Posted at 10.16.2018
Ethics concerns beliefs we maintain about what constitutes right do. They are moral principles used by a person or group to provide rules for right carry out and represent aspirational goals or the utmost standards that happen to be placed and enforced by professional associations. The American Counselling Association's (2005) Code of Ethics expresses that whenever counselors come across an ethical problem they are expected to carefully consider an ethical decision making process. While counselling a client, the counselor is presented with countless challenges to identify when and where a specific ethical strategy, standard and guideline might be essential. Ethical criteria and guidelines inform our wisdom as they help us acknowledge, think through and find or create way to package with a problem. The way we react to a dilemma has too much to do with this sense of what is valuable and right. With this point of view, the response sometimes appears as being reasonable and judicious for your client or simply is in the client's best interest for continuing development. When counselors operate out of this highly personal and subjective position, they call after a feeling of morality. Morality can be involved with perspectives of right and proper do and includes an evaluation of actions based on some broader cultural context or religious standard. Morality will serve as a groundwork to moral practice and decision making. To choose ethically is to first decide morally. (Prices and Ethics in Counselling: Real -Life Honest Decision Making, Dana Heller Levit)
Values pertains to beliefs and attitudes that provide path to living.
Client's ethical issues becomes a issue when they pit moral, legal or organizational requirements against one another or when the moral rules become silent on the client's issues. Regarding these, finding periodic inconsistencies among resources are inescapable. As a result, to select a preferred course of action from one of the conflicting rules, counselors use a decision making model that allows them to weigh the relative importance of the information obtained. A organised method of information collection and review can accomplish the ethical decision making process. The use of this model may help counselors to avoid honest misconduct and also to pursue honest ideals. The counselor essentially needs to be inquisitive at the beginning phase of your ethical decision making process. The initial step is to recognize the condition or the problem based honest, moral and legal sizes by gathering all relevant information that illuminates the situation. In other words, counselors need to secure a clear information of the nature of the condition through the consumption of effective counselling skills such as reflexive questions. The second step involves a careful analysis of the most critical issues abstracted from all the information gathered previously. At this point, attempts should be produced to review the rights, responsibilities and the welfare of clients and other stakeholders concerned with the problem. This review extends to the idea of taking into consideration the cultural aspects of the situation influencing the client's welfare. Furthermore, the utilization moral rules of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice and fidelity to address the situation is inescapable here. In regards to to autonomy, the counselor should allow clients the to choose and take action according with their preference. Nonmaleficence is female concern that stresses on refraining from actions that may associated risk harming clients. A good example would be inappropriately labeling clients with diagnostic conditions that may denote abnormality, that could pose serious outcomes to the welfare of the client. Beneficence is applied when counselors respect client's dignity and promote the welfare of clients. The rule of justice refers to being reasonable and nondiscriminatory towards clients. Fidelity handles faithfulness to pledges made and to the truth. There lies issues in upholding fidelity whenever a counselor works together with a minor consumer and is obligated to be faithful to your client, while the rule of beneficence may suggests that disclosure may be best for your family. In such circumstances, when counselors are remaining between the conflicting principles, they may need to prioritize certain principles over others as required by the situation. The 3rd step is to examine the ethical rules that are highly relevant to the problem situation. Ethical rules quick, guide and advise significant principles and concerns regarding honest behaviour. Professionals looked for the code of ethics and analyze the particular areas highly relevant to the issue to consider if they feature possible solutions. At this point, they also consider if their principles and ethics are regular with or are in conflict with the relevant rules. In the event of an inconsistency with a particular standard, counselors seek supervisory direction and clarify the problems. Upon rectifying the inconsistencies, they create a rationale to support their position and document their wisdom and reasoning to justify their activities to resolve the dilemma. The significance of the fourth step involves keeping up up to now on the relevant state and federal regulations that might apply to ethical dilemmas. In order to do so, the counselor needs to be knowledgeable in the applicable regulations. At the same time, interpreting these legal statutes as relating to how they could relate with client's issue becomes a simple aspect of the decision making process. This might be pertinent in concerns of breaching confidentiality, confirming mistreatment of the prone, dealing with conditions that pose a danger to self or others, parental privileges and record keeping. It will also suffice to seek guidance from professional systems concerning ambiguous ethical or legal situation. After comprehensive assessment of all ethical, scientific and legal issues regarding the issue, counselors present their facts of the situation and obtain discussion from professional specialists in the fifth step. That is especially useful when counselors are grappling with an ambiguous honest issue. As an ethical dilemma can be intellectually overwhelming and psychologically distressing for both consumer and the counselor, objective opinions from various reliable resources such as colleagues, supervisors or inter-organizational bodies provides a wider view of the challenge or even a new focus on unconsidered facts. Besides consulting professionals who promote the same viewpoints, it could also suffice to seek expertise from cross ethnic entities, as required by the nature of the dilemma.
