Posted at 09.10.2018
The main factor of Erikson's psychosocial theory is the introduction of ego identity. Ego identity can be defined as the mindful sense of self that people develop through interactions with others in our social teams. Erikson strongly thought that with every new experience our ego personality alters, and that our behaviours and actions motivated by confidence. Hence Erikson's theory is situated upon the likelihood a person needs to become competent at every stage in life, and develop a specific amount of ego quality before moving on to another phase. Yet if the level is managed badly the average person will emerge with a feeling of inadequacy. In each level of development Erikson presumed that folks experience conflicts where developing or failing woefully to develop psychological characteristics are worried.
There are eight phases of Erikson's psychosocial theory:
Trust vs. Mistrust
This is the most important stage in life and occurs between labor and birth and twelve months of age. The parents / caregivers play a very important role due to the babies utter dependence. Successful Conclusion will bring about a child feeling safe and sound. Failure will bring about a opinion that the entire world is inconsistent and unpredictable. bt
Autonomy vs. Pity and Doubt
At this stage small children (years 1 -3) now change their attention to creating a sense of home control. Success at this time help small children to be comfortable; failing will lead to sense of inadequacy and home doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt
At this preschool level children explore and assert control through play and sociable discussion. Attaining success at this stage brings a sense of potential and leadership. Failing will lead to a sense of guilt, self-doubt and insufficient initiative.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Over the age ranges of around five to eleven children now develop a sense of pleasure in their achievements and talents. Encouragement at this stage is essential for the satisfactory ego strength to be accomplished. Success will lead to competence and failure at this stage will to low-self esteem and uncertainty.
Identity vs. Confusion
Self - exploration and self-reliance are the objectives of adolescence. Over this period of age groups twelve to eighteen individuals need to develop a solid sense of self, self-reliance and control. Failure to do so will effect insecurity and mixed up outlooks on life.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
At this level adults (years 20-35) explore intimacy and personal associations. Erikson's works assumes that a strong sense of personal id is necessary at this time, to build up secure committed romantic relationships. Those that lack sense of do it yourself will suffer from loneliness and melancholy.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Now fully harvested adults, individuals focus on building their personal lives, professions and families. Effective completion of the stage evoke psychological satisfaction that individuals are making a contribution to this world. Individuals who fail at this time feel unproductive and uninvolved.
Integrity vs. Despair
Success as of this level is based on successful conclusion of the previous stages. During later years one demonstrates on life and targets either the successes of your respective life or the failing or regrets of one's actions. Failure at this stage, result in emotions of bitterness and despair. Success at this stage, result in people gaining wisdom even when confronted with death.
Freud's psychosexual periods of development revolve around the belief that personality evolves through a series of childhood stages during which pleasure seeking energies become focused on certain erogenous areas. Also known as psychosexual energy or libido, it is described as the driving force behind behavior. Psychic energy can be an important principle in Freudian mindset. The composition of your brain and development all revolve around the way the individual attempts to deal with psychic energy.
Freud believes that there are five main stages of internal development:
oral (0-18 calendar months)
anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)
phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)
latency (6 years - puberty)
genital (puberty - adulthood)
Of these five levels Freud assumes that each psychosexual level has three main parts:
A physical concentrate: where a person's energy is concentrated and their gratification obtained.
A mental theme: this relates to both the physical concentration and the demands being made on the individual by the outside world as they develop. For each stage, you can do too much or inadequate of what's ideal.
An adult identity type: in the first three phases this adult character type is one which relates to being fixated or caught up at that stage. If a person doesn't fix the psychological conditions that happen at that stage they will always have problems associated with those issues.
The oral stage begins at delivery, at this time the oral cavity is the principal concentration of libidal energy. The child, of course, preoccupies himself with nursing, with the pleasure of sucking and positioning things in to the mouth. Over indulgence at this oral stage results within an individual becoming optimistic and gullible, whereas insufficient satisfaction can bring about an individual becoming pessimistic, envious, suspicious and sarcastic. This level lasts around eighteen a few months.
After the oral, comes the anal level. At approximately one. 5 years, the child becomes enthusiastic about the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the feces. That is their first come across between the id, which derives pleasure from expulsion of bodily wastes, the ego and the superego, which stand for the functional and societal pressures to control the bodily functions. A child at this point may become either anally retentive or anally expulsive. An anally retentive specific is commonly neat, exact orderly, careful, stingy and meticulous. An anal expulsive character results a person being careless, reckless, disorganized, defiant and generally messy. The quality of the anal level, proper toilet training, forever affects the average person propensities to possession and attitudes towards authority. This stage will last from one. 5 to two years.
At this level the greatest of most sexual issues in Freud's perception comes up, The Oedipus complex in men, and the Electra complex in women. At this time of an child's life they become attached to parent of the opposite sex.
