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Effect of Paradigms on Research Methods

Each paradigm brings a distinctive view to analyze also to how fact and all of which it is composed should be viewed. No paradigm is more effective than another as each looks at reality in another way. Interpretivism is a paradigm which was created as an alternative to Positivism and had taken an alternative approach to research by stimulating the use of qualitative, in-depth data to build knowledge. This article, The Insider's Connection with Long-Term Peer Victimisation, by Mackay, Carey and Stevens (2011), is informed by the Interpretive paradigm as it aims to understand the idea of bullying from a subjective perspective by using personal experience. The usage of the Interpretivist paradigm influences every aspect of this research from how the topic is viewed, the purpose, the way the research problem is presented, the assortment of materials, how the data is analysed and viewed as well as the moral considerations of the study.

Interpretivism, much like other paradigms, has a unique and distinctive view of the world and of the way the world should be recognized. Interpretivism will not accept fact as it appears at face- value. Instead this paradigm says that reality involves people's subjective experience of the external world (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, Histories of today's: Social technology research in context, 2006). This means that a global which is distributed by everyone is experienced in another way by everyone as each individual applies their own unique perspective and so this means to their encounters and actions. In order to understand this kind of reality, the habits and problems which happen the truth is and even answers to these problems; Interpretivism proposes that research explores people's subjective activities and actions and the meanings or reasons they put on these actions and encounters.

In order to conduct research through the Interpretivist paradigm, the researcher must take a unique position to reality and to the subjects in the study. The researcher is required to be open and empathetic. Empathy consists of attempting to view the values and activities of other as they themselves would view or experience them. Therefore, the use of empathy will allow for the researcher to fully understand the individual's subjective experience and the meaning they mounted on the experience. Empathy and understanding of the subjective experience may be accomplished through the Qualitative methodologies which Interpretivism uses. These methodologies develop a subjective relationship between your researcher and the participant that allows the researcher to interpret the info at a deeper, involved level and also to form ideas from the interpretations in a mutually - produced manner (Mottier, 2005). Eventually, it is important to emphasise that what sort of Interpretivist paradigm sees reality, the way the researcher partcipates in the study and the various research methods used by this paradigm all work simultaneously and influence the research to be able to answer the study question in a specific, desired way.

The theme of the analysis is usually the first area of the research which is set upon. How the researchers wish to review and understand the topic, however, is inspired by the research paradigm, "Paradigms are all-encompassing systems of interrelated practise and convinced that define for the researcher the type with their enquiry" (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, Histories of today's: Social science research in context, 2006, p. 6). The topic of the article by Mackay, Carey and Stevens (2011) revolves around bullying and the knowledge of bullying. The experts have chosen to look at the activities of bullying which requires those to look into the data deeply as the experience of bullying is not simple but an extremely personal experience which includes many complex layers and effects to understand. Through this issue, the effect of the chosen paradigm, Interpretivism, begins to immerge. Kelliher (2005) says that Interpretivism is based on the assumption that if people are researched according with their social context, there's a greater potential for understanding the meanings associated with and perceptions they may have of their experiences and actions. Therefore, the interpretivist paradigm is properly suited to examine and understand the concept of bullying as a cultural action and a interpersonal problem experienced by individuals. This is because this paradigm focuses on the meanings underpinning individuals activities and associated with individuals experience (Kelliher, 2005). In the long run, it is clear that how the topic has been viewed and investigated is influenced by the Interpretivist paradigm as the analysts have chosen to study bullying within an in-depth manner and to view it from a subjective or personal perspective in order to comprehend bullying in its entirety.

The paradigm informing the study also has an impact on the purpose of the study as the paradigm signifies what type of questions are asked about the topic and the purpose of the research is to ensure these questions are clarified. This notion is supported by Durheim (2006) who declares that even though the paradigm does not directly define the purpose of the research, it offers a guiding platform for the purpose of the research. The article states that the entire purpose of this research is to increase the understanding of bullying through the personal experience of bullying patients who have experienced long- term victimization (Mackay, Carey, & Stevens, 2011). The research is however split into three sub-questions or purposes in order to gain a full representation of bullying.

The first reason for the study is to understand the victims' perspectives of what factors contributed to bullying while the second purpose aims to comprehend the why the victims allow themselves to be consistently put through the bullying. The 3rd purpose of the research is to provide information on and discuss various treatments and interventions of bullying. All of these research seeks rely heavily on the non-public opinions and experience of the victims. Thus it is visible that Interpretivism takes on an indirect role in the formation and fulfilment of the research purposes. It is because these purposes have a qualitative, interpretivist mother nature as they might need the researcher to explore the experience of the individuals. Therefore only Interpretative, qualitative methods focusing on individual's personal activities can completely and properly fulfil these purposes.

The assortment of materials in research typically involves the type of sample and participants used, the sampling methods and the technique used to gather data from this test group. The technique used within Interpretivist includes various Qualitative methods that are clearly used in the research conducted by Mackay, Carey and Stevens (2011). These interpretivist methodologies had a great impact on the type and variety of participants used, how the participants were selected and how the data was retrieved.

