Moral concerns and moral issues are raised every time new solutions are launched, since these create new possibilities for individuals action. New technology lead to beneficial and also difficult outcomes. Hence, they have to be examined at each stage of a technology's development so that they eliminate or decrease as much as possible negative effects. To be able to grasp and establish the negative effects, James Moor (1985) feels that one should think of ethical questions encircling computer and information technology as insurance plan vacuums. As computing becomes more frequent, computer ethics becomes more difficult and much more important, therefore coverage vacuums continue to arise and aren't always easy to complete.
Early in 2007, a fresh experiment gave surge to a new kind of technology leading to a number of honest questions. These new scientific systems, known as Location-Based Systems (LBSs), registered the positioning of devices, such as cell phones. For successful monitoring of these devices, an active call is not essential to track its current position. The phone needs just to be started up. There are two means of traffic monitoring such devices.
This requires a mobile phone tracking software and three foundation stations (BS), which are used to calculate mobile phone proximity to bottom stations. Whenever a mobile is started up it immediately starts to search for the sign from the nearest basic station. Once the nearest base stop is found, it looks for other base stations that are nearby. Multialteration can be used by Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) to determine the positioning of GSM cell phones. Location is therefore based on monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the indicators from different platform stations to the cellular phone.
New cell phones are equipped with Gps device, which give a lot more correct results when tracing devices. This employs the concept of Triangulation but makes use of satellites somewhat than base stations. GPS runs on the constellation of Gps unit satellites that orbit the earth and has the ability to compute position, time and velocity of any Gps navigation receiver. A Gps navigation device receives signs from the GPS satellites and location is determined with respect to the durability and information extracted from the signals. When getting a GPS mobile phone one can placed it to either permit only emergency services to make use of the indication from the Gps unit to find and keep tabs on the mobile phone or to permit anyone with usage of mobile phone traffic monitoring software to work with GPS functions to observe the cellular phone.
In the long run, with the intensive propagation of the technology the overall results might become slightly disturbing. Such systems can be used by lots of social groups and industries in society, each experiencing both benefits and harms regarding such tracking based systems. The usage of location tracking defined can therefore be considered a double-edge sword where these different benefits gave climb to concerns and profound applying for grants moral issues and ethical implications of using this locating technology. This capability to pinpoint a mobile user's location creates a complete new group of applications and service where stakeholders involved must therefore equip themselves with the knowledge and tools to understand the current and potential moral and socio-ethical implications. Such stakeholders and new services offered include:
Individuals and Households.
LBS technologies are utilized to monitor families and people. Mobile traffic monitoring devices can be applied on three main people, that are children, teens and spouses.
When it comes to children, kidnapping is a big issue. It is impossible for parents to learn the location of the youngster all the time since children go to college and aren't always using their parents. With such technology one will discover the exact location of these children all the time. It's important to note that this technology can be expanded such that in the foreseeable future tags might be inlayed into children to suggest parents of their locations. This can be of help for schools, since they will be able to locate their students if they're absent from category.
As children get older they become significantly responsible of telling parents of these whereabouts. Making use of such a system into teenager's mobile phones can advise parents of the positioning of their teen. This may lead to a reduction in kidnapping and put parents' thoughts to rest.
This technology can also help spouses or significant others to ascertain whether or not a spouse or spouse is cheating after them. Tracking down such spouses can reduce the high levels of hazards, such as sexuality transmitted diseases, assault and abandonment.
Employee and Employer.
In general, a cellular phone is given to employees, which has the positioning technology software to allow the employers to monitor the positioning of the employees, in order to improve production.
For example, available sector checking devices in vehicles of fleet can save a small business a great deal of money. Such as improving routing, by assigning the service call to the closest worker and reducing fuel costs by eliminating unnecessary vehicle idling. This will improve and create a healthier and more beneficial business.
When it comes to taxi companies, this method can be employed to monitor the whereabouts of the moving taxis and assign the nearest taxi cab to a specified trip. This saves time, that may then save money for the company.
Citizens and Authorities.
This can be utilized by Governments to aid in emergency services to locate individuals. This service has the potential to save lives, however, it also offers the actual to store and review every location individuals go to using their cell phones.
It can also be extended to keeping tabs on criminals. This might be of extreme utilization in world such as when giving house arrest phrases or monitoring of sexual offenders. If a unlawful is under inspection of the law, criminals will obey regulations. This may also lead to protection of crime since this technology would keep an eye on and store every location that a person goes to and can be therefore much much easier to catch a criminal.
Patient and Doctor.
Doctors, nurses and patients may also be monitored down when had a need to ensure an most effective level of way to obtain personnel on demand. This would be less frustrating and can be beneficial when it comes to time critical treatments.