In the masculine gender the Oedipus issue places itself from the natural love for his mother, one which becomes sexual due to the focus of libido at this time. The boy now activities castration stress and anxiety, an panic that is due to the fact that his father stands in the way of his sexual wants for his mother. The child now develops hostility and envy toward his daddy but is fearful that his dad will remove his penis, especially since he notices that ladies do not have any. Instead the young guy decides to become all the like his daddy as you can, as it is noticeable that his mom is more drawn to him (the daddy).
As for young females, they face the Electra organic. This conflict roots itself in the young girl's breakthrough that she, and also other women, do not have a penis. At the realization of the she becomes envious of her dad and also evolves an erotic type love for him. Freud refers to this as male organ envy and the kid blames her mother for her noticeable castration. Freud feels that the resolution for the Electra organic comes much later-on and is never truly complete.
Failure to solve at the phallic level develops a identity that can be reckless, resolute narcissistic. It can also have a person fearful or not capable of close love. Additionally it is theorized that fixation at the phallic stage is actually a root cause of homosexuality.
During the latency period, one's libido lays dormant. According to Freud it is a period of "unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. " Throughout this stage from six years to around twelve years, the erotic energy is focused in direction of academics and same-sex friendships.
At the time of Freud's work years twelve was age puberty and at this time the child's libido focus, returns with their genitalia. Interest now becomes to heterosexual interactions and creation and enlargement of life. Young children now seek maturity and intellectual and imaginative creativity. Fixation at this point would bring about an unbalanced life but conclusion will bring about an individual who is psychologically well-adjusted and healthy.
Piaget's work is dependant on the cognitive development of children. He proposed that children's thinking will not develop in a regular design but instead, there are certain points of which it "spikes" and goes into completely new areas and capabilities. He found these abnormalities at about 1. 5 years, 7 years and 11 or 12 years. We can assume out of this that before these ages, children are not capable of understanding things in certain ways.
Piaget's first stage is the Sensori-motor stage, which occurs from labor and birth to 2yrs. During this time period the child's cognitive abilities allows these to distinguish themselves from things and explore the repercussions of intentional action. The child's also knows object permanence: the fact that an subject remains existent even it is not present to one's senses. Piaget divided the Sensori-motor level into six different categories:
Reflexes (0-1 month: The kid understands the surroundings strictly through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.
Primary Round Reactions (1-4 months): Involves coordinating experience and new schemas.
Secondary Round Reactions (4-8 a few months): The kid becomes more focused on the planet and begins to intentionally do it again an action to be able to trigger a response in the surroundings.
Coordination of Reactions (8-12 calendar months): The kid starts showing clearly intentional activities. The child also can combine schemas in order to attain a desired impact.
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 calendar months): Children start an interval of trial-and-error experimentation.
Early Representational Thought (18-24 calendar months): Children start to move towards understanding the world through mental functions rather than strictly through activities.
Throughout the age range of approximately two to seven, children commence to use words and represent objects by co-relating it to images and words; they also experience difficulty in acknowledging the view point of another. Also significant at this time is the actual fact that children partake in role learning. Piaget believes that this characteristic can be linked to the reality they become more and more adept at using icons. He also coined the phrased egocentrism at this stage, which identifies the actual fact that children cannot yet understand concrete logic and cannot emotionally manipulate information.
At this stage children can now think logically about items and events, they are also in a position to categorize objects relating to many features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size or elevation. This level occurs between your ages of around seven to eleven and even though children have the ability to understand concrete businesses it is hard for them to understand abstract or hypothetical principles. Piaget also concluded that children were proficient at inductive logic; that involves going from a particular experience to a general principle.
This is the last level of development corresponding to Piaget's work which can take effect from age eleven upward. At this point it is theorised an individual can now logically and systematically test and consider abstract propositions and hypotheses.
Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are two well-known ideas of human progress and identity development. Although affected by Freud's ideas, Erikson believed that Freud concentrated his theory too much on the id and developed his theory from an ego perspective.
Sigmund Freud theorized that individuals go through five periods of psychosexual development which, issues between pleasures sources help shape an individual's personality. Erik Erikson theorized that individuals proceed through eight periods of psychosocial development where people experience a discord that assists as a turning point in development. Both Erikson and Freud agreed that human being development is basically an unconscious growth; when developmental change occurs it is a gradual, cumulative growth of distinct, universal levels (continuity). Yet Freud's work figured our personality is molded by how well conflicts are solved and whether the demands of certainty affect these resolutions, Whereas Erikson places more emphasis on cultural encounters as identifying factors of a person's development. The Freudian theory says that human behaviour is encouraged by sexual
impulses (sex drive); conversely, Erikson's theory targets a feeling of competence with sociable affiliations as the principal influence on individual behaviour. Additionally it is important to note that the age ranges were simply the same for the first four periods of development.