabetic children, the majority of them comatose and dying from diabetic keto-acidosis. They went from bed-to-bed and injected them with the new purified remove - insulin. This is known as one of medicines most dramatic occasions. Before injecting the previous comatose children, the first started to awaken using their company comas. A joyous moment for family members and hospital staff!!

Collip did not get on too well with Banting and Best apparently - and he soon remaining the task. Best continued looking to improve the draw out and supervised eventually to create enough for the hospital's demand. Their work was privately printed. The Eli Lilly Company soon got to hear about any of it and offered to assist. It had been not long before the Eli Lilly Company managed to produce large levels of refined natural insulin.

In 1923 Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Drugs. Banting distributed his prize with Best and Macleod shared his with Collip. The patent for insulin was sold to the College or university of Toronto for just one dollar.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease - the person's body has demolished his/her own insulin-producing beta skin cells in the pancreas.

People with Diabetes Type 1 are unable to produce insulin. Most patients with Diabetes Type 1 developed the condition before the age of 40. About 15% of all people who have diabetes have Type 1.

Type 1 diabetes is fatal unless the patient regularly calls for exogenous insulin. Some patients experienced their beta skin cells replaced by using a pancreas transplant and have managed to produce their own insulin again.

Type 1 diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes or child years diabetes. Although a big variety of diabetes Type 1 patients become so during child years, additionally, it may develop following the age of 18. Growing Type 1 after the era of 40 is incredibly rare.

Type 1, unlike Type 2, is not preventable. The majority of individuals who develop Type 1 are of normal weight and are usually healthy during starting point. Diet and exercise cannot change Type 1. Simply, the individual has lost his/her insulin-producing beta cells. Several clinical tests have attempted to find means of preventing or slowing the progress of Type 1, but so far without proven success.

A C-peptide assay is a lab test that can notify whether somebody has Type 1 or Type 2. As external insulin has no C-peptide a lack of it would suggest Type 1. The test is only effective when ALL the endogenous insulin has remaining the body - this may take almost a year.

Diet for a person with type 1

A person with Type one will have to watch what he/she eats. Foods that are low in fat, salt and have no or very little added sugar are ideal. He/she should ingest foods that contain complex carbohydrates, alternatively than fast sugars, as well as fruits & vegetables. A diet plan that controls the individuals blood glucose level as well as his/her blood circulation pressure and cholesterol levels will help achieve the best possible health. Portion size is also important to be able to maintain a wholesome bodyweight.

Meal planning must be consistent so that the food and insulin could work together to regulate blood sugar levels.

The Center says you do not need to restrict yourself to boring bland foods. Somewhat you should, as mentioned above, consume a great deal of fruits, vegetables and whole grains - foods that are highly wholesome, low in excess fat, and low in calories. Even sweet foods are acceptable now and again if you include them in your meal plan.

If you have Type 1 you should seek the help of a recorded dietitian. A dietitian can help you create a food plan that best suits you. Most dietitians concur that you should try to consume the same level of food, with similar servings of carbs, protein and fats at the same time every day.

Complications - the bad reports and the nice news

A person with Type 1 has a two to four times higher threat of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, high blood pressure, blindness, kidney failing, gum disease and nerve damage, compared to someone who doesn't have any type of diabetes.

A person with Type 1 is much more likely to own poor blood flow through his/her lower limbs and ft. If still left untreated the problem may become in a way that a foot has to be amputated. A person with Type 1 will likely get into a coma if neglected.

The good news is the fact treatment can be found which is effective and can assist in preventing these complications from going on.

How to assist in preventing complications

Keep your blood pressure under 130/85 mm Hg.

Keep your cholesterol level below 200 mg.

Check your foot every day for indicators of illness.

Get your sight checked once a year.

Get your tooth doctor to check on your tooth and gums double each year.

Physical activity helps regulate blood glucose levels

Before starting exercise ensure that your doctor tells you it is Alright. Try to make exercise part of your lifestyle. You should attempt to do at least thirty minutes of exercise or exercise each day. Exercise or exercise means aerobic fitness exercise.

