Effect of the Internet on Brain and Cognition

  • Robert Deichert

Research Article Review

Article 1: "Searching for Explanations: The way the Internet Inflates Estimations of Internal Knowledge" (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Printed online March 30, 2015)

Matthew Fisher, Mariel Goddu, and Frank Keil, the three research workers in charge of this review, were interested in studying the Internet's results on the mind and cognition. More specifically, they desired to discover if having access to the Internet for the purpose of searching for answers to basic knowledge questions would increase one's self-assessment of self-confidence in responding to other questions unrelated to the initial Internet-based questions.

In introducing this issue, the researchers introduced the thought of a transactive ram system - something wherein multiple individuals encode and retrieve recollections and information all together. This enables individuals in an organization to split cognitive jobs between group members, and it reduces the mental fill on each individual within the group. As an example, in the case of a three-person hunting and gathering group, one person may be in charge of remembering how to locate food, another with how to hunt family pets, and another with how to prepare the food. Every person does not have to remember all three - the entire set of information is stored over the memory systems of most three individuals. All folks are required to interact and piece together their individual stores of knowledge to hunt and gather food, and everything individuals rely on the other person for information. This is a transactive ram system.

The idea behind this review is the fact, theoretically, one person and the web can form sort of transactive storage system in which the individual seems that the vast stores of knowledge on the web are commonly accessible anytime, and the average person will feel a lot more confident in his / her capability to answer standard knowledge questions simply because he or she can query an Internet search engine (the other party in this sort of transactive ram system) at any time and access the data stored on the web. To test this hypothesis, the analysts used a between things design with two sets of members and two conditions. Individuals in the first group were asked some basic knowledge questions and informed to make an online search to find answers. Participants in the next group were asked the same set of basic knowledge questions; however, they were told never to make an online search to find answers. Following this, members from both organizations were asked to rate their ability to answer unrelated questions from various topics. The analysis didn't test real potential to answer following, unrelated questions, but rather perceived potential, or confidence.

The resulted confirmed that members who used the web to research general knowledge questions prior to being asked to rate their confidence in responding to other questions were a lot more confident in their potential to answer the subsequent, unrelated questions than the people who did not make an online search to find answers to the initial knowledge questions. Various additional experiments were performed by the research workers to account for time spent answering questions while searching the internet and whether participants were considering Internet knowledge when self-assessing self-assurance. Additionally, the analysis showed that confidence-boosting effect is because having access to and using an Google search. After using an google search, participants were a lot more confident in their own knowledge and in their ability to answer every other basic knowledge question, even though the knowledge was not stored in their mind but on the web.

Article 2: "Narcissism and the Use of Personal Pronouns Revisited" (Journal of Personality and Public Psychology. Posted online March 30, 2015)

In this analysis, researchers wanted to determine if a connection exists between a person's usage of "I-talk" and his or her level of narcissism. "I-talk" is the utilization of first-person singular pronouns such when i, me, and my. It is a commonly performed belief that those who speak about themselves frequently and use a large amount of I-talk are usually more narcissistic than those who do not. However, this intuitive marriage between I-talk and narcissism was not thoroughly tested and concretely proven or disproven. The goal of this research was to definitively identify a marriage between your two, if such a romantic relationship exists in any way.

Very few studies have been done on this subject, and the results of these studies have been inconsistent. On top of that, previous studies upon this topic havent employed very large test sizes. This research study's goal was to come quickly to a concrete final result on the topic by employing an extremely large test size and answering a few related questions regarding the marriage between gender, I-talk, and narcissism and framework, I-talk, and narcissism.

