Many people with ASC (autism spectrum conditions) have intricacy in discovering feelings in themselves and other people. For small children learning to speak, suffering from autism present a particular problem with their teachers as well as parents as they are faced with the challenge of instructing these unfortunate children how to express themselves through talk. The importance of effective communication cannot be underestimated. Yet instructing students with autism is not a simple task, it needs endurance and use of special assistive technology tools to help these children understand how to form words and use them effectively. There are many technologies you can use, while other are simple some of these technology are so advanced and needs extra training to use them. One of the basic technologies that is used for a number of years is Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS ) studies have indicated that this technology boosts communication of children with autism This paper intends to discuss on the utilization of this assistive technology to educate students with Autism.
People with autism spectrum conditions have impairments in public communication; one of them core impairment can be an intricacy with the interpersonal emotional reciprocity in addition to nonverbal communication such as gestures, facial expression and eyeball contact. Regularly, people who have autism spectrum conditions have difficulties identifying emotions particularly complex thoughts that demand metalizing (jealous, embarrassed, sarcastic) in both themselves and other people. Many of these complications can add to obstacles in keeping and making friendships and other stimulating peer relationships.
Assistive technology tool means any device, item, or product system, whether purchased commercially, modified, off-the-shelf, or tailored, that is utilized to keep, increase, or improve useful abilities of men and women with disabilities. Assistive technology service directly assists people with a impairment in the acquisition, selection, or use of your assistive technology.
The theory of mind is one conceptualization used to make clear the social impairment in autism spectrum conditions (Golan and Bauminger, 2006). The idea states that folks with autism spectrum conditions provide an intrinsic impairment in conditions of recognizing the psychological perspective of others. That is, they have problem imputing feelings, meaning, and objective to other folks. Deficits in this part are serious to effective cultural connection, to a great scope it is anticipated on knowing what other people are sense or thinking.
Getting to learn emotions is one aspect of the ability to take another person's perspective. A number of studies have researched on the interventions to educate individuals with autism spectrum conditions to recognize emotions. These comprise social skill training (Golan and Bauminger, 2006) and assistive technology interventions. For example, Bauminger (2006) evaluated the use of your behavior based intervention to aid in the sentiment acceptance skills of 15 high responding kids with autism, age groups 8 to 17. The involvement involved lessons from a social skill syllabus used in the school setting for 2 to 4 time weekly for 7 calendar months. The lessons made up of activities such as role play and just performs with a normally producing peer and focusing on the skills acquired from each regular lesson with parents at home. The end results showed advancement in the kid's mental potential and knowledge to give examples of difficult thoughts. Specially, at post involvement, the partakers with autism were likely to start social communication with the peers and spent lots of time displaying encouraging public behaviors.
In another analysis, Hadwin, Baron-Cohen, Howlin, and Hill (1996) taught children with autism spectrum conditions to foresee and identify feelings in others by using a computer based involvement called the Thoughts Trainer. Partakers between your age range of 12 and 20, integrated in the control group or an experimental, were identified as having either Asperger symptoms or autism. This program comprised of five sections that incorporated requesting the user to pick the correct feeling out of four options describing photographed cosmetic expressions, occasions or situations, and descriptive captions and objects. Contrasted to the control group, the experimental group demonstrated improvement in their potential to recognize feelings in tale and cartooned circumstances that brought on an mental response, but not in their identification of sentiment in pictures (cosmetic expressions), which both treatment and control groups demonstrated improvement. The next section will take a look at Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) among the key assistive technology used to assist students with autism.
This is a low technology assistive system created as an augmentative and alternate communication (AAC), where pictures are being used in place of words to assist children with autism to converse for their problems in talk development.
At the initial stage of using PECS, a child will get lots of pictures of favorite toys and games or foods. If the child requires any of these things, he simply provides picture of the specific item to a therapist, educator or even caregiver (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002). The person receiving this picture in exchange hands the toy or food to the child. Through this exchange, communication is then strengthened.
Similarly PECS can as well be employed to make ideas regarding things viewed or read within the surrounding. For instance, students might view an automobile passing by and give a picture of an automobile to his educator. The objective of this method is the fact, whenever a child starts to acknowledge the importance of communication, the kid begins using natural conversation instead of pictures.
