Embedding Total Quality Management In Private Universities Management Essay

The previous chapter contains a books review about TQM, the management methodology that started in manufacturing and business and then expanded within the service sector and particularly in advanced schooling. Research demonstrates by adapting aspects of the TQM to fit their own needs, advanced schooling organizations experienced a much better ability to control the procedure of quality, and keep maintaining and boost development. Vazzana. et al (2000), in their study about TQM running a business colleges discovered that most PU's benefit from their look at at using TQM to enhance the quality of these universities. Likewise, Weller (2000) in his research of using the TQM tools to recognize root factors behind advanced schooling attendance problems figured the application of TQM's tools and techniques to solve advanced schooling problems as highly appealing as it is in PU's areas.

The purpose of chapter five was to provide a general understanding of the subject. The present chapter is about how exactly TQM has, and can be, implemented in the PU's, what benefits PU's can get from implementing TQM, concerns about, and circumstance studies of some PU's that have implemented TQM and what problems and benefits have been came across in this framework. The section concludes with a suggested model for TQM in the PU's in Egypt.

5. 2 TQM in Private Universities Context

Ever more, the execution of TQM has expanded over professional organizations and has converted deteriorating companies into world leaders. Although the origins of TQM are grounded in statistical evaluation of performance, with statistical quality control being the principal tool for verifying the success of TQM actions, TQM lays importance on the individual element of an organization (Deming, 1986; Juran, 1988). This makes TQM well suited for service sectors generally speaking and particularly education. Although educational organizations have been slower to start to see the value of TQM, most of them are actually using TQM to boost their administration also to face inside and external difficulties. As Mangan (1992) notes:

Faced with soaring functioning costs and prolonged public demands for accountability, an increasing number of universites and colleges are embracing TQM and its own principles of customer satisfaction, teamwork, and worker empowerment as a tool to improve how corporations are been able.

There are three universal approaches to TQM in advanced schooling (Harris 1994), First of all there is a customer focus where the idea of service to students is fostered through personnel training and development, which promotes student's choice and autonomy. The second approach has an employee focus and is concerned to value and enhance the contribution of most members of personnel to the effectiveness of an institution's operation, to the environment of procedures and priorities. This entails a flatter management structure and the popularity of responsibility to use it by identified working groups. The 3rd approach focuses on service agreements position and seeks to ensure conformity to specification at certain key measurable points of the educational operations. Evaluation of tasks by faculty in just a specified timeframe can be an example.

Lawrence and Mc. Collough (2001) propose something of guarantees made to cater to multiple stakeholders and the many and changing assignments of students in the educational process.

Durlabhji and Fusilier (1999) says that customer empowerment in education requires higher input from students as well as from business community that will eventually utilize them and this in term will streamline education and eliminate any rest of the esoteric academic which exist in business coursework.

In his model of distributed command for controlling change in higher educational companies, Gregory (1996) suggests four proportions of institutional control symbolic, politics, managerial and academics.

In handling educational change there's been basic criticism (Iven, 1995) that government initiatives are being pressed by a "narrow, employer-driven strategy". Plan makers do provide an obligation to set policy, establish criteria and keep an eye on performance. They must articulate important educational goals (Fullan, 1993).

Roffe (1998) considers that due to open up competition, students are becoming more customers as well as consumers and expected to pay a growing share of the costs of education.

TQM execution in PU's, Osseo-Asare and Long bottom level (2002) proposes enabler criteria, which affect performance and help organizations achieve organizational excellence. These requirements are leadership, insurance plan and strategy, people management, resources and partnerships and operations.

The literature contains infinite cases of Total Quality Management principles incorporation in education. The application ranges from school level (Weller and Hartley, 1994 and Schmoker and Wilson, 1993) to higher education level (Sahney et. al, n2004 and Wiklund et. al, 2003). Some studies give attention to the feasibility of employing TQM in educational.

Anderson (1995) reported the results of any case study to judge the potency of a TQM programme at the University of Houston, University of Business Administration. He found that the implementation of TQM experienced some excellent results such as increasing the college student perceptions of service quality.

Moreover, some studies show that TQM is also used to solve some specific issues. Weller (2000) reported that TQM guidelines may be used to identify main problem triggers for absenteeism. It also can help in identifying realistic solutions which yield excellent results in educational and non-academic areas.

