Posted at 10.14.2018
The problem of Waste materials Management has be a continuing concern in Nigeria but came into lime light in 1988 with the removal of toxic waste products in the then Delta Express (Edo status). Nigeria as the utmost populous country in Africa has an estimated inhabitants size of about 160 million people, a growth rate of 2. 37% and produces an annual municipal waste body of 25, 000, 000 tones. This policy models to recognize the probable resources of waste era, their results, and disposal methodology and thereafter recommend mitigation strategy for Misuse Management by proffering probable way to its management through:
Its Beneficial consumption through the 3R's of throw away management and
Development of Statutory, legal and legislative laws for the management of throw away.
The Nigerian overall economy is the one that has experienced lots of environmental problems in it's over fifty (50) years to be an independent region. There apparently seem to be no end in vision except a few radical changes are made to its cost-effective and environmental guidelines. The waste materials management system in procedure in Nigeria leaves a lot to be desired.
The country's current environmental issues include but aren't limited to:
Oil pollution and gas flaring (which impact normal water, aquatic lives, air, and lead to lack of arable land),
Waste pollution (which in turn causes air, land and water pollution),
A take a look at nine (9) of the major locations in Nigeria provides fairly good notion of the catastrophe the country is looking at in conditions of unchecked waste material technology and management.
One would expect that a country of such magnitude both in inhabitants size and financial importance will have structures in place to adequately fight the menace posed by waste products technology and management but this is not the situation as the country doesn't have an individual sanitary landfill for misuse disposal. It disposes waste in wide open landfills and dumps.
The environment is a continuously changing one and the number of waste generated raises with an increase in people, people's attitudes and immediate urbanization. In providing a solution and investing in place an insurance plan to manage waste products in the Nigerian economy a clear understanding of what waste is and how it is produced is required.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) defines waste materials as materials that are not perfect products (that is products produced for the marketplace) for which the generator does not have any further used in conditions of his/her own purposes of development, transformation or utilization, and which he/she would like to dispose.
Residential waste material: household waste materials and kitchen waste
Commercial misuse: office misuse e. g. papers
Institutional throw away: papers
Municipal throw away: sludge and standard waste
Process waste materials: scraps
Agricultural misuse: pesticides
Construction waste products: wood, Cement etc
Drilling: Oil spillage, gas flaring, coal, ash
EFFECTS OF IMPROPER Misuse MANAGEMENT
It is a favorite fact that our environment is badly protected rather than many Nigerians know the real opportunity and the ramifications of this issue.
Waste management is the act of collection, storage area and removal of waste to avoid pollution, degradation of the environment. This amounts from ordinary household, commercial wastes even made by factories and nuclear electric power plants.
Proliferation of vermin: Mud has been regarded as the breeding grounds for vermin like rodents, mosquitoes and microbes
Water pollution: This occurs mainly when surface normal water is contaminated from oil spillage and washed off chemicals that enter in the ground. This has an adverse influence on marine life, normal water and deforestation occurs because crops get contaminated water to their roots.
Air pollution: This occurs when waste material is incinerated indiscriminately in public areas without the proper facilities being utilized and even dumped on view. The incinerated waste especially plastic material release toxins that could produce acid rainfall and the smoke could cause lung destruction.
Land pollution: This occurs when throw away is not deposited at proper disposal sites but is dumped in available landfills. This causes a blot on the landscape and a reduction in property price where such landfills are found.
Public MEDICAL ISSUES: The unregulated dumping of waste materials which gives room for microbes and insect to breed creates health issues such as: malaria (mosquitoes), typhoid (contaminated home drinking water source) etc.
Reduction in Agricultural creation: waste materials especially oil spillage, gas flaring, substance contaminants reduce the quality of the garden soil and this in turn is seen in the reduced amount of agricultural produce
Methane development: which if not treated properly triggers green house result and add to ozone depletion (unmanaged waste smells and creates the gas)
Climate change causes an increase in the strength and frequency of weather extremes, such as heat waves, floods, droughts and tropical cyclones. The individuals hardest hit by local climate change and environmental degradation are those residing in the most prone areas such as coastal areas and Delta Regions in Nigeria. This local climate change and the effects it generates lead to property harm, business interruption, forest fires and health risks.
Flooding: This occurs when waste material is disposed in drainages by man or by natural incident (washed by rainwater). This may causes flooding when rainfall falls.
Erosion: The presence of chemical substance and toxic waste material in the land reduces its compatibility and triggers soil wash off when rainwater falls.
The problem of inadequate waste removal and management practice in Nigeria is dependant on a few controllable factors that are highlighted as:
Enlightenment: Nigeria's citizens lack the general knowing of world's best practices for waste disposal, management and the possible effects of non-compliance on the health.
Meager financing: The cash allocated to each condition for waste material management is insufficient to battle the problems of environmental throw away. Areas like Lagos have only 5-7% of the state governments allocation to battle misuse management.
Obsolete technology and inadequate equipment: The people who have been given the job of waste removal and management do not have the equipments and technology to get the job done.
