If even the greatest dramatist that has ever lived nowadays believes that humans are stars, who are we to disagree? I for just one completely do not. Being a language practitioner, I for just one strongly think that drama gets the potential of earning the training experience fun for the students and even memorable since it is real. Without a doubt why.
Students in classes today seem to have very little contact with the English terminology. The only connection with the language comes from being taught using the original chalk and chat' method in the English language classroom. They have very little experience with 'real-life' situations where the English language is utilized as a communication tool. It isn't astonishing then that the Communicative Methodology has been created in the new Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah' (KBSM) British Dialect program. The communicative syllabus will concentrate not only on the linguistic competence but also on the introduction of the communicative potential of the learner. Instead of being a passive participant, the learner is now encouraged to take a more active role in their own language learning process in the class.
In series with the National Education Philosophy, classroom strategies devised by the British teacher should serve not only for efficient language but also provide opportunities for students' personal development - to produce students who are qualified and confident language users (Compedium, 1989). Instructors who advocate the Communicative Approach are expected to develop strategies that could promote self-learning, group interactions in genuine situations and peer- coaching, instead of the traditionally teacher-dominated and teacher-directed classes. The activities would additionally require the learner to do things with the words such as making selections, evaluating, and bridging the information gap. Types of such activities are play, role-play, simulation video games, improvisation and miming. For the purpose of this project paper, we shall look at dilemma activities as a communicative tool in the teaching and learning of English in the ESL class.
Drama has always experienced a close romance with the coaching of the English language. Using its link to books, drama is a powerful tool in developing the students' communicative capability. Generally speaking, dilemma is student-centered because it sets the students in a position to do almost all of the communicating and interacting rather than the professor. Therefore, the onus is now on the students to take control of their own learning. Psychologically, additionally it is very motivating for there are no wrong answers in crisis, allowing success for each student. The versatility and openness of crisis also provides the students a greater degree of freedom when compared with when they are required to find an individual appropriate answer in the traditional English language lesson. Students acquire fluency skills at a considerably faster rate therefore of promoting learner - student have a discussion and reducing the teacher's role to a required low level or almost non-existent in some instances.
Looking at it from the teacher's perspective, participating in group activities, just as play, allows students to feel more tranquil and subsequently feel comfortable to express their emotions better; in comparison to when they must come up with individual responses. Used properly, dilemma allows both tutor and learner to gauge how far the learner's potential to communicate has developed and this with time can develop self confidence and better communal skills in the learner. Furthermore, it is emphasized that British should be trained never to only develop the basic method of communication, but to further encourage fluent and correct expression, both oral and written. Once the students begin to master the language they should be able to triumph over their self-consciousness and develop their confidence expressing views openly and articulately. These students would then make English meaningful and relevant in the sense that now they can take it out of the classroom and put it to use in their everyday lives. It is extremely obvious to realize the common ground English and dilemma share. Play should add significantly to the realization of most these seeks.
Students in colleges today seem to get the learning of English irrelevant and a certain level, confusing. They do not need to utilize the English they have learnt in the classroom in their daily lives. British language additionally, is often referred to as a strong second terms but is, the truth is only cared for as a spanish in all primary and secondary academic institutions (Compendium, 1989). This change in the position of British in the system has brought with it a great deal of problems for both professors and students.
Students who are hesitant to speak in British may view the use of the dialect orally as trivial and insignificant to language learning. To them, to be just proficient' in the language is sufficient, rather than to perform' them (Chomsky, 1965). In fact, students especially the timid and silent ones, fear so much making bizarre blunders or problems. Thus, many vacation resort to the utilization of their mother tongues or their L1 in their daily discussions or daily convers ations.
The launching of the Terminology Policy in 1971 adds to this restriction. Bahasa Melayu was made the only real medium of training in classes and other formal situations. At the same time, students of all races and track record appeared to be more comfortable communicating in Bahasa Melayu, and so the importance of English words has been gradually declining.
One possible way of overcoming this problem is to supplement the conventional British teaching methods with appropriate teaching techniques such as crisis, that offer the students the chance to actually use the English they have learnt. Even though the students' British may not be perfect, the activities would help them to boost verbal communication.