Consumer and company.
The use of tracking systems in the retail sector assists with lowering costs, improve services, and improve convenience. This technology can also be used to observe and monitor consumers. Such devices might trigger better financial services in the future, removing the need of hauling cash or credit cards.
It is of without doubt that a lot of attention is paid to complex and commercial aspects of this system. In spite of so, such an invention caused different types of concerns and things to consider of legal, moral and communal issues. It is debated that LBSs might lead to dramatic and groundbreaking changes, that will indirectly or straight affect every specific on earth.
Locating people details delicate level of privacy issues since it permits anyone to locate another without the person's consent. If it could be shown that knowing the positioning of an individual anytime or the ability to verify that what one was advised by that individual holds true or wrong is immoral, then use of cellular phone tracking system becomes unethical. Other important aspects of life to discuss are freedom, privateness and protection under the law. Not everyone stocks the same reasoning on the level of freedom and personal privacy that an specific is right to. Therefore, human perceived rights may well not always make laws in a contemporary society. As a small example, many people may believe that everyone is eligible for sufficient food in order not to starve. Yet this is not contained in the Maltese Law. For this reason, laws in modern culture may not always safeguard the perceived laws and regulations by individuals.
This moral dilemma resulting from computer technology have not yet been modified to build specific laws or laws in the Maltese Laws to deal with Mobile Monitoring Systems and their possible misuse, which could pose a real risk to individuals. Hence, understanding the rights of freedom and privateness is important to all stakeholders. The positive and negative affects of the implementation of the system in all situations mentioned previously are dissected and talked about in the next.
Taking the situation of tracking teens, a lot of the parents recognize that the installation of the monitoring device in their teenager's cell phones can give a larger peace of head, while making the teenager more responsible. Alternatively, it is of without doubt that teenagers have a tendency to view such a tool as a controlling device, which control buttons their activities and invades their level of privacy. Generally, this can be a scenario of safety against privacy, where a person's security may be increased at the trouble of the person's location information.
Using such something may give rise to greater safeness, yet it also contains unwanted effects and drawbacks. This scenario features other different facets and effects. When the system is active, an individual has too little control over who accesses the location information. Such information can be seen anytime with or without consent of an individual. Leading to a greater threat of invasion of privateness and also increasing the risk of security, where not only parents have the access to a child's location information. Another drawback is the actual fact an outsider can also keep tabs on back an individual. This stresses on the importance of creating a balance between the privateness of an individual and nationwide security all together. Therefore, we ask "Could it be morally appropriate to sacrifice a child's privateness and freedom to a child's security?"
When it comes to situations where location technology is used to monitor family members, several issues have to be dealt with beforehand. The warrant of this action is difficult to determine since the following fundamental questions happen: "When is a person permitted apply this kind of monitoring on his/her spouse?" "Imagine if the individuals being watched are too impaired to rationalize the fact of being monitored?" "Is there any difference between "monitoring" and "surveillance"?"
Another circumstance of moral confliction is regarding the employer and employee. From a company perspective the installation of such a system would increase production and for that reason be beneficial and gain the company money. Alternatively, the employee will not be as fond of such a technology as the employer, since they can be located by the workplace anytime of day, even though they aren't on duty. An edge is that a user can decide from the system by shutting down and deactivate the device, or by giving it in a stationary position. Yet, the company will easily notice these activities made by the worker. Also, a great security and privateness risk is a downside to the staff, where his action and whereabouts can consistently be checked an observed not only by the company but also by strangers who've the capability to view the staff at any time with or without his consent. Precisely the same applies to patients and doctors. Therefore one asks "Could it be morally appropriate to sacrifice personal privacy and freedom to raised business services and efficiency?"
When it involves the improvement in the emergency service, dilemmas of moral issues are once again incompatible. The execution of mobile tracking can be used to save lives yet it can result in privacy invasion and security risks. The delay in case of the emergency is still present yet, at least the positioning and whereabouts of the emergency is easily pinpointed, conserving significant amounts of amount of time, and therefore keeping lives. Therefore one asks ""Is it morally satisfactory to sacrifice privacy and freedom to better emergency services?"
Considering the buyer and corporation, the following ethical questions are placed on the table, "Could it be morally satisfactory to sacrifice level of privacy and freedom to raised financial services?"
People who are suspected of legal offenses can be monitored using warrants obtained from court. This technique has already been integrated in Australia where new anti-terrorism regulations give that warrant to law enforcement officials and security agencies to track suspected terrorists for up to 12 months. Ethical questions are presented credited to these actions, that are: "Could it be sensible and morally right to take away freedom and invade on their privacy by monitoring someone who is suspected of committing a crime?" and "When could it be eligible to screen a suspected individual? And therefore, how much information can one gather in order to offer the warrant to execute such monitoring?" When interacting with real criminals who have rebelled against modern culture laws, normally natural rights, including the right to liberty is taken away. Yet when having suspected criminals, where crime can't be directly linked to a person, such monitoring might be viewed as out of proportion. These actions are significant and are to be evaluated when it comes to refining laws.