Inexperience of personnel: The staff who have been allocated to deal with waste disposal and management don't have the specialized knowhow to start performing.
Incomplete policy to combat incorrect waste disposal: The policies on ground never have been improved upon to meet the changing society size, urbanization and world's best practice.
Sanitary Landfills: Nigeria as a country does not have a single sanitary landfill to its name. It uses open up landfills and dumpsites for its waste disposal which is not hygienic and environmentally friendly.
Traffic: This situation is more prominent in urban cities where in fact the distance between your point of collection of misuse and the removal point could take a whole day to protect because of traffic congestion
Legislature implementation: Nigeria has the uniqueness of making laws with no the legal occurrence to execute them and has cascaded to the waste products management sector.
Government Legislation: In situations where there are environmental regulations in place, the fines related to breaking the regulations are not a good representation of the offence devoted. eg Environmental Sanitation Edict NO:12. 1985 stipulated a fine of two (200 ) naira or two( 2) weeks in prison for going out on sanitation times.
GOVERNMENTS Work SO FAR
It is accepted that the Nigerian administration has set up several environmental body to curb the increasing environmental issues brought on by waste generation.
Such body include:
Federal Environmental Security Organization (FEPA) was founded on 30th December, 1988 by the Federal Government to secure a quality environment for Nigerians.
National Environmental Standards and Legislation Enforcement Company (NESREA) was established in 1999 to enforce environmental laws. It was established as a subset of FEPA.
Each condition in Nigeria has its own Environmental Protection Firm e. g.
Lagos Express Environmental Protection Firm (LASEPA)
State Ministry of Environment
National Oil Spill Detection and Response Organization (NOSDRA)
The technical alternatives recommended for federal approval are:
Prevention of waste
This technique will include procedures like: increasing the shelf life of a product (increasing product warranty) by citizens in their everyday activities.
Waste Generation Decrease.
The key to attaining waste generation decrease is for the government to create understanding. Inform people on the effects of waste generation on the current economic climate, the environment and themselves and to suggest them on throw away generation reduction techniques of shopping. This technique says that:
People should only purchase what they need (requirements and essentials)
People should purchase reusable products and goods
People should buy products with little packaging
People should buy recyclable products
The federal government should setup misuse compositing sites at strategic places. Compositing involves the utilization of anaerobic bacteria at high temperature and in the existence of Oxygen to process and breakdown biodegradable waste materials into different components that are safe to the surroundings and the end product can be utilized as fertilizers by farmers.
The Nigerian authorities does not have any recycling office or product in its environmental organization and also has no recycling plant. The key to recycling is within educating people on the several classes of waste and the different means of removal and separation. The procedure of recycling requires the reprocessing of waste products to produce a different or new product. This technique should involved both federal government and the people
With the reduction of the water content in generated waste, incineration can be executed in an enclosed space under certain conditions to create heat and energy you can use to create electricity. The government should understand this option as another opportinity for energy generation as with the population size in the country the waste generated will be placed to raised use. This can only be achieved if citizens develop the practice of classifying waste into: general throw away, recyclable misuse and reusable waste.
Nigeria as a country does not have an individual sanitary landfill. A sanitary landfill is usually used for the ultimate waste that cannot be reused, recycled or composited. The bottom is dug and lined to avoid the contamination of surface drinking water and the misuse is crammed and lined then covered with dirt to lessen its smell and stop animals from digging it up. The sanitary landfill site should be located far from residential areas. The government should look at creating a few sanitary landfills in key areas in the country
Set up understanding campaign to teach people on the world's waste removal and management best practices
Provide specialized knowhow and training programmers' to environmental waste products management firm employees
Companies and the kind of waste they generate should be listed with the government so as to enable the federal government put facilities on floor to dispose and deal with the misuse.
Different types of waste must have different throw-away sites.
The removal and management responsibility of waste should be cascaded down.
The government should get private traders who will assist them in controlling the generated waste
Encourage the era of a specialist body for waste disposal and management
Ensure that there surely is accountability for just about any waste disposal issue that may arise in the country.
Ensure waste materials policy's are implemented
Ensure that physical, informative and financial facilities are put on floor to adequately overcome environmental waste removal and management.
Creation associated with an adequate legal shape work to try offenders of waste materials management laws is going a long way in.
Finance research into waste reduction and throw away utilization technique
ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF RECOMMENDATIONS
Methane: The methane generated from fermentation if handled properly can be utilized as baking fuel.
This the government can truly add as another source of cooking fuel rather than kerosene and firewood
Incineration: Heat and Energy generated through this technique will be utilized in electricity technology which in turn reduces our reliance on hydrolic electricity generation
Compositing: This is a source of fertilizer to farmers that is environmental friendly
Agriculture: The improvement in soil quality will lead to a corresponding increase in agricultural produce which if exported is a source of forex.
Reduces erosion: The upsurge in comportment of the dirt will reduces the likelihood of erosion occurring with rainfall
Good ground normal water and aquatic life survival: This will provide clean drinking water for human ingestion and place growth
Healthy populace: With the advent of a sustainable environment the country's human population will be healthy and free from waste and drinking water borne diseases.