The TQM pedagogical notion applied to higher education embraces all domains and degrees of education and impacts the next:

Physical facilities (buildings, sport complexes, available field etc. ),

Academic infrastructure (laboratories, collection, records, communication, information infrastructure etc. ),


Examinations and analysis systems,

Supplying academic and administrative personal and their improvement systems,

Research and publication,

Institutional development programs (strategic planning),

University - industry - contemporary society relations,

Deming claimed his development system can be applied to service organizations as well as to making organizations (Evans and Lindsay, 1999). Number 4. 3 with regards to TQM is applicable Deming's creation model to higher education. This technique depends upon the answers to these main questions. Who are the stakeholders (customers and suppliers)? What are the inputs and outputs? What exactly are the key procedures?






High Schools

Business Sector

Vocational Institutes







Design & Redesign

Teaching Program

Customer research

Where are we now and where do we want to be?


Figure 5. 1 TQM in ADVANCED SCHOOLING System

In amount 5. 1 the stakeholders will be the customers and suppliers. The stakeholder categories may easily be lengthened beyond the users shown in the groups as customers and suppliers. Suppliers include young families, senior high school, Vocational institutes, and business. The customers include the business community, graduate school, society, student, and families. Colleges have a large quantity of different customers as shown in the amount 5. 1. College or university management should consider the relative importance of each customer group and balance and reconcile the passions of these diverse teams. Students as consumers of knowledge and services are considered to be 'the main customer'. Taking students as an important band of customers can be studied as a revolutionary change in the management of quality in higher education. That band of students, as the consumers of education, will include potential students, existing students and graduate students. The college or university has different priorities and services for every group of students who constitute the key customer group and tries to meet their different needs. For instance, introductory training for potential students, student counselling for existing students and alumni associations for graduate students.

Processes include all areas of teaching, scholar counselling, and technological research. The first process is to determine the educational needs of students in conditions of their existing knowledge, future career opportunities, and the needs of the city and its own future development. Other operations to be followed are organizing curriculum for lessons, including allocating resources, organizing facilities, supervision and support, and lastly instructing and learning. The quality of all these techniques must be effectively and visibly promised. Like developing systems, educational systems range from a means by which costumer research can be conducted to evaluate and improve supply. For instance, by observing students, analyzing test results, and using other resources from pupil feedback, trainers can assess their own efficiency and develop strategies for improvement. Some colleges and universities review their graduates and their graduates' employers to assess consumer satisfaction with their product. Feedback such as that stated, helps colleges, departments, and individual faculty associates to redesign curriculum, improve course content, and improve services such as academics advising.

While industry usually has a product or service, educational establishments don't have perceived "products" in the generally accepted sense. Education has many outputs and inputs but the results from the process stage tend to be difficult to quantify in the short term. The inputs to the educational system are students, faculty, support personnel, buildings and equipment and other facilities. Outputs include people who have new knowledge and capabilities and research findings as seen from the amount 5. 1.

5. 3 Quality Control of Higher Education

Vevere (2009) referenced quality control to confirmation types of procedures (both formal and casual) employed by institutions to be able to monitor commitment level to quality requirements. Vevere schemed quality control of advanced schooling as interconnected system as shown below in amount (5. 2).

Figure 5. 2 system of exterior and interior control of advanced schooling. Source :Vevere, Nina (2009)

According to find (5. 2) above, exterior control institutions confirm the commitment to standards that higher education institutions claim. It really is a fundamental principle of TQM to integrate TQM internally within the institution of advanced schooling and externally with international organizations of education (Tang & Zairi, 1998). The International Accreditation Corporation (IAO, 2010) is an impartial and private education accrediting looks for to the best possible global educational requirements. IAO is a member of the International Education Accreditation Commission payment (IEAC), which is concerned with establishment, maintenance and improvement of expectations of accreditation firms throughout the world. In each country, there's a local body\bodies coordinate and cooperate with international systems concerned with higher education quality. In Britain, as an example, the Division of Employment can be involved whether graduates can satisfy the needs of employers (Harvey et al. , 1992). In Egypt, few universities received educational ISO and highly satisfied benchmarks of National Expert for Quality Confidence and Accreditation (NAQAA) for a few specializations.

