As frontline healthcare experts, nurses face various degrees of obstacles and issues during the fulfillment with their duties. The continuous pressure to quickly attend to the needs of many patients, while ensuring these services are given to them successfully, impels nurses to be always on alert for any issue which they may encounter. Handling ethical and legalities is already being taught in the school room and has been supplemented by request during internships. Learning ethics as a major concern for nurses supplements the already strenuous training that they had undergone when studying the field's concepts themselves.
However, new changes in legal and social aspects had led to new issues which are not traditionally being taught in nursing academic institutions. For instance, nurses may often face dilemmas pertaining to a patient's (or his family's) decision to possess his life terminated once it is apparent his medical condition is incurable. Furthermore, nurses also need to deal with maintaining their professional image while constantly getting together with their patients. Interpersonal-oriented employment opportunities such as medical are often susceptible to extra-professional relationships which may hamper the delivery of otherwise objective prognosis of condition and of supplying treatments. Previous researches have remarked that nurses may take good thing about their functions as health care providers in seeking intimate favors using their company patients in substitution for their quality of treatment provision. This researcher would like to focus in her review some of the most common ethical and legal issues which nurses face in their profession.
She will discuss past researchers regarding these issues. Finally, she'll formulate her own conclusions founded from the studies cited, supplemented by her own insights based mostly from personal experience as a nurse.
As healthcare providers, nurses' ethics are also inspired by the ideas of the Hippocratic Oath. Being placed within modern context, this oath stipulates that healthcare providers must do all they can in ensuring that their patients are cared for well. At the same time, the Oath compels healthcare workers to do something with finesse and avoid behaving in such ways concerning besmirch their profession's reputation. However, the complexities of modern healthcare has made it difficult to delineate which actions are ethically sensible from the unethical. As shown in studies such as Fry and Jane-Johnstone (2002), the most frequent dilemmas in medical at the moment involve: "termination of treatment decisions, abortion, in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, euthanasia and helped suicide, allocation of scarce resources and treatment of handicapped newborns and the emotionally retarded. " As several conditions had shown in the past years, controlling these issues present no, encompassing and correct response which is applicable to all situations. More difficult issues have even come to to the courts when the get-togethers in a situation disagree with the legal validity of the decisions being made by nurses.
Thomson, Melia and Boyd (2006) also explain that, in many cases, nurses don't have complete control over medical and health care decisions: "Most nurses are improbable to be
directly responsible for decisions to terminate a motherhood, terminate cure and in the allocation of medical resources. " (emphasis by the authors).
Yet, nurses are the first healthcare providers being contacted by the kin of the patients involved with those treatment decisions. (Thomson, Melia and Boyd, 2006). As a result, nurses must have a deep knowledge of legal and honest issues in order to respond appropriately for those issues. At the same time, students focusing about ethical issues in nursing should consider the degree of responsibility the nurse bears in handling patient care and attention, viz-a-viz the doctor or head nurse's over-all responsibility.
Daly, Speedy and Jackson (2009) detail some legal areas of health care which nurses must take into critical thought. Corresponding to them, various regulations have been designed to regulate do and wrongdoing with regard to patient basic safety, nurses' responsibility for civil and unlawful carelessness in mishandled patient care cases, regulation of patient's flexibility of movements, facilitating patient consent because of their treatments, control over patient property and information, amongst others. Nurses face responsibility, in various levels, if they neglect to fully adhere to these legal aspects. (Daly, Speedy and Jackson (2009).
Clarifying the wide concepts of medical ethics, Thomson, Melia and Boyd (2006) suggest students to at first determine : a. ) the ideas of good care within the framework of the nursing occupation, b. ) directing out the importance of citing specific circumstances in resolving honest issues and delineating the partnership between basic moral rules and the specific moral decisions.
In particular, the experts explain that nurses should plainly delineate two contrasting needs in healthcare, particularly: " the very sensitive regard for the initial needs of a person with identification of the needs of a specific situation" and the "general obligation of care predicated on contractual and institutional obligations and guidelines. This researcher is convinced it's important to discriminate between both of these aspects of care since this will govern the level of professional relationship between your nurse and the individual. This is important in preventing this relationship from becoming too personal to the idea that the nurse struggles to objectively fulfill his / her duties to the patient. In terms of using specific circumstances to help handle legal and ethical issues ("casuistry"), the creators point out that is effective in guiding nurses to reach a decision predicated on previous circumstances. However, it is still important for those to make their own decisions based on the circumstances of a particular situation.
Related to this is the delineation of standard moral principles with specific circumstances. This researcher thinks that it's important to balance the two when considering a lawfully and ethically sensitive decision. Breaking away from precedents may cause ambiguity on how similar cases in the future will be treated. Alternatively, high reliance on casuistry may hamper nurses from making the right and relevant decision on a particular situation.
In making decisions, it is pertinent to go back to the essential ethical concepts appropriate to
nursing. Finkelman and Kener (2009) fine detail these concepts as respecting the patients' autonomy, doing beneficence and justice to them, and being truthful to the patients and his/her kin. In total, a nurse can value a patient's decision to keep or cancel the procedure, even while he/she can give him the best care and attention possible in line with the health care guidelines and the available examination on the patient's health. Making use of these guidelines needs some decision-making skills on the nurse's part. These skills mainly pertain to social skills, perceptiveness, moral deliberation and skilled know-how.
As this paper acquired shown, nurses face numerous and incredibly challenging issues as they offer healthcare services with their patients. They need to offer not only with moral considerations that happen to be specific to medical, but are now also including regulation. Based from this discussion, this learner feels it is essential for nurses to deeply understand medical ethics and their legal implications. The changing dynamics and needs of healthcare blur the lines in situations which typically require only black-and-white answers, so to speak. Altering to these changes requires nurses and medical students to constantly review earlier instances of health care-related issues while foreseeing possible new circumstances in future issues. This can be done during classes or even during review lessons. This situation also requires nurses to modify just how their package with patients, especially those posing problems. The nurses firmly impose the guidelines if the patients start crossing the lines beyond their welfare.