If you have never done any exercise for some time, start smoothly and build up gradually. Exercise helps lower your blood sugar. Understand that exercise is wonderful for everybody, not merely people who have Type 1.

The benefits are enormous for your physical and mental health. You will become stronger, fitter, your sleeping will improve as will your skin build - and over time you can look great!

Exercise will help your blood flow - helping to make certain your lower legs and ft are healthy.

Remember to check on your blood sugar levels level more frequently throughout your first couple of weeks of exercise so you may change your diet plans and/or insulin doses appropriately. Understand that a person with Type 1 has to manually adapt his/her insulin doses - your body will not answer automatically.

Type 2 diabetes

A person with diabetes type 2 either:

Does not produce enough insulin. Or

Suffers from 'insulin amount of resistance'. This means that the insulin is not working properly.

The majority of men and women with Type 2 have developed the condition because they are chubby. Type 2 generally appears later on in life, in comparison to Type 1. Type 2 is the most typical form of diabetes.

In the situation of insulin amount of resistance, your body is producing the insulin, but insulin level of sensitivity is reduced and it generally does not do the job as well as it will do. The blood sugar is not getting into the body's skin cells properly, leading to two problems:

A build-up of sugar in the bloodstream.

The cells aren't getting the sugar they want for energy and growth.

In the early periods of Type 2 insulin awareness is the key abnormality - also there are elevated degrees of insulin in the blood vessels. You will find medications which can improve insulin level of sensitivity and reduce sugar development by the liver organ.

As the condition progresses the creation of insulin is undermined, and the patient will often have to be given substitution insulin.

Many experts say that central over weight - fat focused around the waistline in relation to abs organs - could make individuals more predisposed to build up Type 2 diabetes.

Central obesity does not include subcutaneous excess fat - extra fat under the skin. The fat around your waist - belly fat - secretes several hormones called adipokines. It really is thought that adipokines may impair glucose tolerance.

The majority of people who develop diabetes Type 2 were overweight through the starting point, while 55% of all Type 2 patients were obese during starting point.

It is not unusual for people to achieve long-term adequate sugar control by doing more exercise, decreasing their bodyweight and reducing their dietary consumption of glucose.

However, despite these measures, the inclination towards insulin amount of resistance will continue, therefore the patient must persist with his/her increased exercise, monitored diet and bodyweight.

If the diabetes mellitus carries on the patient will most likely be approved orally administered anti-diabetic drugs. As the person with Type 2 does indeed produce his/her own insulin, a blend of oral medicines will usually improve insulin creation, regulate the discharge of glucose by the liver organ, and treat insulin amount of resistance somewhat.

If the beta skin cells become further impaired the individual will eventually need insulin remedy in order to modify sugar levels.

The risk factors for type 2

Age and ethnicity. The older you will be the higher your risk is, particularly if you are over 40 (for white people), and over 25 (for black, South Asian plus some minority groups). It has been found in the UK that dark people and people of Southern Asian origins have five times the chance of producing Type 2 in comparison to white people.

Diabetes in the family. When you have a member of family who has/had diabetes your risk might be increased. The risk boosts if the comparative is a close one - if your father or mother has/experienced diabetes your risk might be higher than if your uncle has/got it.

Bodyweight (and inactivity combined with bodyweight). Four-fifths of people who've Type 2 became so because these were overweight. A lot more overweight a person is the bigger his/her risk will be. The highest risk is perfect for someone who is overweight and actually inactive. Quite simply, if you are incredibly overweight and don't do any exercise your risk is biggest.

Cardiovascular problems and stroke. Somebody who has already established a stroke operates a higher risk of developing Type 2. That is also the situation for individuals who suffer from hypertension (high blood pressure), or experienced a heart attack. Any identification of issues with circulation shows a higher risk of producing Type 2.

Gestational Diabetes. A female who became temporarily diabetic during being pregnant - gestational diabetes - runs a higher risk of producing Type 2 down the road. Women who give delivery to a huge baby may run a higher risk, too.

Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) - Impaired blood sugar tolerance (IGT). A person who has been diagnosed as having impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired sugar tolerance and does not have diabetes runs a significantly higher threat of eventually expanding Type 2. People with IFG or IGT have higher than normal levels of blood sugar in their bloodstream. To be able to prevent diabetes it is crucial that you eat healthily, keep an eye on your weight and do exercise.

Severe mental health problems. It's been found that folks with severe mental health issues will develop Type 2.

Possible treatment

A long time ago

Before insulin was uncovered in 1921 Diabetes Type 1 was a fatal disease - most patients would pass away within a few years of onset. Things have improved a good deal since that time.

You can lead a standard life

If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do enough exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life.

Balance insulin intake with food and lifestyle

The level of insulin consumption must be strongly associated with how much food you ingest, as well as when you take in. Your day to day activities will likewise have a bearing on when and how much insulin you take.

Checking your blood sugar levels

A person with diabetes has to have his/her blood sugar levels checked routinely. There is a bloodstream test called the A1C which lets you know what your average blood glucose levels were more than a two-to-three month period.

Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be bodily active, and test their blood glucose. They may also have to take orally administered medication, and/or insulin to regulate blood glucose levels.

Prevent growing cardiovascular disease

As the risk of coronary disease is a lot higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly.

Healthy eating, doing exercise, keeping your weight down will all contribute towards good cardiovascular health - some patients will require oral medication for this.

Stop smoking!

As smoking might have a serious effect on the cardiovascular health the individual should give up smoking.

A healthcare provider

A healthcare professional (HCP) can help the patient understand how to manage his/her diabetes. The HCP will also keep an eye on the diabetes control. It is important that you know what to do and a professional is supporting and monitoring the management of your diabetes.

In most countries the GP (doctor, primary care doctor, family doctor) provides this regular attention. There's also diabetitians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, nurses, internists, pediatricians, dietitians, podiatrists, ophthalmologists, optometrists, sports activities specialists and many more.

If a diabetes patient is pregnant she should see an obstetrician who is an expert in diabetes (gestational diabetes). You will discover pediatricians who specialize in looking after the infants of diabetic moms.

The goal of diabetes management

The main aim of diabetes management is to keep the following in order:

Blood sugar levels

Blood pressure

Cholesterol levels

High and low blood glucose

The patient will require to make certain his/her blood sugar levels do not fluctuate too much.

Hypoglycemia - low blood sugar - can have a bad effect on the individual. Hypoglycemia can cause:



Palpitations, Tachycardia

Feeling hot, sweating


Feeling cold



Abdominal discomfort


Numbness, pins and needles

Depression, moodiness

Apathy, Tiredness, Exhaustion, Daydreaming



Bad coordination, slurred speech



Hyperglycemia - when blood glucose is too high - can likewise have a bad effect on the individual. Hyperglycemia can cause:

Polyphagia - frequently hungry

Polydipsia - frequently very thirsty

Polyuria - consistent urination

Blurred vision

Extreme tiredness

Weight loss

Cuts and scrapes will treat slowly and gradually and badly

Dry mouth

Dry or itchy skin

Erectile dysfunction (impotence)

Recurrent infections

Kussmaul hyperventilation: profound and speedy breathing

Cardiac arrhythmia



Monitoring your own blood sugar is performed with a Glucose Meter. Self-monitoring is categorised as SMBG (self-monitoring of blood glucose). Glucose meters today are small, battery-operated devices.

A sample of blood

When you want to check for blood sugar with a glucose meter you will need to place a small sample of your bloodstream on a test strip. Your skin is pricked with a lancet - like a very fast pin-prick.

These test whitening strips are disposable. Afterward you place the remove in the monitor. The pieces are layered with blood sugar dehydrogenase or hexokinase that combines with glucose in bloodstream.

The blood is usually extracted from a finger, however, many meters permit the use of other areas of the body to provide the blood test.