5. 4 Great things about TQM for Private Higher Education

As the earth is currently considering a remarkable change and education is considered the leading competitive change tool, so TQM as concluded in chapter four and explained in section five is actually a reasonable way for producing. The literature review of TQM is showing that lots of writers have motivated the utilization of TQM in education.

Sallis (1993) argues an educational group could reap the benefits of making use of the TQM way both in human being and financial conditions. Sallis highlights that some ideas of TQM like 'right first time' can't be directly put in place in educational organizations but educational organizations can still benefit from such a concept. He suggests that if an education business applied TQM, problems will be reduced with clear systems and types of procedures, and good team work through careful and thoughtful planning. In this aspect, one can notice that although TQM actually started in processing and it has somehow obtained business language, but it continues to be versatile enough to be modified by PU's.

Murgatroyd and Morgan (1993) showcase the benefit of holistic corporation in applying TQM. They talk about that TQM is not worried just with the results of education, but with the complete nature of education as an activity for many stakeholders.

Howard (1996) declares the following ways that PU's can reap the benefits of implementing TQM:

1. Stakeholder value through customer target.

2. Employee commitment and development through engagement.

3. Goal success through strategic planning.

4. Services improvement through ongoing process improvement.

5. Cost lowering through eradication of unnecessary duties.

Howard highlights the advantages of TQM for PU's from three different sizes: human aspect, financial dimension and planning dimension. In the individuals dimension, the stakeholders are satisfied and employees are determined; in the financial aspect, money and other resources are preserved; and in the look dimension proper planning contributes to goal achievement.

Therefore, the literature on TQM argues that implementing TQM in PU's would save time, money and work through doing things right first-time. TQM will also help PU's to show values for all those stakeholders, provide better quality provision and communication and continue seeking innovation and improvement.

5. 5 Obstacles about TQM in Private Universities

According to Srivanci (2004) and critical issues in implementing TQM in PU's includes management, customer identification, ethnic and organizational transformation.

Deans and mind of departments cannot eliminate unethical work practices of lecturer's like what's applied in public areas universities where rigid rules is deployed. Hence they do not enjoy ultimate authority in selecting and firing of employees and allocating resources.

Owlia and Aspinwall (1997) conclude that customer orientation is a more problematic basic principle of TQM when put on PU's because of special characteristics of several academics whose motivation to work is often impartial of market issues. Education consider as a provider of services. Its services include advice, tuition, assessment and information to pupils and students, their parents and sponsors. The clients and the stakeholders of the service are an extremely diverse group and need identifying. If quality is about appointment and exceeding customer needs and wants, it is important to be clear whose needs and needs we ought to be satisfying. The variety of customers makes it even more important for educational companies to concentrate on customer wants and to develop mechanisms for giving an answer to them. In PU's where the education process depends totally on the customer's fees to run, a funding trim may lead to a reduction in service that might not exactly accord with what customers are nourishing back. This is not much important in public areas colleges where it is recognized from government. This is a very difficult issue to solve and TQM will not provide ready answers to it in private universities.

Cultural and organizational change in PU's main issue is under the frustrates the introduction of typical TQM procedures is the process of academic independence as it takes on out in individual professorial classrooms and their professional lives. Another important issues is that faculty members have a tendency to work alone more often the jointly in projects given that they gain more managerial and financial benefit at the contrary in public colleges.

The hurdles that cause unsuccessful adopting and applying TQM in PU's academia are (however, not limited to):

The aspect of the academia world, which makes the change process slow.

The level of resistance of academicians to improve, so to find out about the new approach to doing things.

The characteristics of some organizations as non-profit corporation, which decrease the motivation to look at new management technique.

The attention of the academicians (in their readings and studies) on their narrow specializations.

The TQM strategy and tools are relatively new especially in the producing countries.

High turnover rate of staff, which prevents build up of experience and preserve the momentum of change.

The lack of employees (units) who are customized in TQM.

The common supervision problem, is adding a high ranking and qualified staff in the best position depending on the previous experience not on their field of expertise i. e. the leaders of the establishment could be customized in skill, physics, anatomy or any other field however, not in general management and specifically in higher education management.