The main aim of this review is to provide a broad intro to drama also to show how such techniques can be useful in the teaching and learning of the English language, specifically in Malaysian institutions. This exploratory analysis plans to attain the following targets:
- To determine the students' scope of contact with crisis activities.
- To ascertain students' inspiration towards learning British.
- To evaluate students' behaviour towards learning English.
Specifically, this analysis looks for answers for the next research questions:
- Have the students been exposed to episode activities in their language classroom?
- What will be the students' motivations in learning the English language?
- What will be the students' behaviour towards English?
There is fundamental need for learners to bring what they have learned in the four surfaces of the school room out in to the open and apply it in real-life' situations; and drama activities meet this need. This study therefore hopes to make educators of English terminology aware and also to contain the conviction that play activities can be a highly effective tool in words teaching.
It is hoped that this review will be an eye opener' for professors and students of ESL. It offers the required information for dialect instructors to make students inevitably take part in the English lessons and thus gain self-confidence in using the vocabulary. Thus, the importance of this research is to make ESL professors aware that alternatively than behaving in works or studying them, students are educated English by using a technique produced from play as a public procedure for development. This will likely obviously promote the utilization of drama in the teaching and learning of ESL and in its widest sense, is most beneficial seen as an alternative solution methodology to one based on the traditional chalk and discussion'.
As much as students are worried, they will soon start to see the purpose of theatre activities in their learning and exactly how practical and relevant they are when applied in their everyday lives. Since drama activities often portray the population that the students come from, it can give the students an chance to feel what life is focused on. Crisis activities encourage the students to make practical and rational judgments when confronted by complex situations, which they may come across later in life. This valuable experience would definitely keep them in good stead in their future.
Thus, the significance of the analysis advocates the utilization of theatre activities in the ESL classroom. It really is aspired that educators would adopt this technique and adapt the actions to the relevance and needs of the students.
On the basis of discussion on this project newspaper, the crisis activities shown is targeted towards Form four students of intermediate skills level. The theatre activities are a few of the options for social connections that lie within class room situations. However, some of its constraints were recognized, in particular:
- In situations outside the classroom, learners should fulfill a much wider variety of communicative needs due to the incidents of each day life.
- They should cope with better variety of habits of connections. These can vary greatly from the formal interview, using its tightly controlled structure, to the informal gathering where every person competes on an equal basis for turns to speak.
- They will need to become involved in several kinds of sociable relationship, for which different types of terms will be needed.
In order to get ready learners to handle these wider efficient and sociable needs, we should look for ways increasing the options for communicative interactions in the classroom (Littlewood, 1984). It is hoped that by using the episode activities, the visible gaps can be bridged and in exchange the students' language competency and performance can be improved.
How do we, as teachers of English as another Language bring dilemma into today's class room? Though some educators have tried using crisis in their school room, they remain in circumstances of confusion. This is not because they do not know how to teach it, but merely because they are not sure of its purpose in education. The use of communicative activities is a technique to accomplish one of the seeks of the communicative approach, which is to acquire communicative competence. The important aspect of this methodology is to communicate with another person in the class and in the long run, the world (Wan, 1990).
Drama used in the classroom can be viewed as a communicative activity since it fosters communication between learners and provides opportunities to use the target language in various make imagine' situations. Thus, crisis is any activity, which asks the participant to portray himself in an imaginary situation; or to portray someone else within an imaginary situation. Play can be involved with the world of pretense'. It offers a chance for a person expressing himself through verbal expressions and gestures using his thoughts and memory. According to Wan (1990), play will take what it stocks with British, an focus on developing the method of communication and stretches this means to include all the paralinguistic products to so this means which takes communication beyond just writing to gestures and physical connection.
Drama activities bring on the natural potential of every person to imitate, imitate and point out himself. The students should draw on their natural capacity to live elements of his previous experience that may usually never emerge. When students are brought collectively they bring along with them different life and different background into the classroom.
According to the Oxford Dictionary (1995), play is thought as a literary composition to be performed by stars; play or the skill of performing, writing or producing works. But for the purpose of this paper, drama relates more to casual (creative episode) as it is utilized in the dialect classroom rather than on stage. Drama is doing. Dilemma is being. Crisis is such a normal thing. It is something that people all take part in daily when faced with difficult situation. That is obviously illustrated by Tricia (1984) when she estimates, Getting on with our day-to-day live requires a group of masks.
