Essential Anatomy And Physiology Physical Education Essay

Homeostasis identifies the body's ability to maintain relatively stable inner conditions even while continually subjected to external changes. Body's temperature, blood size and heartrate are only a few types of the hundreds of conditions your body regulates to keep homeostatic balance. This interior equilibrium is so important that practically every disease or disorder in the torso can be traced to a homeostatic imbalance.

The maintenance of homeostasis includes:

Control of the water balance of the blood

Control of glucose levels level

Control of body temperature

Control of blood vessels urea level

Each of the inner factors are retained by a separate mechanism that is specific for your factor. However, all the mechanisms for homeostasis talk about common features:

A specific sensor is able to detect the value of the factor being monitored

Any deviation from the required value (norm)is corrected so that the norm is more or less maintained

The corrective mechanism consists of negative opinions.

For your body cells to survive and function properly, the composition and temperature of the fluids round the skin cells (intestinal fluid) must stay much the same.

Corrective mechanism

Rise above norm



Corrective mechanism

Fall below norm

Various organ systems of your body act to keep up homeostasis by having a combination of hormonal and nervous mechanisms. In everyday life, the body must regulate breathing gases, protect itself against agents of disease (pathogens), maintain fluid and sodium balance regulate energy and nutrient supply, and maintain a consistent body temperature. All these must be coordinated and appropriate reactions made to incoming stimuli. Furthermore, the body must be able to repair itself when hurt and be with the capacity of reproducing (departing offspring). Our body must maintain homeostasis to be able to operate properly and assist in progress and development, disruptions to homeostatic functions can have induced effects on the development and development.

Normal blood vessels temperatureRegulation of body's temperature by Homeostasis:

Cold receptors in skin

Warm receptors in epidermis Decrease increase


Heat gain

Heat loss

Vasodilation of superficial arterioles onset of sweating mane lowered as head of hair erector muscles relax and reduced metabolic rate.

Vasoconstriction of superficial arterioles onset of shivering head of hair raised by contraction of mane erector muscles and increased metabolic rate.

Feedback Feedback

Negative opinions in the control of body temperature:

Skin vasodilation sweating bringing down hairs

Heat damage centre in the hypothalamus

Thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus

Rise in blood vessels temp Nerve impulse Nerve Impulse normal blood vessels temp

Blood at original temperature converts off corrective mechanisms

Positive opinions occurs when the responses triggers the corrective procedures to remain fired up, this causes the machine to deviate more from typical. One example is of neurones whenever a stimulus causes a little influx of sodium ions. Positive feedback occurs when there is a breakdown of control systems. In Certain diseases like typhoid fever, break down of temperature regulation resulting in a rise in body's temperature leading to hypothermia, and vice versa if the body gets too frosty (hypothermia).

The body systems, all play a part in maintaining homeostasis; each of them have their own specific roles and parts. The body systems work together in order to operate effectively, no system would be able to work effectively alone.

Organ system

Homeostatic function


Transports oxygen, nutrition and hormones secreted by the endocrine glands to muscle cells and transports wastes away from skin cells; defends against disease; helps control temperature, fluid, and pH balance.


Absorbs soluble nutrients after ingesting food and digesting it, eliminates nondigestible remains. Materials blood with nutrition and drinking water for tissue cells.


Captures oxygen and exchanges gasses at lungs and tissue, maintains deep breathing, helps control pH balance. Products blood with oxygen for tissue cells and rids blood of carbon dioxide. Helps regulate the acid-base balance of the blood vessels.


Protects the body and support for locomotion and movements, stores mineral deposits, produces blood skin cells.


Coordinates and integrates the actions of other systems by secreting hormones, responding to stress, regulating substance, pH balance and metabolism. Works more slowly but surely, with longer-lasting results than the stressed system.


Produces body and inner movement, maintains pose, and produces heat that maintains body temperature. Protects and aids organs.


Removes nitrogenous and other metabolic wastes from the blood stream by excretion, helps control liquid balance, as well as the water-salt, and acid-base balance of the bloodstream.


Receives sensory source, integrates and stores type, directs your body, and helps coordinate the activities of all the other organ systems. It responds quickly to interior and external stimuli.

The circulatory system is built up the center, blood and blood vessels, which services all the skin cells in the body. Wastes are taken away and exchanged with oxygen and food nutrients. All cells in the torso require air and nutrients and they need they're wastes removed. These are the main tasks of the circulatory system. The heart and soul, blood and blood vessels work together to service the skin cells of your body. While using the network of arteries, veins and capillaries, blood carries skin tightening and to the lungs (for exhalation) and picks up oxygen. From the small intestine, the bloodstream gathers food nutrition and delivers them to every cell.