5. 6 Case Studies of TQM Implementation in Private Universities

To review the experience of some educational organizations with TQM, in order to gain understanding from their activities in proposing the TQM model for PU's in Egypt and in developing the implementation platform. Much like benchmarking, it is best to learn from the activities of others than beginning with scratch. The books covers PU's that have adopted TQM. For this study the case studies will be evaluated from the perspective of US and UK experience where the two countries are well reputable in advanced schooling.

5. 6. 1 US experience

The first attempt to put into practice TQM in US higher education commenced in 1985. The activity distributed quickly and in 1990, 78 advanced schooling companies were reported to be checking out or wanting to use TQM.

The common element in US advanced schooling is that it is being driven toward commercial competition imposed by economic forces. Competition is the result of the introduction of the global education market on the one hands, and the reduced amount of governmental funding that forces general public organizations to get other financial sources, on the other side. For example, at Oregon Condition University the government cut funds by 35 percent. Some colleges, such as Virginia Commonwealth University responded by lowering staff incomes and increasing tuition fees. North Dakota University taken care of immediately such cuts by increasing the number of students without increasing quality. Competitive factors between universities did not enable lower quality, so many corporations want to industry for ideas. Taking into consideration the similarities between experience met in the industry world and those faced in higher education, the TQM procedure can be a solution for the "do more with less".

Today more than 200 private establishments of advanced schooling get excited about TQM throughout the united states. There are lots of success stories in america. The activities of some US higher educational organizations prove that the result of using TQM in private higher education is positive.

5. 6. 1. 1 Oregon Status University

One of the very most publicized success stories is that of Oregon Express University (OSU). For a number of reasons the first pilot review was conducted at OSU. First, quality was considered a high-priority concern. Second, it includes big probability of success. Third, management arranged that it was important. Fourth, no one else was working on it. Fifth, it was also important to the customers of the organizations.

OSU, as innovator of TQM in higher education movement, has already established a genuine success; "time has been saved, costs have been reduced, people have been empowered whatsoever levels, and morale has skyrocketed".

Oregon State University or college followed the following steps as a planning level to implement TQM:

Exploring Total Quality Management through going to companies with TQM programs, welcoming Deming to visit and clarify TQM, reading key resources and attending TQM classes.

Forming a pilot review team that was regarded as a learning experience for the OSU's personnel and a model for future teams. It consisted of 10 managers and front-line personnel, a team leader, and a training official/ facilitator.

After the first pilot team experience, they commenced employing TQM by concentrating top management on tactical planning, like the following steps: determining the mission, understanding customers, figuring out the critical processes of the leader, developing the vision and identifying breakthrough items.

Developing an exercise program, a quality manual and a acceptance system.

Establishing daily management system.

Establishing located cross-functional teams.

5. 6. 1. 2 Northwest Missouri Condition University

Northwest Missouri State College or university is another head in TQM in higher education. It identifies its success as: enrolment is now at capacity: the budget is well balanced; faculty incomes are greater than average; and about 10% of budget has been shifted from supervision to instructions. The implementation of TQM followed the next steps (Waller, L. D. , 2000):

Senior management started out to learn about quality management.

Developing internal experience that was required rather than obtain some ready improvement methodology and count on outsiders to supply the expertise.

The management of the transformation became a full-time venture for those school district employees who had been involved.

The introduction of command training and development for principals-to-be. This was to provide this critical group with ongoing improvement skills needed in the schools.

A decision making process at the school level was launched.

Classroom Learning System was created predicated on Deming's problem handling Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle.

5. 6. 1. 3 The College or university of Pennsylvania

The College or university of Pennsylvania is committed to TQM in the Wharton University MBA; curriculum has been developed using TQM ideas. Moreover this College or university has improved the method of recouping commercial research changes and reduced charges from $ 18 to $ 13 million.

The university proposed an eleven-step model for employing TQM

The leader adopts quality as the center of institutional value system and communicates this value, and works to develop determination to it throughout the organization.

The president promotes the value through frequent symbolic and substantive activities.

Educate administrators and educational deans in TQM and customer orientation, in team/participative management.

Identify customer's needs and set performance objectives.

Train and designate "internal resource people" who provide technological assistance to all of those other institution.