Generally, drama is recognized as a type of activity where the learners are given fairly controlled cases to interpret. But the term theatre is often seen with confusion because differing people use it in various ways to suit different contexts. As a result, it seems essential to define the terms from the perspective of teaching and learning English as another Dialect (ESL).
Drama considers the socio-psychological areas of learning as it requires the whole person and his total response. For a few students dilemma techniques is definitely an alternative means of learning the terms and could produce a lot more positive results than normal class room coaching (Mordecai, 1985).
Drama can be used in ESL classrooms to promote communication in its authentic form. The Communicative Way advocates that learners should try to learn how to use the mark language in real life' situations and episode activities meet this need, for this allows natural learning. If examined carefully, we'd find that, British teachers define British as the one that encourages and develops communication skills, self-expression, imagination and creativity. They are the key conditions, which would surface as goals of coaching in a words classroom. When likewise confronted, professors of crisis say the same thing. Thus, theatre invariably and significantly contributes to the realization of all the aims within an ESL class.
The term procedure' identifies the theories about the type of how language is learnt (Richards, 1986). It requires into account the essential units of dialect structure and the type of language skills. It also considers the psycholinguistic and cognitive operations involved in language learning and the conditions that enable effective understanding how to happen.
The Communicative Procedure thus identifies the belief that words learning is communicative competence (Richards, 1986). Communicative competence here pertains not only to the data of the grammatical rules of a language and how to create grammatical phrases but also to learn when, where and to whom to utilize these sentences in a speech community (Richards, 1985 and Hymes, 1972).
Communicative Methodology' on the other side, refers to different ways of instructing words using the communicative way. Therefore, the term techniques' refers to different classroom activities (Wan, 1990). On this study they'll be called communicative activities.
In the Communicative Approach, language coaching and learning emphasized the use of terminology for the communication of meaning than learning the language structures, forms and vocabulary (Wilkins, 1976 and Widdowson, 1978). However, this will not imply the grammatical and lexical aspects are neglected. Actually, they actually have a location in the Communicative Approach to language coaching. Therefore, the how' of terminology coaching and learning identifies the specific techniques and methods used to unconsciously acquire and consciously learn a words through communication (Brumfit, 1984).
Communicative activities make reference to the techniques, which are used in the communicative method in terminology teaching. Examples of such activities are game titles, simulation, miming, drama and role-play, which utilize the target words. The activities entail doing things with vocabulary and these words activities for communication is not restricted to conversation and may involve tuning in, speaking, reading and writing or an integration of several skills.
Communicative activities have the next characteristics (Wan, 1990):
- They are purposeful. They are really beyond strictly rehearsing particular set ups.
- They are interactive. The actions are often conducted with others and often incorporate some form of discussion.
- Authentic materials are being used. The situations where the learners have to utilize language should be as reasonable as it can be. The dialect models given should be legitimate.
- They derive from the information difference principle.
Five guiding ideas have been vividly discussed behind the use of communicative activities as language coaching and learning techniques (Morrow, 1981). They can be the following:
This principle provides relevance to the lessons, that your students would like to use in order to execute in the target language. For example in teaching speaking, the task could be requesting guidelines to a certain place. . The students here talk to the other person and there is no control over the exact language used but the situation is managed.
In the communicative method, the natural dialect is dealt in real situations where it is necessary to work in the framework of the whole. Communication is not learnt inductively as it cannot easily be examined into its various components without its nature being destroyed along the way. For example you might teach the element of various varieties of greeting but it is not any guarantee that the pupil can choose the appropriate form when required in a real-life situation.
The operations of communication such as information difference, choice and opinions, should be as much as possible replicated in hoping to develop the ability of the students to speak in the target language. The professor must make an effort to devise exercises where there is an information difference so that real important communication may take place. The participants in a chat also have a selection in what they state and how they say it. When going through these processes, there should be ample feedback during connection between two sound system to be able to gauge if the subject matter has been successfully dispatched across.