Components of the cardiovascular system


Blood vessels


Heart is a muscular pumping organ situated in the medial to the lungs. The most notable of the center, known as the hearts foundation, connects to the fantastic blood vessels of your body; the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary veins.

Blood vessels are the highways that allow blood circulation quickly and proficiently from the heart to regions of the body.

Three types of arteries, arteries and arterioles, capillaries, and veins and venules.

Blood as a connective tissue, transports many substances through your body and helps maintain homeostasis of nutrition, wastes, and gases.

Blood is made up of red blood skin cells, white blood cells, platelets, and liquid plasma.

All of the organ systems in the body donate to homeostasis, however the heart, the heart and arteries is especially important. Without the cardiovascular system none of them of the other systems can function. The muscular system requires large amounts of oxygen from the heart. Muscles cramp and freeze up when they don't get adequate air supply. If in the event the heart cannot pump enough air rich bloodstream to the muscles your body struggles to move. The cardiovascular system also helps in maintaining blood amount; it works with the kidneys to keep up blood volume and structure. The heart provides the blood circulation pressure that the kidneys use to filter waste from the body. The cardiovascular system and the skin help maintain homeostasis by regulating body temperature. When the body over heats, the blood vessels that serve your skin dilate. The cardiovascular system rushes warm blood vessels to the superficial capillaries of your skin. Heat from the blood radiates off of the skin's surface, cooling your body.

When body temperature drops too low, skin capillaries constrict. This stops warm blood from achieving the surface of your skin. The heart and soul pumps extra blood vessels to the deeper essential organs.

Nasal passage

Air stepping into from the nostrils is resulted in the nasal passages. The nasal cavity that is situated behind the nose area comprises the nose passages that form an important part of the respiratory system in humans. The sinus cavity is in charge of conditioning the air that is received by the nose area. The procedure of conditioning will involve warming or cooling mid-air received by the nasal area, removing dust debris from it and also moistening it, before it enters the pharynx


It is situated behind the nose cavity and above the larynx. It is also a part of the digestive tract of the body. Food as well as air goes by through the pharynx


Consists of two pairs of membranes. Air causes the vocal cords to vibrate, thus producing sound. The larynx is situated in the throat of mammals and plays a essential role in the coverage of the trachea.


Airway by which respiratory system air travels


The trachea split into two main bronchi. The bronchi lengthen in to the lungs spreading in a tree-like manner as bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes subdivide and with each subdivision, their wall space get thinner. This dividing of the bronchi into thin-walled tubes leads to the formation of bronchioles. The bronchioles terminate in small air chambers, each which has cavities known as alveoli. Alveoli have slender walls, which form the breathing surface. The exchange of gases between your blood and the environment takes place through these walls.


Lungs form the most essential element of the human respiratory system. They can be found on both attributes of the center. They are responsible for transporting air from the atmosphere into blood and releasing skin tightening and from bloodstream to the atmosphere.

The respiratory system comprises of the nasal passing, the pharynx, larynx, the trachea, bronchi and lungs. It really is responsible for the process of respiration that is essential to the survival of living beings. Respiration is the procedure of obtaining and using oxygen, while eliminating carbon dioxide.

Breathing occurs when air passes into and out of the lungs; it's an involuntary process but can be controlled consciously. Breathing entails the activity of air in and out of the lungs in made by variations in pressure outside and inside the body. The most important muscle found in breathing is the diaphragm, a muscular sheet between your foundation and the stomach cavity. The diaphragm is aided by the inner and external intercostal (which lay between your ribs) and by the neck and abs muscles. A person normally breathes in and out about 500ml (1pt) of air 12-17 times one minute. Breathing entails inhalation accompanied by exhalation, during inhalation the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles deal to increase the chest cavity. During forceful inhalation the neck muscles also deal. However during exhalation the chest cavity lessens, and the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax. In order to function, your body cells need air. The the respiratory system, which involves air passages, pulmonary vessels, and the lungs, as well as respiration muscles, items fresh oxygen to the bloodstream for distribution to the rest of the body tissue.

In addition, respiration cleans away skin tightening and, a misuse product of body techniques. Alveoli which can be very small air sacs of the lungs, they are simply elastic, thin-walled constructions that are supplied with air by breathing bronchioles. Tiny blood vessels capillaries encircling the alveolar wall space allow oxygen to be carried into the blood vessels. In exchange, carbon dioxide diffuses from blood vessels into the alveoli, from where it is exhaled. Gas exchange takes place in the lungs, where carbon dioxide from the blood vessels passes in to the alveoli through the respiratory membrane, a slim hurdle that has several layers. Air crosses the membrane in the contrary direction, from the alveoli to the bloodstream capillaries.