To make this happen goal, researchers set up a large repository of information from over 4, 000 members and 15 specific samples accumulated across five laboratories in the US and Germany. Each test contained anywhere between 68 (regarding Sample 2) and 1, 209 (in the case of Sample 14) members. Each sample was assigned to take part in a different activity made to identify usage of I-talk in individuals. For instance, in Sample 1, university Psychology students videotaped self-descriptions that were later transcribed and analyzed for I-talk. In Sample 4, university Mindset students were seated in a classroom randomly and asked to separately step forward and add themselves to the other members in the class room. In addition they participated in various other tasks, including writing down traits about themselves and rating the other students' presentations. Everything was transcribed, registered, and examined for I-talk consumption. Other samples included analyzing individuals' Facebook status updates, doing a stream-of-consciousness saving job, and other various activities designed to enable the measurement of I-talk. On top of that, each group's designated task was categorized predicated on the context of the activity prescribed by the task. These included personal information, personal, impersonal, private, general population, and momentary thought contexts.

After each participant in each sample group participated in the recommended activity, he or she completed a narcissistic personality questionnaire and a self-esteem test. Most members were implemented the 40-item or 16-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem test.

After analyzing the info, the researchers found that there is not a statistically significant connection between I-talk and narcissism. Individuals' self-esteem and narcissism scores got no significant relationship with their consumption of I-talk. Also, the framework of the experience did not have an impact on this finding. There was a marginally higher correlation between male members' use of I-talk and narcissism than females' use of I-talk and narcissism, but it was still statistically insignificant and near-zero, just for the female participants. The researchers found that, contrary to public opinion, there is absolutely no connection between I-talk and narcissism, which applies to all conversational contexts and genders.

Article 3: "Locating a Needle in a Haystack: Toward a Psychologically Informed Method for Aviation Security Testing" (Journal of Experimental Mindset: General. Posted online November 3, 2014)

The researchers involved in this study identified a significant problem with current aviation security screening procedures and released a new security screening method of their own creation. They provide experimental evidence recommending that their method is much more accurate and constant in discovering deceptive passengers transferring through air-port security checkpoints.

Currently, most aviation security checkpoints employ a behavioral approach to deception popularity. Security screeners look for nonverbal behavioral cues from travellers that may signify that the traveler is trying to deceive the security screener, including twitching, nervousness, aggressiveness, fidgeting, plus some verbal indicators such as stumbling over words and hesitating while speaking. This technique results in an alarmingly low rate of passenger deception diagnosis of 5%. That is, according to the researchers, due to the failure of this method to take into account the real content of the passenger's verbal profile and the truthfulness of his / her statements.

The researchers suggested an alternative approach to screening called Controlled Cognitive Proposal (CCE), which was developed based on laboratory studies done on veracity evaluating techniques in two-person verbal exchanges. CCE will not focus on behavioral cues, but rather on the real verbal exchange and conversation content between screener and traveler. CCE entails a security screener executing a short, one-on-one interview with a traveler. The interviewer will not ask scripted questions; instead, the interviewer uses a process to set-up new questions instantly for the passenger that derive from the conversational framework of the interview. CCE is trained to security screeners as an algorithm that the screeners may use while doing an interview to generate unique questions for each and every passenger that were created specifically to check for traveler truthfulness. Interviewers may then evaluate a passenger's answers to all of the question for uniformity and, thus, truthfulness.

To experimentally test CCE and compare it to the traditional, behavioral method of aviation screening, the study employed two groups of security agencies and two groups of passengers. The first band of security providers was assigned to work with traditional behavior-based testing at a checkpoint, and the next group was designated to work with CCE screening. The first passenger group was a genuine group of passengers determined from individuals passing through the international airport checkpoint. The second group of individuals was an example of people chosen by the experts to feed the same security checkpoint, but with a deceptive cover story being advised to screeners. The two passenger organizations were matched in structure by the research workers. The researchers assessed the rate of detection of deceptive people for non-CCE security real estate agents and CCE security brokers.

The results of the analysis show that veracity trials methods, like the CCE method produced by the research workers, are a lot more effective at detecting deceptive people. Traditional behavior-based screening process methods only diagnosed about 5% of deceptive people in this review, but CCE, a way of veracity screening, diagnosed 66% of deceptive people.

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