Only by exercising communicative activities would students figure out how to talk. Students must become accountable for their own learning. This is exactly what student-centeredness entails and therefore the role of the professor consequently changes. He / she must learn to have a backseat and should no more dominate the learning situation. The educator is currently a facilitator and should make an effort to provide all the assistance the student must play an active role in his own learning.
As language professionals we must able to make the distinction between faults' and problems'. There may be the necessity for versatility in deciding to treat flaws' at different stages of the learning process towards communicative competence. We must not be hasty in wielding the axe on the students as flaws' are evidence of learning taking place in the end.
The use of communicative activities is to attain one of the goals of the communicative strategy, which is communicative competence. The essence of this way is to talk to another person in the classroom and in long term the society. Hence, play can be utilized in the class since it fosters communication between learners and provides opportunities to use the mark language in various make imagine' situations. Episode also allows participants the possibility to act out tasks and also to use all the multimedia of communication, the words, gesture and motion. It thus takes what it stocks with English, an emphasis on developing the means of communication, and extending these means to include all the paralinguistic helps to form so this means. This calls for communication beyond both sizes, writing and communicating, to involve the 3rd dimensions of gesture and physical interaction, thus encouraging dynamic and discriminating observation and tuning in, which true communication always calls for (Tricia, 1984).
Susan Holden (1981) identifies drama as any activity which asks the participant to portray himself within an imaginary situation; or even to portray another person in an imaginary situation. Play is thus worried about the world of 'let's pretend'. It provides a chance for a person expressing himself through verbal expressions and gestures using his thoughts and memory. With this paper, drama refers more to dramatic activities as the setting up is the words classroom rather than the stage. The individuals in the drama activities are thus learners rather than actors.
To have an additional understanding between Drama and Theater, an obvious distinction has to be made between your two ideas. One way of accomplishing this is to check out Theatre as process oriented and Theater to be product oriented. Throughout the examination of the fundamental features that place behind both these concepts, O'Neill (1995) developed the next characteristics for every of these:
- The emphasis is positioned on individuals experiencing personal progress via an exploration of their understanding of the issues within dramatic experience.
- Student and tutor share similar places in the development, evaluation and the carrying out of the crisis activities.
- The drama is generally not performed for an audience.
- The student's personal progress is measured through the training of skills.
- The analysis is facilitated through the scripted work not of the student's making.
- The teacher transfers her or his interpretation and examination of the crisis.
- The primary aim is formal play development.
For the goal of this newspaper, we will give attention to Drama as a Process rather than Theater as something. Instead of the traditional idea of theatre, which results within an end performance, drama as an activity is performed for the sake of the act to do it, not for an audience, not for a development, and it generally does not need to be rehearsed. The audience can merely be the performers themselves.
Drama as a process refers to a coaching method which involves children in imaginary, unscripted, and spontaneous displays, where the meaning is manufactured out of the engagement and transactions between your tutor and students (Schneider & Jackson, 2000). The students and instructors work together to generate an imaginary dramatic world within which issues are considered and problems can be resolved. In this world they work together to explore issues and problems such as betrayal, fact and other moral and moral issues. O'Neill (1995) mentions that sometimes the work may get started as light-hearted, however the teacher always layers more dramatic anxiety and complexity into the work because the educator may shoot for a pedagogical outcome.
In Dilemma as a Process, students learn to think beyond their own factors of view and consider multiple perspectives on a subject through participating in different roles. Playing a range of positions motivates them to be able to empathize with others and also to consider life from other viewpoint. It allows those to walk on other's shoes, to walk the pathways they tread and see how the planet looks using their company eyes. Since the end product is not the target, students work at every moment to produce to the best of their ability. In this way, drama is seen as more important, beneficial, and well-rounded. Theatre thus, not only demonstrates to students to be better communicators in a number of authentic situations, but also compels those to use English with techniques that change from everyday classroom relationships, mimicking more authentic vocabulary use.
Generally, drama will involve as an imaginary person usually within an imaginary situation and sometimes a real one (Venugopal, 1986). The learners are given fairly controlled cases to interpret. Play is defined by the range of the task of problem-solving to be able to accomplish their goals. Students need to know of their capacity to learn from each other as well as to learn independently. They should be aware they are working towards an objective within confirmed time limit. This can sharpen their concentration and at the end of the lessons they should have satisfaction of experiencing achieved that goal (Venugopal, 1986).