Homeostasis is hence retained by the the respiratory system in two of the following ways: gas exchange and rules of bloodstream pH. Gas exchange is conducted by the lungs through the elimination of skin tightening and, a waste product given off by cellular respiration. As skin tightening and exits your body, oxygen needed for cellular respiration gets into the body through the lungs. ATP, produced by cellular respiration, provides the energy for your body to execute many functions, including nerve conduction and muscle contraction. Lack of oxygen affects brain function, sense of common sense, and a bunch of other problems.

The body's complex anatomical systems work directly together to aid movement, the circulation of blood, digestion and other basic requirements of life. The muscular system contains three types of muscle, each with a separate function. The functions of the muscular and skeletal systems are so intricately interconnected that they are often described by the single term, the musculoskeletal system. This technique contains bones, joints, tendons, ligaments, skeletal muscles, nerves, cartilage and the voluntary or striated muscles. They interact to protect the mind and internal organs, posture, blood cell creation, and fat safe-keeping. Smooth muscles constitute important organs, like the bladder, arteries and veins. They interact with the digestive system, reproductive system and circulatory system. Smooth muscles control and regulate blood circulation pressure and blood flow. The cardiac muscle is the heart and soul itself, an involuntary muscle that interacts with the circulatory system to provide oxygen to all or any the tissue of the body. Skeletal muscles are under voluntary control, interpretation we can choose to move them. Movements of smooth muscles and the cardiac muscle is involuntary, in order of the autonomic stressed system. The muscular system also performs an essential role in homeostasis, which is the legislation of internal body temperature. Homeostasis is maintained by the human hormones that increase osteoblast activity to construct bone, called calcitonin which is released by the thyroid gland, and the discharge of parathyroid hormone which enhances osteoclast activity and it is released by the parathyroid glands. So long as both these function normally, the bone mass keeps the same, this is a homeostatic state of bone. If it is out of balance you will either build too much bone or loose bone mass and develop osteoporosis.

The nervous system is your body's decision and communication centre. The central stressed system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal-cord and the peripheral anxious system (PNS) is made of nerves. Jointly they control all of a person's lifestyle, from respiration and blinking to helping people to memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from the mind to the face, ears, eyes, nostril, and spinal cord, and from the spinal-cord to the others of the body. Sensory nerves accumulate information from the surroundings; send that info to the spinal cord, which then accelerate the meaning to the mind. The brain then makes sense of that subject matter and fires off a response. Motor unit neurons deliver the instructions from the mind to the rest of your body. The spinal cord, made of a bundle of nerves operating up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding communications to and from the brain at every second. The CNS handles homeostasis as well as depends on it. The CNS manages homeostasis by which consists of receptors to sense changes in the body's inside environment. E. g. , certain receptors in the aorta keep an eye on skin tightening and and oxygen attention in the bloodstream. These details is relayed to the mind (most functions are controlled by the hypothalamus), and again through the CNS, the effector organs are signalled. Eg To improve or reduce the rate of sucking in reaction to carbon dioxide/air amount. The CNS comprises of nerve skin cells that rely upon a very stable inside environment, especially in conditions of sodium and potassium concentrations, without which it cannot function properly.

Book References






Oxford college

CC product 2 material

Saffery and Stewart (eds)


Maintaining the whole: human being biology and health e book3, The wide open university

Web References


Title of article or page


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Date accessed

Kevin Berman, MD, PhD, Atlanta Center for Dermatologic Disease, Atlanta, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Health care Network. Also reviewed with a. D. A. M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. , Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

Circulatory system



Respiratory system


http://www. medical-exam-essentials. com/respiratory-system-diagram. html


Central nervous system


http://www. google. co. uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www. umm. edu/graphics/images/en/19588. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. umm. edu/imagepages/19588. htm&h=320&w=400&sz=27&tbnid=uaHe_Ze8E0PioM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=113&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcentral%2Bnervous%2Bsystem%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=central+nervous+system&usg=__SOXGCJUKqZxnuqbAYKyXdeWzMjI=&docid=0is3P-6lanlgyM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MOEkUdHjB-Sp0AX41YGgDw&sqi=2&ved=0CE8Q9QEwAw&dur=588


Journal References


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Volume and issue


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