Train faculty, personnel, and employees in appropriate statistical techniques, process examination, decision making, and customer orientation.

Form quality groups to seek continual improvement along the way and identify specific quality champions.

Define/delegate specialist throughout the institution.

Develop performance dimension systems to continuously monitor the progress of the institution; the dimension should concentrate on the stakeholders' needs satisfaction.

Institute incentives and pay back systems and associate these to TQM objectives.

Work continuously to reduce the resistance to change.

5. 6. 2 UK Experience

The first TQM initiatives in UK higher education were later than in america; the first tries were in the first 1990.

5. 6. 2. 1 De Monfort University

De Monfort University or college (DMU) has some successful results in implementing TQM. The Faculty of Design and Production at DMU completely assessed and revised traditional coaching menthols and programs, which were not appropriate for the end of twentieth century. Educating staff became 30 percent better with double the amount of student, and effectiveness of the modified course content was extensively reorganized by industry, university student and other design faculties. In Leicester Business Institution at DMU, with the use of TQM, higher contribution rates and upsurge in staff productivity achieved.

The strategic arrange for the implementation was rooted with the concepts of identifying the customers, understanding their needs and serving them well. The program focused on the following steps:

The establishment of a quality council comprising the university's most senior academic and non-academic professionals. The goal of the council is to examine the university's procedures and critical success factors in order to recognize key issues for improvement.

Raising quality awareness through a series of awareness training. These training provide early on education and training for actual and potential council customers. In addition to the awareness courses, there is certainly specific trained in quality management tools and techniques.

Using quality function deployment to ensure the customer satisfaction. This technique was applied in the Department of Eyesight Sciences. There were eight essential areas to consider: students' desires and needs, skills essential to meet the desires and needs, program and course content to provide the skills, corporation and evaluation of the programme, resources, execution of the program, monitoring discrepancies between goals and effects, and control of the machine in changing circumstances. However, the knowledge of quality function deployment exhibited it to be a sophisticated tool.

De Monfort School did not use a particular TQM model but instead only used the TQM ideas, tools and techniques whenever appropriate and possible, because was difficult to offer an objective evaluation to its success or of its cost over the years.

5. 6. 2. 2 South Loan provider University

Total quality management initiative premiered in 1992 at South Standard bank University. This has involved a thorough and ongoing review both of the quality of service it offers for its students and the wider community and of its academic quality, specifically in the area of coaching and learning.

South Bank University or college, decided at an early on stage that it will reflect more accurately the theory that real quality issues engaged the ongoing determination of all personnel, support and academics, by any means levels. Students are rightly inspired to be engaged more actively in the learning process, to be critical and imaginative about their own learning.

Within five years, linking TQM into the strategic planning process, South Lender started to set up a competitive gain by "achieving differentiation (of its training) through the grade of the learning experience, if a way are available of advertising this to potential customers". It is expected that up to ten significant quality improvement measures (for example in educational staff time preserved by increased efficiency in validation steps or in improved feedback from student course board staff) will have been achieved at the cross-university level in response to common problems determined through the quality service agreements. Most of all, there will have been a big change in the culture of the organization where all staff allows their personal responsibility for quality improvement as a natural part with their job.

The quality management plan can be summarized as follows

The vice-chancellor and mature executive take direct responsibility for management of the university's quality plan.

Quality commitment to all college or university elements.

Continuous improvement is everyone's responsibility.

Deployment of resources to aid quality management.

Quality management responsibility is most beneficial handed by functional levels.

Encouragement of the diversification of quality management forms.

Development of personnel.

From the product quality principles and objective statement, critical factors of strategic importance are diagnosed: coaching and learning, research, community service, institutional management, main concern resource allocation, improving specialized and information support, and quality advancement steps. These factors developed a framework for further actions in the product quality plan.

In employing TQM, each faculty made its quality committee to provide command and to increase quality improvement at faculty level. Dependable officers (e. g. deans) are costed with ensuring that performance focuses on are achieved within the specified time. As a part of staff development, brainstorming can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses.

South Bank University or college learned that the determination of the personnel to the product quality initiatives and personnel development, in addition to the stakeholders' involvement and empowerment are crucial to the conditioning of an excellent culture.

The reason for presenting case studies is to learn how they applied TQM and propose a model that suits the PU's in Egypt.