Drama in education is a setting of learning. Through the pupils' active id with the thought role and situations in crisis, they can figure out how to explore issues, happenings and relationships (O'Neil, 1994). In play, students draw on their knowledge and connection with real life in order to build their own experience they may have as well as their knowledge, that they have gained from catalogs, films or television set. Although, these imaginary situations may initially seem superficial and only action focused, through the teacher's direction and careful treatment it should be possible for the work to grow in depth. In creating a make consider world students will come to understand themselves and their real life where they live.
In order to activate in theatre activities students don't need sophisticated theatre skills. However, they must be eager to (O'Neil, 1997):
- Make believe in regards to to objects, for example,
- a table-top may become a wagon or raft;
- a circle of seats may symbolize a starship;
- cupped hands may include a precious subject.
- Make believe in relation to activities and situations, for example,
- creeping over the institution hall may be method of escaping from the jail;
- a group sitting down huddled on the floor may be people by using an emigrant ship;
- stealing a bunch of keys may symbolize a test of stealth and cunning for the warriors.
- Adopt a role, for example,
- settlers who seek a new life in a overseas country;
- poor children living on the pavements;
- teenagers who've kept home.
- Maintain the make believe that verbally, for example,
- describing the doorway where they spent the night;
- presenting the reality about child labour to the committee for reform;
- discussing the issues to be confronted over a voyage.
- Interact with the rest of the group, for example,
- agreeing to join the team of the starship;
- choosing a head for the city;
- teaching an art to a pal;
In drama activities, students are given the opportunities to sketch mutually all the bits of language they have learnt and practice it in situations they will probably encounter beyond your classroom. In virtually any theatre activity, learners must create the relationships themselves based on their roles alternatively than perform with techniques that contain been predetermined by the educator (Littlewood, 1981).
This freedom of preference supplies the students the opportunity to use their British learnt to build up the type, therefore promoting spontaneity in activities comparable to real-communication. Drama in a way helps students to improve oral and verbal communication despite spaces in their knowledge. However, the use of picture credit cards and other aesthetic cues will filter these gaps.
Drama activities are essentially public activities and entail contact, communication and the negotiation of meaning. The type of the task will impose certain stresses on the students but will also bring considerable rewards. Co-operative activities are incredibly exceptional in the Malaysian universities. Too often students are trained to work as individuals also to be both competitive and possessive about their successes. Episode on the other hands, works from the strength of the categories.
Drama can be an individual's spontaneous action responding to others in a hypothetical situation. The fundamental core of the experience is understanding the situation of another person, and to do that well the player' must come to hold with the other members' roles, not merely his own. In practice, this works whenever a player' is given the basic information about who he is, what he's like, and what he needs to do. He must connect to others and associate his situation to theirs and gain a larger knowledge of the roles, the relationship and the terms involved (Revell, 1979).
Mime consists of the expressive use of the body. It is a non-verbal representation of an idea or account through gestures, physical motions and expressions. It may seem odd that mime should be inspired in language coaching, as it does not involve words. It must be borne at heart that though no terms is used during the mime, it will become a catalyst to generate language during the discussions before the mime is offered and also elicit words when there is dependence on explanations (Edwin, 1992). Mime is thus used to enrich verbal features alternatively than replace them. After having a mime treatment, parallel exercises are carried out where appropriate words are put into the mime activities. Within the English language school room, unlike in theatres mime activities aren't demanding which makes mime activities suited to poor and shy students who lack the required level of dialect effectiveness. Mime activities can be included into views from text messages or improvisation of displays from text messages.
Simulation and role play supply the opportunity to move away from the original role of teachers and also the classroom setting plans where the category is rearranged to mirror the problem that is being dramatized (Edwin, 1992).
Role play can be used for students of different effectiveness levels. However, the professor will have to decide the degree of control over the circumstance for the role play. For the very shy and low proficiency students, teachers could ask students to dramatize interactions and dialogues immediately from the text messages. For students with some British proficiency, instructors could provide a situation, which is relatively set up so these students would feel self-assured and become more inclined to participate. A lot more efficient students could get less structured scenario and they should be prompted to attempt to improvise the same word.