The participants found in this research needed to be subjects of bullying and needed experienced bullying for the majority of the school year. These specifications of the individuals are undoubtedly affected by the Interpretivist aspect of the research which aims to comprehend the subjective encounters of individuals and for that reason, the study specifically requires the participants to own subjective experiences of bullying which is often analysed and interpreted. The test population size used in this research was also affected by the Interpretivist characteristics of the research. Only three participants, one feminine aged eleven and two guys aged twelve and fifteen were decided on to take part in the research (Mackay, Carey, & Stevens, 2011). That is due to the fact that Interpretivism only needs a little amount of individuals in order to achieve a important, ethnographic inquiry. This small sample is also affected by the kind of interpretive data research which can be used, specifically Interpretive Phenomenological Examination (IPA). IPA requires an even smaller test sizes than typical interpretivist research as it analyses the instances of the participants in intense detail rather than using many members to form generalizations, "The detailed case-by-case research of individual transcripts requires a long time, and the purpose of the analysis is to say something at length about the perceptions and understandings of this particular group" (Smith & Osborn, 2007, p. 55). Thus, it is clear through the extremely small sample society, that Interpretivism and IPA have had a direct effect on the number of participants decided to be utilized.

The interpretivist character of the research requires the study to rely seriously on the members and their experience and for that reason these individuals should be picked extremely carefully (Scotland, 2012). How big is the sample inhabitants and the requirements of this populace greatly affect the kind of sampling used in the research. Regarding this research, only a small sample inhabitants, who experienced personal experiences to be bullied, was needed. Therefore, purposive sampling was used to meticulously select these kind of members. Purposive sampling is the typical sampling method used for interpretive research as it allows for a particular band of participants, that the research question will significant, to be chosen (Smith & Osborn, 2007 ). Inevitably, the use of purposive sampling was affected by the Interpretivist nature of the research as it allowed for the perfect sample population to be chosen.

The approach to data collection is also an element of research which is without a doubt affected by the paradigm informing the research. Interpretivist research generally focuses on using the energy of ordinary words and expression in order to comprehend the interpersonal world (Terre Blanche, Kelly, & Durrheim, 2006). That is achieved through Interpretivist data collection methodologies that are flexiable and yeild indepth, qualitative data; for example interviews, target organizations, observations and role-playing (Scotland, 2012). The semi- structured interview, which can be used in Mackay, Carey and Steven's (2011) research, is a common type of data collection method prepared by the Interpretivist paradigm. It is because a semi- set up interview allows insight on behaviours to surface and also supports explaining actions and experience from the individual's perspectives which is the primary goal of this research. Scotland (2012) further states that semi- organized interviews are unique as they allow the participant to openly express themselves and then for the participant to delve deeper to their report. In Mackay, Carey and Steven's (2011) article semi- structured interviews are used precisely for this purpose as the study requires the method of data collection to be able to get the particpant to show intimite information on their victimization and also to enable important areas of the topic to be probed. The price, "if it gets bad, the educator will. . . actually say the names of the bullies, and they get really embarrassed. . . In order that usually maintains them down for a couple of days. Which really is a relief for me", in the article taken from a individuals interview cis just one single example that shows how the particpant could explain and express their thoughts around their experience through the interview.

The paradigm informing the study instructs the study to utilize certain participants, collect certain data in a certain way and therefore it also instructs the research how this data must be analysed. In Mackay, Carey and Steven's (2011) research, the Interpretivist paradigm has influenced the utilization of the Interpretive technique, Interpretive Phenomenological Evaluation (IPA), to be able to analyse the data in manner which will deliver the results needed. Generally, IPA is utilized to look at how individuals interpret their world and their experiences and attempts to understand the meaning of these interpretations and encounters. When exploring a specfic matters such as bullying, IPA focuses on attempting to understand what the average person believes and feels about the topic and how they have got personally experienced the topic and ultimately changes these details into designs (Chapman & Smith, 2002). The use of IPA is clearly seen through the results of the research which used how the individuals defined their experiences to create themes of why the victims sensed they were bullied. A good example of this is seen through the theme, 'being different' which emerged from the interpretive research of the victims' statements such as, "they tease me about being [name]'s good friend, because she's different" and "They tease me about being different, because I look after my brother"(Mackay, Carey, & Stevens, 2011).

IPA is also distinctive from other Interpretivist research as it realizes that the researcher takes on an active role in data analysis as they interpret the individuals' interpretation with their experiences to be able to reveal habits and designs in the info (Smith & Osborn, 2007 ). The usage of this interpretive approach is noticeable in the research by Mackay, Carey and Steven (2011) as the analysts regularly mentioned the emerging designs throughout the info analysis process to be able to assure that both found were related to the experience of the average person. Thus, the impact if the interpretive paradigm sometimes appears in the data analysis of the research as it allowed for the use of IPA to create styles. IPA was specifically needed to be able to completely understand and interpret the individuals' encounters but also allowed for themes or templates to be made based on these three encounters.

In Mackay, Carey and Steven's (2011) research, the way in which the designs and studies were shown was based on the interpretive character of the research. By using IPA, the superordinate themes, 'experience of victimization' and 'Strategies' and their subthemes were generated and were shown in an exceedingly simple thematic stand (Mackay, Carey, & Stevens, 2011). Typical to interpretive research, the thematic stand including the superordinate and subordinate styles is then discussed and the themes are described in depth and are supported with statements made by the participant (Chapman & Smith, 2002). A good example of this is seen when speaking about the bullying plan at school which was discovered through the research to be inefficient and was support by statements such as, "Yeah that they had a bullying coverage, but no one abided by it. " (Mackay, Carey, & Stevens, 2011). Terre Blanche, Kelly, and Durrheim, (2006) further state that Interpretive techniques in communicating research findings make use of "evocative words" which is strong language used to bring about images or feelings (p. 274). In the results of the research the use of descriptions proclaiming that the vicitms experienced, "only one or two friends" which there was an "unwillingness of instructors to suspend bullies" creates an image of the challenge and outcomes of the bullying being experienced by the participants. Ultimately, the impact of the Interpretivist paradigm is obvious through the thematic stand and different linguistic techniques used to discuss the results of the study.

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