Posted at 05.10.2018
Empirical evidence is defined as evidence relying on experience or observation exclusively often without scheduled respect for system and theory. This is of the term empirical derives from the ancient greek language term for experience (ÎÎ¼ÏÎÎ¹ÏÎ¯Î±), this means knowledge based on direct understanding of things or occurrences through our senses. Empirical information is necessary in most areas of knowledge, where empirical methods are usually used to a theory or derive a conclusion. Contrary to the theoretical method, the empirical method uses a big amount of witnessed data. It applies mainly to the analysis of empirical sciences, namely the natural sciences but also, as it'll be seen, to that of the areas, as well, which may apparently have no regards to the tangible world of empirical experience.
In the natural sciences, for example, empirical data is crucial and scientists can depend on this to keep experimenting and make improvement explaining the many phenomena and exploring new sights. During biology labs at college, I had developed the chance to observe - amongst others - the passive movements of drinking water and other alternatives through permeable membranes, explaining the osmosis sensation. Furthermore, in chemistry labs I used titration solution to find the concentration of ethanoic acid in white vinegar and examine whether the experimental value arranged with the theoretical one. Indeed, despite small percentage errors, the principles were similar. The central skill of the scientist is to make observations and receive understanding of the exterior world using sense understanding. Darwin, who developed his Theory of Evolution, was predicated on the works of other naturalists but mainly on personal observations during his voyage to chart the coastline of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, plus some Pacific islands, a voyage that lasted almost 5 years, where Darwin made natural history collections. His findings, which were delivered to England (Cambridge), helped bring great interest, and till today his work and ideas on progression are taught in biology classes throughout the world and constitute a basis for further research.
However, while observation of the natural world is necessary for gathering important data for the formulation of hypothetical conjectures, it does not suffice to verify them. Because, fundamentally, human belief is fallible and so scientists must track record, compare and assess their data with the aid of accurate scientific devices such as microscopes, chromatographs, barometers and radio scopes. Louis Pasteur turned out that the most infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms. He wouldn't have effectively discovered the connection between bacterias and disease without the utilization of light microscope, which later also helped him in his studies of fermentation. Further, since in many cases observation is determined by the idea or hypothesis a scientist has chosen to believe and his/her objectives can influence what he/she considers. For instance, in case a microbe was to expand in a multimedia under certain conditions, since experts theoretically know that some examined media are suited to a certain organism, they would choose those multimedia and conditions for this microbe and then consequently expect some effect from it. In what may be called pathological knowledge, the info are biased to the researcher's most prized and preferred hypothesis. Polywater, for example, was thought to be a "hypothetical polymerized form of drinking water that was later found to be typical normal water". Empirical data should then be approached with a mind comparable to discovery and free from the strain of previous theories or connection to a prominent paradigm. For empirical data to be completely evaluated, I believe that every time, they have to be viewed under a new light. In this case an intuitive approach to the interpretation of this evidence might be more fruitful when compared to a strictly reasoned one. In addition, a good scientist should be always guarded against his personal biases. Perhaps it was this attitude of detachment on the analysis and interpretation of empirical data that Charles Darwin experienced in his mind's eye when he said: "A scientific man ought to have no wants, no affections, -- a mere heart of rock". To ensure appropriate use of empirical data, experiments should be repeated so that other experts, researchers, as well as students can observe the results. Peers review can always ensure reliability of the methodical process and appropriate use of empirical information.
In the areas of knowledge, such as Mathematics, the methods used to check knowledge are indie of experience. Obviously, Mathematics involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge, but facts be based upon reasoning alone just as the equation 1+1=2 for example. For many, Mathematics is an part of knowledge where empirical data cannot be used to make progress. It is regarded as the technology of rigorous real truth and an island of certainty within an ocean of question. However, geometry, which is one of its main branches, began mainly as an empirical knowledge, and has been questioned generally in regards to its mathematical certainty. More specifically, the axioms, which Euclid used to derive the theorems of Euclidean geometry, have been proven insufficient and also have therefore been revised and supplemented today. David Hilbert, made important efforts to both axiomatic geometry and basic relativity. Also, Bernhard Riemann changed some of Euclid's axioms with the contraries and developed his theory that the structure of the physical universe is characterised as a generalisation of elliptic geometry. And thirty years later, Einstein concluded that space conforms to Riemannian alternatively than Euclidean geometry. Needless to say, though it is very difficult to validate a geometrical theory, you'll be able to confirm it by evaluating it experimentally. Let's take the exemplory case of the theorem about the amount of the sides in a triangle. This theorem is accessible to experimental test, and Carl Friedrich Gauss carried out an experiment considering a huge triangle determined by three mountaintops. Using optical methods (paths of light rays), and, within the limits of experimental problem, he found that the sum of the perspectives in a triangle equals to two right perspectives. Nonetheless, "the demand for mathematical certainty in empirical things is misguided and unreasonable, since mathematical certainty of knowledge can be only accomplished at the price of analyticity and so of complete insufficient factual content". That is also summarised in Einstein's words: "So far as the laws of mathematics make reference to reality, they are not certain; and so far as they are really certain, they don't refer to simple fact".
The only reason for artwork, many people believe that, is to provide pleasure. Doubtless, fine art will give us pleasure, however, it also plays a part in our understanding of the planet. Thus easily can look at a masterpiece of design as a piece of empirical proof the artist's creative craving, this will not be seen only in view of the pleasurable thoughts it creates but also for the truths they communicate. While studying someone else's travels in Paolo Coehlo's The Alchemist I became aware of situations I acquired never the chance to experience up to now. And, many films have given me motivation, have shifted me and even altered my frame of mind towards life. There is no surprise that art work plays a major role in education and is roofed in the curriculum of virtually all schools.
In my estimation, empirical evidence by means of observation, experience, or experiment should be used in almost all regions of knowledge in order for progress to be produced. But, however well it could have been confirmed by careful testing, the possibility can't ever be precluded that it will may need to be discarded later in the light of new and disconfirming information. Thus, all the ideas and hypotheses of empirical research show the provisional figure of being set up and accepted "until further notice". After all, certainty can't be found in any section of knowledge and discoveries and conclusions proved by test or observation may turn out to be wrong after some years. Observation, specifically, can be inspired by expectation, innovations in technology, as well as subconscious factors. Thus, every scientist should question and analyse any conclusions in the most objective way and not allow prejudice influence his thoughts and his results. Once we found, even "mathematical certainty" has been questioned. And as Einstein said: "The main thing is never to stop questioning".