In role play, a student is required to imagine that he is either himself or someone else in a particular situation. He'd be asked to react exactly as he feels the individual would. His portrayal of the character can help him understand the type and provide a romantic experience with the literary wording. There are various kinds of role play, for example, remarkable plays, history dramatization and socio-drama, seminar style demonstration, debates and interviews.
Simulations are episode activities that often mirror true to life. They can however be imaginary. They are often problem dealing with activities and students bring their personality, knowledge and experience into these activities. Among the normal varieties of simulation is the mock trial. It is popular with students and courtroom cases are quite easy to be developed from literary texts, often predicated on the conflicts encountered by the people in the storyplot. Other forms of simulation can also be encouraged. For example, group work by means of psychiatric therapy consultations can be carried out.
When planning for a lessons on role play or simulation, the professor should think about the learners' degree of language proficiency, their passions, needs, attitudes, motivations experience and capabilities. The teacher also needs to be aware of the goals of the lesson, the teacher's role, selecting materials/helps, the preparation for the crisis activities, the organization of the lesson, the actual execution of the lesson and the importance of follow-up classes. (Edwin, 1992)
Drama activities require creativity and inventiveness. For instance, how will they express themselves in the role of the rat that refuses to be changed into a horses for Cinderella's carriage? What guidelines will they set up for their newly founded society on a remote island? They are not the usual workbook exercises associated with traditional classroom learning. They require higher-order thinking techniques that are at the heart of every creative endeavor (Ruth, 1993).
It is often said that episode is a rehearsal for living. Through episode, children can pretend to be people or things they find interesting and significant. They are able to relive the encounters of others and their everyday activity and illusion world. They can experiment with communal roles and along the way identify and empathize with others, learning their concerns, confronting their problems and experiencing their successes and failures (Ruth, 1993).
Empathy is the capability to see life from another's point of view and to feel with that person. Students begin to build up empathy as their thinking matures and they move from egocentricity. Through drama students have opportunity to see the world from another viewpoint and to answer as that person would act in response. If students can experience walking in someone else's shoes', more understanding of others and more effective communication will direct result (Ruth, 1993).
However, it must be known that dilemma activities can't be substituted for conventional coaching methods. It only will serve as a go with to the traditional methods. They can be activities that provide the students an possibility to use their own personality in creating the material on which area of the language class is to be established. These activities pull on the natural capacity of every pupil to imitate, mimic and express him or herself through gestures. They pull, too, on the student's creativity and memory, and natural capacity to bring alive parts of his or her past experience that might never in any other case emerge. They are simply dramatic because they arouse our interest, that they do by sketching on the unpredictable power made when one individual is brought together with others. Each scholar brings another life, a new background into the class. We wish students to have the ability to use this whenever using others (Maley and Duff, 1978).
Another way to obtain motivation is play activities have close resemblance to mature society. Many claim that schooling prepares students forever in contemporary society, yet too many students feel no personal participation in university and are just intended for the purely academics pursuits it presents. Since, drama activities often portray the adult society to that your students will soon belong, they can give the students a real feeling of finding your way through society. The activities usually encourage the students to make liable responses in complicated situation, that they may face later in life. That is a very important experience for the students. However, the actions should be within the scope and features of the students, in any other case the actions will be boring, meaningless, and even aggravating (Hymes, 1972).
The most crucial kind of learning which is related to experience in dilemma is a rise in the students' understanding about human being action, themselves and the earth they live in. This understanding which will be different from the usual thought process and feeling should be the primary goal of crisis activities. The instructor, at exactly the same time must remember the increasing competence of the students in play activities and the satisfaction they get from working within these activities.
Literary content material and drama activities complement each other for designed activities in the British language classroom. Drama activities comprise motion and mime, role play, group improvisation and simulations. The incorporation of both components in the English language class room can make learning a stimulating and motivating experience. But many professors are being skeptical, if not horrified at the idea of using theatre activities in their terminology classrooms (Edwin, 1992).