All of the five educational organizations began to use TQM as a way to respond to the great demand for change and improvement. Some used TQM to face the reduction of funding or the challenge of competitiveness.

This is the case in the PU's; it faces challenges and needs to encourage improvement, as talked about in chapter four. In Implementing TQM, universities get used different TQM models regarding with their needs. TQM requires ingenuity, responsibility and involvement from managers and staffing in an environment of cooperation and available communication. It needs commitment at the very top level. It needs strong visionary authority that will facilitate the social change toward continuous development. TQM also requires the establishment of an environment of teamwork. Another important issue about applying TQM is that the very best management play a significant role in planning the organization's techniques. The PU's as an educational firm should purpose at fulfilling stakeholders' needs. Nevertheless, TQM requires time, effort and a determination to change. It creates a learning corporation where education, training and re-education are essential for TQM success.

TQM requires personnel in any way levels to be motivated to do not only what's better but what is best by the participation and empowerment of most staff. TQM is approximately believing that there surely is always a better way to do the services of the business. So, engagement and empowerment, training and education, and ongoing improvement are character types of the TQM organization.

The execution of TQM appears to be more effective if it is continuous and well-planned. It also needs appraisal using quality tools and techniques. This is a very trial however, not impossible. It just needs time and perseverance and a view point. From the previously discussed circumstance studies, it appears that TQM approach succeeded in educational adjustments and this success can be translated in to the following results:

Saving time.

Saving effort in the long term.

Saving money and resources.

Establishing a quality culture.

Identification of strong and disadvantages.

Stakeholder empowerment and engagement.

Communication empowerment.

Better understanding of stakeholders and their needs.

Building a positive teamwork environment.

Raising power delegation.

TQM is a management process in the sense it must be supported and encouraged by senior management. In its place more similar to the procedure of the universities in which each member of staff is valued, both as an individual and as member of the university team. This holistic method of quality management seeks to involve everyone in the achievement of successful effects for the organization all together. The stress is on development which is the central try to universities at the present time.

5. 7 Proposed TQM Model for Private Colleges in Egypt

From the overview of the context of the Egypt advanced schooling (chapter 2), describing the training system there and discussing the results of the pilot analysis, maybe it's said that there are prominent work in developing the training system in higher education generally and the PU's particularly. It seems that all requirements for development can be found. However, there are some issues related to the PU's. These issues might be fixed in the context of TQM. Hence, TQM for the PU's is not intended to generate an mysterious system but instead to give form and clarity to ideas that are already a part of the organizational culture. TQM in the PU's is recognized as program of management approaches for ongoing improvement with appropriate tools for reaching and exceeding the stakeholders' needs and anticipations. The TQM emphasizes that the PU's should have a vision of what it wants to be and clearly define its objective compatible with its vision, and then translate this into attainable, specific important goals.

From TQM concepts and the results arose from the pilot study a proposed model of TQM for the PU's are showed. This model contains seven elements: dedication toward TQM, concentrate on stakeholders, involvement and empowerment, ongoing improvement, training and education, tools and techniques, and rewards. The model is explained after the research and discourse of the field work be evaluated because of its feasibility in PU's in Egypt. The field work is intended to assemble the views about the rules supporting this proposed TQM Model (Physique 5. 3). The views of staff and all different management levels in the university have been searched for.

Total Quality Management





Commitment toward TQM

Recognition & Rewards

Education & Training

Participation& Empowerment

Focus on Stakeholders

Continuous Improvement

Tools & Techniques

Figure 5. 3The Proposed TQM Model

5. 7. 1 Dedication toward TQM

A predominant theme in quality management books is that strong commitment from top management is essential. By definition, dedication can be an intellectual characteristic, an individual feature that, like honesty, can not be mandated or enforced from outside. Additionally, most types of successful TQM implementation focus on the major and substantive role of the determination of top management. Thus to put into action TQM in the business efficiently, top management has to believe in it - be focused on it. That is the first step. The next and similarly important step is to show the opinion - the dedication to it. The building blocks of a highly effective total quality management work is commitment. Lack of management commitment is one of the reason why for the inability of TQM attempts (Dark brown et al. , 1994). Garvin (1986) reviews that high levels of quality performance were always accompanied by an organizational determination compared to that goal; high product quality did not can be found without strong top management dedication. Likewise, Seymour (1992) declares that the viewpoint of tactical quality management means that the leadership of a business must communicate a note clarifying that constant improvement satisfies stakeholders and becomes the objective of every member of the business.