A university student with autism can be taught how to utilize this technology by his educator, caregiver or a therapist, who is aware of just how this technology works. Normally, an applied patterns evaluation (ABA) method is applied. Through this technique, prompts are offered to regulate the picture exchange. Way more, in the original phases of PECS training, the scholar selects a picture he desires and gets what is on the picture, for instance food. Acquiring food is intended to give a confident reinforcement to the student for his use of the picture in communicating.
Stage I: the tutor lists down a set of the student's favorite items normally you start with foods. A single item from the list is chosen for the beginning training lessons, and item's picture is attracted. The item can be put in a location obvious to the student, to permit the student to view the item however, not to choose it. When the kid seems considering the item, the teacher gives such students a picture cards of that. The teacher leads the student's palm to choose the picture and present it to the educator. As soon as the teacher will get the greeting card from the learner, he communicates loudly the want the scholar wants, for instance, he say "and that means you want the wedding cake" and give the cake to the kid.
Stage II: the teacher moves a little distance for the student to go towards him to give the picture card to the instructor.
Stage III: the university student will get several picture credit cards so that he can choose the one representing what he wants. The determined picture greeting card is given to the teacher, at this moment; the student could use a binder or a communication plank where the cards will be presented.
Stage IV: at this time, the student is provided with a greeting card written on "I want____. " The learner has to use this card together with the picture cards illustrating what is wanted. The idea is that the student will learn the way to talk through complete sentences. Those students who can not browse the words can maintain a position to identify the words written as symbols on the card.
Stage V: prior to the stage, the pupil hasn't been directly what he wants, at this stage, the professor asks the university student immediately what he would like, and then waits for the college student to select an image representing what the students wishes. This lesson builds the foundation for future communication between your pupil and the instructor when the tutor wants to determine what the pupil wants.
Stage VI: as soon as the student can fluently use PECS, and has were able to generalize the machine to make use of it to talk to other people in addition to the teacher; the university student is taught just how make ideas on something that he has observed. The teacher accumulates something interesting and asks the college student to state what the item is. At that level the tutor also picks a cards with "I see _____. " The university student is to complement the card with what he is seeing. This way, the child is able to learn how to connect what he observes regarding his experiences to other folks (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002).
The express encouragement coming from immediately receiving what a scholar with autism is the key principle of PECS. Students can show his interior wants without speaking any words, and be rewarded. Such tangible rewards greatly reinforce such a kid compared to public rewards, particularly through the initial level of communication. PECS could as well increase the social relations of an autism child. This is because the child can learn to initiate communication; more so, at this point the child is not expected to speak, so the child is less intimidated.
A amount of studies completed have mentioned that PECS is useful tool in assisting children with autism. For instance, a study completed by Schwartz, et al. (1998) on eighteen preschool students suffering from autism and with speech difficulties set up that those children could actually communicate through PECS in their school days. However, after a training of one time, almost 50 percent of these children stopped to utilize PECS and instead started out to natural communicate (Schwartz, et al. 1998). More studies promoting this observation were found by (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002). generally, information from a number of studies have established that PECS assistive tool is an efficient technique in developing natural conversation in children suffering from autism, especially if they are taught how to utilize this tool when is below six years (Bondy, 2001).
This technology has no known aspect effectives to children with autism. Though a number of parents exhibited concerns that their children could conclude depending on PECS as their communication tool, and fail to develop their natural speech, this concern lacks any credible support from studies. Over the contra, there may be credible evidence exhibiting that children suffering from autism are able to learn through PECS to develop their conversation quicker in comparison to those who have not used PECS (Bondy, 2001).
Children suffering from autism conditions have impairments in public areas communication; one of them core impairment is an intricacy with the public psychological reciprocity in addition to nonverbal communication such as gestures, facial expression and eyesight contact. Such children need special assistance when at school to improve on the communication special talk. Teachers and caregivers have a number of assistive technologies that they can use to aid these children. As mentioned above one of the very effective and user friendly assistive technology is Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS), though it will involve only six phases, they offer the child with the required speech mechanism and enable a student with autism to al least have the ability to form words and speak his feelings. Nevertheless, as known by Charlop-Christy, et al. (2002) this technology can be utilized as well as other solutions for greater results.