With satisfactory information and advice accessible, the counselor is now at a posture to formulate possible answers to the dilemma (Framework & Williams, 2005). Essentially, the sixth step is about contemplating the possible and possible causes of actions. Apparently, it requires an extensive exploration process that would allow counselors to construct the possible lessons of action, while at the same time accounting for the honest obligations of such activities. As counselors review the options, it might be imperative to require clients in the exploration process before deciding on the most probable programs of action. That is to ensure that decisions are made to the best interest of the client. As it was done in earlier steps, documenting these discussions and would be ideal for counselors to justify their activities in case of them being questioned. The seventh step requires the previous one as it informs the counselor to enumerate the consequences of various decisions which were taken after evaluating the possible classes of action. This involves considering the positive and negative consequences of each option while at the same time weighing the relative significance of each option. Client's involvement matters during this research to ensure that the decisions gravitate towards best interest of your client. To achieve this the counselor may employ the five moral key points of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice and fidelity as a platform to consider the consequences of a specific plan of action. Within the last step of the model the counselor determines on what appears to be the best course of action. After generating the perfect decisions and their benefits, counselors together with clients and other supervisory consultation, would be select and implement the most appropriate course of actions. Execution of decisions is accompanied by assessing the appropriateness of the outcomes of these decisions. The decision making process grows to the final phase when the counselor reflects upon this assessments and communicates them with clients. However, a follow-up may be necessary to determine whether the actions taken work or if indeed they require a changes. Finally, it is vital to document steps taken in order to clarify options, facilitate reasoning and steer clear of redundant efforts. Moreover, having a documentation is significant if proof these efforts are later wanted during an investigation. In overall this honest decision making platform serves as a deliberative and creative approach that tutorials counseling professionals to satisfy their ethical tasks amidst an elusive situation. It assist baffled counselors to believe though an ethical dilemma and to arrive at an ethically appropriate decision. Additionally, the construction also really helps to prevent moral violations by allowing counselors to recognize the intricacies of honest decision making as a basis on which competent, ethical and professional counseling can be applied. Despite its useful aspects, your choice making model does indeed falls short using areas.
In evidence, Corey, Corey and Callanan (1998) indicate this model cannot be applied within an robotic or generalized manner, as practitioners often end up confronted with a complexity of personal principles, social context, and a prescriptive professional code. As in the model fails to correspond with this reality or address the amount of complexity they confronted. For example, the general recommendations that areas the counselor's responsibility to minor clients and also to their parents, may provide little help a counselor who is struggling with an adolescent client who feels alienated from his chaotic family and desires the counselor to keep his violations of curfew and experimentation with alcoholic beverages from his parents. The counselor is at a dilemma determining how much material from counseling must be shared with parents and what does that disclosure imply to the progress of the treatment. As it is, the responsibility of analyzing ethical issues falls squarely on the professional who definitely requires critical thinking and intellectual potential which allows careful reasoning to reach at the best answer. At the same time, reviewing numerous moral codes and specifications in an attempt to abstract those that relate to the dilemma can be a painstaking as well as a time-consuming process. Alternatively, after looking into all ethical and legal commitments, taking into consideration the available courses of actions can be again challenging as it might require the client's and the counselor's collaborative work to speculate all possible options available to them. It may be exhaustive in the sense so it involves an in-depth exploration process where all possible actions and their final results need to be completely scrutinized before arriving at a conclusion. Nevertheless, the honest decision making model is of much relevance to the current practices of various professional organizations and it is widely used by experts to find their way to avoid it of an ethical dilemma. The next scenario demonstrates the use of the honest decision making model. Joe, a 17 time old explains to her university counselor, Anne that she was sexually abused by her stepfather and now intends to go out to stay with her good friend Mary. Joe also records that she's not had the opportunity to focus in her studies due the trauma brought on by the incident and hesitates to share her mother as it is shameful to take action. In cases like this, Anne's first process is to gather all relevant details of the situation situation such as Joe's psychological health, sociocultural record, her current status with the her mom and stepfather and other and other relevant details. Anne also identifies Joe's mother, stepfather, Mary and other users of family members as the stakeholders mixed up in problem. Anne then attempts to guard Joe's rights and works based on the moral principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and fidelity to protect Joe's welfare. In Joe's circumstance it is highly likely that different guidelines can lead to incompatible conclusions. At this point, Joe seeks instruction and evaluates which concept should take top priority over others. Anne also reviews the relevant ethical codes to be sure of ethical commitments regarding her actions. For example, she may examine when a disclosing the issue to her mom would compromise Joe's welfare. To mitigate this ambiguity, Anne refers to the ethical rules and specifications. Then, Anne explores if any legal statutes are highly relevant to her actions and it is careful about not violating them. Subsequently, Anne foretells her supervisor about Joe's circumstance to obtain responses and solicits ideas from her colleague who works together with teenagers. With all the information, Anne identifies lots of possible training of actions. She lists down the potential replies such as encouraging Joe to talk about it to her mom while maintaining confidentiality of Joe's circumstance or as another option, informing Joe that she (Anne) would like to consult her mother. In Joe's existence and with some supervision, Anne then considers the consequences and results of the possible activities and evaluates the most probable options. Upon arriving at a conclusion which is ethically appropriate, Anne assesses the outcomes of these decisions and reflect on how they'll set a direct effect on Joe. She communicates these to Joe and documents her action for record-keeping.
Another case scenario would involve a family whose child has leukemia and the parents are handling the situation with prayers somewhat than treatment. They have wanted Paul for counseling. To start with, Paul is faced with a issue, as he recognizes a significant problem. On one hand, safe practices and the welfare of the kid and on the other, preserving customer confidentiality are two issues of concern.
Conclusion: As counseling focuses on important perspectives such as client's needs, desire, risk and anticipations to the main point where lives can be at stake, counselors need to reason ethically through challenging situations and determine the most appropriate plan of action that eventually is in the best interest of clients. This requires counselors to be aware of professional and personal issues influencing their decisions, particularly when considering the potentially profound, unsafe ramifications to clients and the counseling profession when sound moral judgment is not made.