It is necessary for mature management in the PU's to evidently demonstrate their dedication to improve through TQM by leading others in its execution. While Oakland and Porter (1995) argue that TQM must start at the top level with a serious commitment to quality, they emphasize the fact that the middle management has an integral role that can be played in conversing the note. Sallis (1993) trust them and emphasizes that middle professionals by themselves cannot ensure success. These highlights the importance of co-operation between middle management and the most notable management by stressing the essential role of top management support. For PU's, this theory is of a great importance as some of the issues outlined in previous section will be solved through this basic principle. This is as well as the role that top management plays in legislation and decision making making any change impossible without its support.

5. 7. 2 Focus on stakeholders

Satisfying stakeholders becomes a crucial criterion running a business competition and education is not a exception when it comes to this criterion. Stakeholders' satisfaction is one of the most crucial top features of TQM.

To accomplish that aspect Sallis (1993) shows that there should be a striving to meet internal and external customers' needs and prospects. He adds that it's important to involve the customers in the process since it is their views that count number, not those of the organization's management.

In valuing this component Bergman and Klefsjo (1994) justify that it's more expensive to gain clients than to keep ones who are satisfied, or even more easily, ones who are delighted with something. In education, focus on stakeholders handles the issue of identifying the various stakeholders and their prospects. The stakeholders are internal as well as external. Motwani (2001), expresses that the external stakeholders will be the students and the various organizations where graduates continue their careers also the wider society. The inner stakeholders will be the students and the employees. Thus, the PU's have to earnestly consider how to keep up their stakeholders' satisfaction. This involves the development of long-term planning and of a committed action to quality services. That is in addition to the id of stakeholders and their needs.

5. 7. 3 Contribution and empowerment

It is tempting to believe that, to motivate action on quality, the first step is to change the people's behaviour. An alteration in behaviour should then lead to a change in behavior. In reality, the opposite holds true. If people's patterns is altered first, their behaviour consequently change. An age-old theory that helps to change behavior is the idea of participation. By privately participating in quality improvement activities, employees acquire new knowledge, start to see the benefits of the product quality disciplines, and acquire a sense of achievement by dealing with quality problems. The involvement leads to enduring changes in habit. Participation is decisive in inspiring action on quality improvement (Juran and Gryna, 1993). Involvement may permit the employees to boost their personal capabilities, improve the employees' self-respect, and help them change certain personality characteristics. Participation may increase the management's and supervisors' respect for the employees, and improve the employees' understanding of the difficulties experienced by management and supervisors.

Participation could also change some employees' negative attitudes, reduce discord stemming from the working environment, and present the employees a much better understanding of the importance of product quality. Contribution may contribute to the establishment of the company-wide quality culture.

However, empowerment will not mean that groups have the freedom to ascertain goals or redirect the goals of the business separately. Murgatroyd and Morgan (1993) point out that empowerment commences when the eye-sight and the goals have been completely establish by educational group leader.

All staff engagement and empowerment are essential for organizations which may have transactions with a variety of stakeholders and daily stakeholder problems, such as the PU's. This is especially true as the pilot analysis results revealed that the PU's involve some problems with empowerment.

5. 7. 4 Constant Improvement

Continuous quality improvement is a process that seeks to give attention to resolving problems during techniques and not ready till the finish of the procedure. Deming (1986) in his fifth point advises that the success of the business depends on enhancing constantly the machine of development and service. It's the process of management to ensure that there surely is a continual procedure for improvement throughout the organization. Constant improvement is central to any TQM group, educational organizations are no exception. Sallis (1993) points out that:

As an approach, TQM seeks a permanent transfer within an institution's focus away from short-term expediency to the long-term quality improvement. Continuous invention, improvement and change are stressed, and those establishments which practice it lock into a circuit of continuous improvement.

For an organization such as the private college or university which tries to boost regularly and maintains a tempo with the demand of globalization, constant improvement will be an aid to achieve its goals easier and perhaps quicker.