Considering real criminals however, with such something they can be easily located. Try to escape criminals, or house-arrested criminals are two perfect samples, which emphasise on the importance of monitoring systems in societies. This might definitely decrease legal offenses and legal runaways since police will be educated about all the whereabouts that the legal has fled to. This good thing about implementing this technique in this sector would lead to a safer modern culture and would give the public a greater satisfaction, therefore having a larger security in culture. Regardless of so, this can also give contemporary society a incorrect sense of security, since monitoring form afar does not necessary imply that it will prevent damage on another. One has to admit that we live in a very dangerous world where ongoing legal offenses and actions happen every day. Therefore one might claim that people should exploit these forces at hand, so as to minimize the probability of crimes. Yet, "Could it be justifiable to monitor everyone in the country to be able to catch criminals throughout their criminal acts? And therefore, could it be justifiable to invade everyone's personal privacy in order to lower the chance of offences being determined, or at least to minimize the percentage of offences that are still left unpunished?"
Tracking systems can also draw psychological ramifications of a human being when being checked, no matter how justifiable the reason behind monitoring is. Having said this, it is debated that monitoring an individual can only be executed with the consent and arrangement with that person. Therefore one asks "Is it morally suitable to raise the possibility of internal effects among people in culture in order to live safely?"
A range of social issues emerge when working with Mobile Traffic monitoring systems. Among these issues is control. Every one of the above scenarios produce an aspect of control, which makes a person have total control of the whereabouts of the other. As already mentioned this may lead to mental dysfunctions. Also, this shows insufficient trust, which can be an important part of human being lifestyle. Without trust human relationships between each other falls aside. Therefore applying such systems in all scenarios will donate to the erosion of trust between people. The lack of freedom is a violation of the Man Protection under the law since freedom is in itself necessary and really should be entailed to all human beings as suggested in Chapter 4, Article 32 of the "Constitution of Malta", which is the Common Declaration of Human being Rights.
"Fundamental rights and freedoms of the average person.
32. Whereas every person in Malta is entitled to the fundamental privileges and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his contest, place of source, political opinions, coloring, creed or gender, but at the mercy of value for the protection under the law and freedoms of others and then for the general public interest, to each and all of the following, namely -
(a) life, liberty, security of the person, the satisfaction of property and the safety of regulations;
(b) freedom of conscience, of manifestation and of peaceful set up and association; and
(c) value for his private and family life, the next provisions of the Section shall have result for the purpose of affording protection to the aforesaid privileges and freedoms, subject to such limitations of this protection as are contained in those provisions being limitations made to ensure that the entertainment of the said protection under the law and freedoms by anybody will not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the general public interest. "
As it can be seen from this article, freedom and privateness go mutually. Maltese laws which safeguard human privileges and prevent harmful actions on other human beings can be found in "Chapter 440: Data Cover Act". Following is Article 12 from "Chapter 440: Data Safety Take action", which is approximately "Sensitive Personal Data".
"Delicate Personal Data
12. (1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act no individual shall process sensitive personal data:
Provided that such personal data may be processed in those situations provided at under subarticle (2) and under articles 13 to 16 or as may be prescribed by the Minister having respect to a important general public interest.
(2) Private personal data may be refined if the info subject:
(a) has given his explicit consent to handling; or
(b) has made the info public. "
The above legislation therefore allows only data to be processed if and only when there is certainly consent from the average person beforehand or if s/he has recently made it public. Hence, according to the Maltese law this can be a crime to find an individual without his consent. This shows how the Maltese laws guard privacy issues, that are generated for this reason propagating technology. A Maltese citizen therefore is allowed to get full personal privacy and coverage of his data.
As explained above locating tracking systems can be the source of many benefits, but additionally, it may create new opportunities for breaking the law or taking benefits away from others. Therefore two classes of thought are used in order to consider a few of the many ethical concepts regarding location-tracking systems.
One of the Duty Ideas present is the Kantian Rule. In general, it declares that, for an action to be morally good, marketing campaign results are not important. To find out whether it's justified or not, Immanuel Kant judges the morality of the action predicated on the motives of the person who is doing the action. Implications are of no importance to this school of thought.