Drama activities can be used to teach vocabulary skills and also develop the cognitive, affective and ethnical needs of the students. The use of drama activities will help bring back some of the important emotional content in to the dialect learning experience which is often lacking in communicative terms classrooms. Play activities should not be misconstrued as accomplishing plays but rather they must be considered as coaching tools, which aid and deepen the training process.
From the educational perspective, drama activities aren't new. Only their use within the English Terms classroom is a recently available development. Nevertheless, episode is a useful technique of teaching and learning especially in encouraging interactions, exercising the terminology used and in acquiring fluency. In the perspective of coaching and learning English as a Second Language, the explanation for using dilemma rests on the premise that authentic terminology use grows when the members have a purpose for connecting (Brumfit and Johnson, 1979).
More often than not professors are confronted with problems of getting their students motivated to their learning tasks. It is not an exaggeration to state that the response could be drawn from the utilization of theatre activities. That is one of the key strengths drama has to offer which is to encourage the eye of learners. In the event the students are small children you will see no problem because they are natural celebrities and clowns who like little or nothing better than a game. But, if the students are children, the teachers have to cope with the inevitable pressure they suffer because of their expanding sexuality and physical changes. If they are adults, they'll tend to relate knowledge with being serious and working hard (Ladousse, 1991).
Some timid students do not desire to appear foolish before their classmates. They just do not need to be humiliated due to mistakes and problems that they could make. Dilemma helps many shy students by providing them with a cover up' (Ladousse, 1991). The learner gets the support and coverage of the face mask' to hide behind but will speak as the character in the problem rather than as himself (Morrow, 1981). Here, inhibited or timid learners can become more responsive, thus showcasing how episode enhances participation amongst learners.
Drama activities provide numerous avenues for group work and studies on second vocabulary learners show that using episode activities in the language class has increased students' determination, self-esteem and spontaneity (Edwin, 1992).
The following are specific merits of the utilization of episode in the ESL school room (Wan, 1990).
1. Stimulates real conversation
Drama activities stimulate genuine learner-to-learner conversational connections. The actions also develop conversational competence among second words learners (Richards, 1985).
2. Fluency activity
Brumfit (1984) refers to theatre as a fluency activity where opportunities occur for the learners to utilize language widely and creatively. Play focuses on using words as a conversational tool.
3. Increases motivation
Drama prompts mental and physical activities. The activities require active participation. Focus is also often required and it is challenging for a student to stay unaggressive for long. Situations are manufactured for the students to work with the words meaningfully which would stimulate students towards involvement. The less enthusiastic students will slowly but surely be drawn into the activity when they see the remaining group having a great time (Wan, 1990).
4. A rest from routine
The use of play activities is a rest from the most common textbook teaching and the chalk talk approach to the tutor. The college student has opportunities to mix around and respond out different functions. The atmosphere in the class is less formal and this can help lower the Affective Filter thus, reducing pressure (Wan, 1990).
5. Prepare students for real life and unpredictability
Real life situations and marketing communications are unpredictable. A student may learn all the right types of communication but may not know when to utilize them appropriately. Play provides opportunities to respond to these situations and provides the students a flavour of real life (Wan, 1990).
6. Creates level of sensitivity and a sense of awareness
Drama brings the exterior world in to the classroom. This may have results in conditions of social connections and cultural awareness (Wan, 1990).
Some students have fixed ideas in regards to what a good class teacher is. They usually expect a rigid, fixed treatment in their coaching. Students are being used to being passive and expect instructing to be teacher-centered. Behaviour like these have to be changed. Before this can be done, the teacher's frame of mind needs to be altered too. She must recognize her new role where she will not dominate the course anymore and allow the students to dominate without having the fear of getting rid of control (Lee, 1991).
Drama requires a lot of time and therefore it will depend on the ability of the category to execute the duties. The professor thus has to understand the school well to be able to assign the students' activities to match their abilities.
The insufficient space and the large number of students can make the organization of the actions difficult. Noise levels may also be high. Monitoring of different groups can also be a difficulty. The professor thus has to adjust and improvise appropriately, for instance, looking for an alternative place or even undertaking the activity outside the house (Lee, 1991).