5. 7. 5 Education and Training

Education and training forms a essential part of TQM. Education and training are one of the key elements of total quality in which many people are involved, so the success of the implementation depends directly about how well they are done (Kanji and Asher, 1993). Many research results show you that education and training are one of the main elements in an effective implementation of total quality management. As stated previously in this chapter a major reason behind the failure of TQM is the lack of training in TQM or the fear of staff from being involved with something they don't know about. Sallis (1993) state governments that:

Staff development can be seen as an important tool for building the recognition and knowledge of quality. It could be the key proper change agent for expanding the quality cultureit is important in the initial stages of implementation that everybody is trained in the fundamentals of TQM.

Thus training and education are essential to provide managers and staff with a knowledge of the aims of the development. Implementing this process in the PU's in Egypt can help in reducing worries of implementing new methods and can help in discovering the root base of problems. Additionally, it will help the staff to perform their tasks appropriately and accurately from the outset.

5. 7. 6 Tools and Techniques

One of the central principles of TQM is focusing on facts. This means that TQM involves the fact that measurement is a very significant process in analyzing whether a business is operating competently. TQM uses different tools and techniques, talked about in section five, to accomplish its seeks. These help the organization to have opinions on the product quality achievement and at exactly the same time planning for the ongoing improvement. Matching to Murgatroyd and Morgan (1993), TQM uses tools and techniques not for the purpose of measurement as a finish in itself but dimension to make educated decisions.

While the complete strategy is what makes the difference to performance, some aspects of TQM do concern 'hard' data and information, but they are often misinterpreted. The critical concern is: how can we acquire good information so that people can make good decisions? The concentration and emphasis is after making decisions, not measurement.

As mentioned in the pilot review results, PU's is suffering from the impractical decisions that aren't easily appropriate in colleges. In putting into action this theory in the PU's, decisions could be more realistic and appropriate.

5. 7. 7 Identification and Reward

Recognition is defined as the general public acknowledgment of superior performance of specific activities. Compensation is defined as benefits, such as increased salary, bonus items, and promotion that are conferred for generally superior performance regarding goals (Juran and Gryna, 1993). It almost should go without saying an important feature of any quality improvement program is the showing of due recognition for improved upon performance by anybody, section, department or division within the company or business (Dale and Plunkett, 1990). To effectively support their quality work, organizations need to put into practice an employee reimbursement system that strongly web links quality and customer satisfaction with pay (Dark brown et al. , 1994).

An organization's total quality management effort must be reinforced with a popularity and reward system that motivates and motivates employees to attain the desired performance. Organizations that are seriously interested in obtaining quality and customer satisfaction must assimilate these areas of TQM into their recognition and reward system.

Reward system approved its performance in TQM success in practice. For example, Wruck and Jensen (1998) note the value of praise system as follows:

For TQM to make lasting advancements in efficiency, it is advisable to establish something of rewards and abuse that complements the new allocation of decision rights and the new performance way of measuring system.

We define rewards broadly to encompass all types of rewards; both monetary and non-monetary like the satisfaction produced by participation in TQM activitiesall these rewards are respected by employees therefore provide motivations or incentives.

In a business such as private university rewards could be utilized to provide determination for staff. When staff is aware that they will be rewarded for his or her extra initiatives they lead to private university or college development, you will see the sense of teamwork and constant improvement that allows TQM to be implemented effectively in the university. This is also true as the pilot review results exposed that the rewards in the PU's aren't systematic rather than fairly sent out among personnel.

5. 8 Conclusion

The evaluation of the books related to TQM in general and within the educational context and the successful execution of TQM in educational organizations has lifted some important and interesting lessons such as creating or adapting a TQM model that is suited to the organization's needs. Another lessons that was pointed up is the fact that TQM's execution requires management support and staff involvement. The truth studies also highlighted the way the TQM implementation wants time, work, training and dedication. To propose a TQM Model for the PU's, the lessons learned from the case studies with the TQM key points and the issues due to the pilot study were considered. The suggested TQM Model includes seven TQM guidelines: dedication toward TQM, concentrate on stakeholders, contribution and empowerment, continuous improvement, education and training, tools and techniques, and rewards. The next chapter represents the methodology found in this research.

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