Posted at 05.10.2018
A project can be an undertaking that has a beginning and a finish, and is completed to meet proven goals within cost, timetable and quality targets. Project management includes and optimizes the resources necessary to effectively complete the job. These resources are the skills, skills and cooperative initiatives of your team of individuals; facilities, equipment and tools; information, systems, and techniques; and money (Haynes, 2002).
According to Culp and Smith, a job is completed by people who come together to complete a specific task. In organizing and managing a project, both group (structural) and folks, are very important and do not require can be dismissed. But almost all of the days, the structure is known as more important than individuals. This is because project professionals are trained to use structural management tools but have little training to deal with people (Culp & Smith, 1992).
On the other hands, management is to choose what is to be achieved and then setting it up done through people. This implies that folks are the most crucial resources available to professionals and through them; all the other resources of a business can be supervised.
The Management Requirements Centre expresses that the key purpose of management and control is to provide route, facilitate change and achieve results through the successful, creative and accountable use of resources (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005).
The terms command and management are being used interchangeable by some individuals. While a lot of people consider them as totally reverse to the other person and regarding to them good supervisor cannot be a good head and vice versa. There are a few similarities between control and management like they both affect employees plus they both have specialist and power. Nonetheless, there are numerous differences between both the concepts but with proper training and development you can be both a good leader and a good manager. Therefore, despite of experiencing differences, both leadership and management overlap each other.
In this paper, we will discuss the ideas of leadership and management, differences between them and steps to make a balance between the two for the success of a project.
Management is the procedure of coordinating people and other resources to achieve the goals associated with an organisation (Delight, Hughes, & Kapoor, 2008).
The Operations of Management
Management targets achieving results by effectively acquiring, deploying, utilizing and controlling all the resources required, such as people, money, facilities, vegetable and equipment, information and knowledge (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005).
The various functions of management are designed in such a way so as to attain the targets and can be categorised as:
Planning- determining the goals of an organization and a strategy to achieve those goals
Organizing- establishing and staffing people and resources
Motivating- exercising command attributes to stimulate employees to work together efficiently
Controlling- monitoring the actual performance and assessing it with the expected results and taking corrective actions wherever required (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005)
Management standards designate the set of things that professionals need to know and be able to do. They serve as guidelines for managers against which their performance can be evaluated. Here are some management expectations as distributed by the Management Standards Centre:
Meeting customer needs
Working with people
Managing self applied and personal skills (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005)
Project management is the planning, delegating, monitoring and control of most areas of the task, and the motivation of those involved, to attain the project objectives within the expected performance focuses on for time, cost, quality, opportunity, benefits and dangers (Murray, 2009).
The project director is the solo emphasis for day-to-day management of an project. He gets the authority to perform the project with respect to the project board within the constraints laid down by the plank. His best responsibility is to ensure that the project gives the required results within given time, cost, quality, range, risk and benefits. The job manager has numerous tasks like:
Prepare documents like project short, benefits review plan, project initiation record etc.
Prepare records such as concern reports, end job reports, exception accounts, etc.
Maintain documents like concern register, risk register, daily log, etc.
Ensure that the work is not overlooked or duplicated
Liaise with any external suppliers
Manage proper communication between directing and delivering levels of the project
Establish and take care of the jobs types of procedures (Murray, 2009).
A project director should also have task management skills that are relevant for the specific job which he undertakes. These skills/ competencies are the following:
Attention to detail
Conflict management (Murray, 2009)
According to Meredith & Mantel (2010), hard workers are no problem finding, but the difficulty lies in finding the one who can complete a difficult job. The drive to complete the task is considered to be very important in a task administrator (Meredith & Mantel, 2010). For the successful completion of a task, it is essential to choose the right person as a task manager. Essentially the most sought after features while selecting a project manager are:
A strong technical background
A hard-nosed manager
A mature individual
Someone who is currently available
Someone on good conditions with mature executives
A person who can keep the project team happy (Meredith & Mantel, 2010).
The success of the project management would depend on the ultimate final result of the project. The outcomes of a successful job management are:
Completion of the task within budget
Satisfying the task schedule
Adequate quality standards
Meeting the task goal (Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996)
Whereas, the next factors could cause a hindrance to achieve the outcomes of the project:
Inadequate basis for project
Inefficient project manager
Less/no support from top management
Tasks not identified properly
Lack of project management techniques
Improper use of management techniques
Project close-down not planned
Lack of dedication to task (Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996)
To avoid all these hindrances, proper planning needs to be done to finish the project successfully, a skilled project director should be appointed, sufficient time should be taken to determine the duties properly, information flows should be sufficient, motivating employees through rewards, corrective activities should be taken when errors are discovered (Munns & Bjeirmi, 1996).
Leadership targets the most crucial learning resource known as people. It is defined as the procedure developing and conversing a vision for future years, motivating people and attaining their determination and proposal (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005).
There are three jobs of a leader:
Define the activity- a head should specify the actual group is expected to do.
Achieve the process- a innovator makes certain that the purpose of lifetime of group, which is to complete the duty is, is satisfied.
Maintain effective associations- a head must ensure that there is cordial relationship between him and his group users and also between your people within the group (Armstrong & Stephens, 2005).