How the meter works

The meter lets you know how much blood sugar exists in your blood vessels. How meters do that can vary greatly. With some meters a way of measuring of the quantity of electricity that goes by through your blood vessels sample is measured, while others measure the amount of reflection of light. The blood sugar level is viewed as a number. In the case of this picture (below right) the individuals glucose level is low. Lots of the new meters can store some test results, while some can be connected to your personal computer to store results, which you can also print.

How to choose a glucose meter

According to the FDA there are 25 different meters on the marketplace. They are not all the same. You should bear the following in your mind whenever choosing one:

Testing speed


Memory (capability to store results)


The newer models have computerized timing, error codes and signals, barcode readers to assistance with calibration. Some have spoken instructions for folks who are aesthetically impaired.

Using your meter

Frequency of meter utilization varies significantly from patient-to-patient. It is important that you abide by the instructions directed at you from your medical provider. Every person with diabetes should be self-monitoring his/her blood glucose - this is particularly so for individuals who are taking insulin.

According to the American Diabetes Relationship (ADA), patients with Type 1 should self-monitor blood sugar at least three times each day.

The ADA says that women with gestational diabetes (diabetes during being pregnant) should self-test twice a day.

There is no general suggestion from the ADA regarding consistency of self-testing for Type 2 patients.

Most patients who do have to self-test will generally have to do so before dishes, a few hours after meals, at bedtime, 3. a. m. , and whenever indicators are sensed.

When a patient changes medication screening should be completed more frequently.

If you have a unique illness or abrupt stress, you should test more often.

Knowing how to use your meter

As meters work in several ways you should get training from a diabetes educator.

Using a sugar meter - instructions

Wash the hands with warm water and soap. Dry up completely. You could also dab or clean the area with liquor and then dry out completely.

Use the lancet to prick your fingertip.

Hold your hands down. Keep your finger at exactly the same time until the thing is that a small droplet of bloodstream appear.

Place the blood vessels on the test remove.

Follow the instructions for placing the test strip and using your meter.

Keep an archive of your final result.

Many regulatory authorities, such as the FDA, require that meters and test pieces come with instructions. It is important that you become familiar with these instructions, that ought to be included in the Individual Manual. Some meters give out an error code if something is wrong. Checking an individual Manual will tell you what the error code means.

In many countries an individual Manual will have a toll free number. If you call and cannot get through call your medical provider or your local emergency room. Browse the website of the maker. The FDA advises patients to go to the manufacturer's website regularly for just about any updates or issues.

Diabetes treatment - taking insulin

You cannot take insulin as a pill. If you performed, as soon as it got to your stomach it might be digested and would never get into your bloodstream.

You have to inject insulin in to the fat slightly below your skin - after that it will get to your blood vessels.

There are various kinds of insulin. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) there are over 20 types of insulin in the American market. They work in various ways, they are created differently, plus they vary in price.

Insulin is mostly made in laboratories today. It can also come from pets or animals, mainly pigs.

Rapid-acting insulin

This kind of human insulin starts to work within five minutes to be injected and peaks after about one hour. It is still lively for 2 to 4 time. Types of rapid-acting insulin are lispro sold by Eli Lilly, insulin aspart marketed by Novo Nordisk, or insulin glulisine advertised by sanofi-aventis.

Short-acting insulin

Also known as Regular (behaving) insulin. This type of human insulin extends to your bloodstream roughly 30 minutes after you inject it, and peaks from 2 to 3 3 time after injection. It is effective for 3 to 6 time.

Intermediate-acting insulin

This human insulin takes from 2 to 4 hours to reach the blood vessels after injection. It peaks at 4 to 12 hours. It is effective for about 12 to 18 hours.

Long-acting insulin

This insulin enters your blood stream about 6 to 10 hours once you inject it. It is effective for 20 to a day. This type of insulin is also known as ultralente.

Pre-mixed insulin

Some patients have to combine two different types of insulin. If they discover that difficult they can possess the insulin pre-mixed. That is especially useful for people who are aesthetically impaired.

Allergic a reaction to insulin additives

The insulin a diabetic takes has additives to keep it free of bacteria and also to tweak its time of action. Some patients may provide an allergic reaction to some additives within intermediate and long-acting insulins - however, this is very rare.

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