According to Adair (2004), there are seven attributes of leadership:
Confidence (Adair, 2004)
A innovator is a person (with command qualities) who has the appropriate knowledge and skill to lead an organization to accomplish its ends willingly (Adair, 2004).
There are three overlapping needs of any workgroup that happen to be activity need, team maintenance need and specific need. Hence, the organizations anticipate their leaders to aid them in concluding the task, help building teamwork aspects and help meet specific needs. There are various functions that market leaders perform which is often categorised with regards to the needs of the group that are task needs, team maintenance needs and individual needs. These functions are:
Providing an example
Definig the task
Source: Adair, 2004
The above mentioned functions are taken care of by market leaders with excellent skills and attributes. A innovator should possess pursuing characteristics to execute its functions:
Application/ responsibility (Adair, 2004)
Project management is defined as a presence and a process carried out in a organisational role that assumes responsibility for the needs and protection under the law of these people who choose to check out the first choice in accomplishing project results (Cleland, 1995).
A leader of company and a innovator in managing a task have many similarities like development of a eye-sight, guidance in both the operations and tactical guidelines of the task and the company; encourage the group participants to donate to the effective and effective usage of resources. But a innovator of a project has some additional difficulties compared to a leader of the organisation which are summarised below:
providing cross-functional and cross-organisational authority environment as the stakeholders are worried with the team effort.
operating without recorded formal authority above the associates, who may report in a normal authority-responsibility relationship with their functional professionals.
working in a matrix organisational design (Cleland, 1995).
The project innovators way finder
Managing the stakeholders
Managing project life cycle
According to Briner, Hastings and Geddes (1997), a project leader appears in six guidelines which are explained below:
Managing the stakeholders-
Looking up-wards- the sponsor of the job who's also the task leaders employer has his own known reasons for asking the leader to perform a specific task. Therefore, it's the important for the project innovator to look upwards to his sponsor and know and understand the reasons of performing the task.
Looking outwards- all project have customers and numerous other stakeholders who've different objectives with the task and it is the responsibility of your project innovator to meet those prospects.
Managing the project life cycle-
Looking backwards and looking forwards- a project leader should look frontward and make realistic plans by using the mandatory resources and also ensure that we now have appropriate monitoring and reporting systems so that the guy can meet the establish targets.
Looking downwards- a job leader should make sure that his group people are performing effectively both individually and collectively.
Looking inwards- a job leader should also consider his own performance for the overall success of the job (Briner, Hastings, & Geddes, 1997).
Leadership vs Management
Leadership and management are two different concepts. Leadership is not better than management or an upgraded for it and vice versa. Management by itself is insufficient and organisations have a need to build efficient leaders. According to Bennis [1989 as cited in (Elearn, 2007)], the characteristics of a leader and a supervisor can be summarised as follows:
Relies on control
Shorter range view
Longer range view
Asks how and when
Asks what and why
Accepts the position quo
Does things right
Does the right thing
The behaviours of a leader and a manager are different and can be shown the following:
What is right
Source: (Command vs. Management, 2011)
The function of management is to attain the organisational goals while command deals with influencing visitors to achieve a common goal. Matching to John P. Kotter, authority and management can be recognized on the basis of their functions the following:
Motivating and inspiring
Source: (Promoting Thought Control. . . , 2011)
Technical skills of managementInspite of all the differences between leadership and management, command is an essential requirement of management together with planning, managing, motivating and handling. Matching to Kotter [2001 as cited in (Elearn, 2007)], management helps in bringing consistency and order in complex measurements like quality. While Bennis [1989 as cited in (Elearn, 2007)] says that the skill of influencing visitors to behave in a particular way is named as management. To complete a task successfully, strong management should be coupled with effective management and the people mixed up in job should be developed in both the areas.
Source: (Elearn, 2007)
Rather than considering authority and management as positions, work should be produced to treat them as different and complementary functions which are imperfect without one another. Then leadership will become one of the functions of managers.
According to Robert Quinn [2002 as cited in (Elearn, 2007)], professionals should specialise themselves in participating in both management and leadership tasks. The eight roles of managerial leader can be summed up the following:
The innovator is creative and facilitates version and change
Living with change
The broker is politically astute, persuasive, important and powerful and is concerned with maintaining the organisations external legitimacy and obtaining exterior resources
Building and retaining a powerbase
Negotiating agreement and commitment
The mentor is helpful and approachable and engages in the development of folks by using a caring, empathetic orientation
Understanding personal and others
The facilitator induces teamwork and cohesiveness and manages interpersonal conflicts
Using participative decision making
The monitor assessments on performance and grips paperwork
Monitoring individual performance
Managing collective performance
Analysing information with critical thinking
The co-ordinator sustains structure, schedules, organises and co-ordinates work of people
Managing across functions
The director partcipates in planning and goal setting techniques, sets targets and establishes clear expectations
Developing and connecting a vision
Setting goals and objectives
Designing and organising
The producer is task focused and work targeted and motivates users to increase development and to complete stated goals
Fostering a productive work environment
Managing time and stress
Source: (Elearn, 2007)