Considering this theory and applying it to the moral conflicts and honest issues shown above, implies that in the scenario of parents versus children and teenagers, the parents and guardians' purpose is to protect and secure their children, therefore relating to Kant it is morally accepted to apply the Mobile Tracking System. On the other hand however, the act of third gatherings who access location information with or with no consent of the average person with malicious intentions is immoral and unethical, because the motive of the action that is the duty, is simply wrong. This is actually the result of such a predicament.
Taking the next scenario, lovers use this tracking system to monitor loved ones or spouses. Based on the Kantian approach, if the average person seeking for the reality about his/her spouse is simply the motive of the action, then it is ethical. Alternatively, the result of such a predicament is the fact that if the only purpose of the action is to keep an eye on and spy on the partner then it is therefore unethical and should not be allowed to use such a system.
In the case of the employer and the staff, it is evidently honest for the workplace to utilize this system on the employees, since his only 1 goal is to offer an increase in productivity of his business to gain the company money. However, once again the consequence of implementing the machine relies on the intentions of third celebrations who have usage of the employee's locations and whereabouts. For those who have malicious motives of misuse of the information, according to Kant this is ethically an incorrect use of the system.
The improvement of emergency services that system will offer to all human beings is without a doubt a noble action. Therefore, matching to Kantian ethics, and therefore, eliminating all outcomes, it is morally and ethically good to use such systems in our society. Kant will not consider that as a result privacy can easily invaded by other people. Yet, it can state that it is morally wrong to invade in the level of privacy of others when this invasion is manufactured with a poor intention. This is the side-effect that such an advantageous system encounters.
Monitoring systems can be applied on both criminals and suspected criminals since the intention of the use of the location-based system is to observe suspected terrorists or criminals, which in itself is a positive reason and action. Applying this technique to criminals do not produce repercussions since, criminal's liberty has already been deprived from them. Yet, when considering suspected criminals, a effect is developed. Individuals who are suspected of crime are not criminals and depriving them of freedom and privacy is not moral.
The proven fact that such systems can result in psychological dysfunction will not are likely involved in Kantian ethics since this falls under the group of the results of the action, which the Kantian way ignores. This might produce a great disadvantage on modern culture since mental health dysfunction is a serious problem.
When considering Consequentiality Theories, the Utilitarian Rule comes to brain. This approach, for the in contrast of Kant's procedure, states that consequences are very important in identifying the rightness and moral of any action. Hence, this approach abides by the actual fact that ends justify the means, and actions are judged on the results and effects it will have, as opposed to the intentions and motives of the action.
The circumstance of parents mobile-tracking their children, in light of the Utilitarian way, is seen to be unethical since the result of the situation will include the probability of personal privacy invasion of other people apart from their parents. Hence, because the Utilitarian Methodology justifies means and actions upon results, the installation of such a system onto teenager's cell phones is immoral. This would therefore lead to one effect, which is having less security over children.
For the contrary of the Kantian way, taking into consideration the scenario of monitoring family members. It is honest to apply such a system because the results might be beneficial. Tracking down such spouses might decrease the high levels of dangers, such as sexuality-transmitted diseases, violence and abandonment, and for that reason creating a much greater good, yet producing the result of allowing others to track down the spouse throughout that period of time monitoring.
A moral confliction looked into is the truth of the employer and employee, where in fact the employer, in line with the Utilitarian school of thought can impose such something on its employees since the outcome of employing such something will create a greater good, which is high productivity and therefore be beneficial and gain the business money. Yet, when assessing the fact that the staff is restricting his own personal privacy, the greater good does not remain focused on the output of the business. Therefore, it becomes unethical. Being unethical, businesses get back to less productivity and for that reason less overall produced.
The Utilitarian school of thought abides by the next:
"the higher good for the greater number"
Hence, as it pertains to the improvement made with this technology to the crisis service, it is of without doubt that the Utilitarian procedure stands by and justifies this execution, since regardless of all the negative effects that might crop up, a greater positive end result is put on the greater quantity. Hence this installation, under these situations is honest and moral. The medial side result however includes the capability to monitor individuals by third people, which can have malicious intentions.
The same pertains to folks who are criminals and suspected criminals. Monitoring of such people will surely bring about the higher good for the higher number since the whole society will reap the benefits of this by attaining a satisfaction. The only effect of applying the machine to the sector of individuals is that suspected criminals might be watched for nothing, and hence it could be useless to monitor people who are not shown to be criminals. Leading to spend of resources and time.
When taking into consideration the psychological affects that the system can have on many people when implementing the system nation large, the Utilitarian approach states that it's not honest to implement this technique, since it could decrease the unlawful offenses, but in the long term it could not be healthy. This therefore indicates having less security inside our societies.
It is expected that every new technology brings with it both positive and negative results on individuals and also on society, but it's been shown that both positives and negatives of the Mobile Monitoring system is largely depended on the given context and the user of the machine. It was also shown that little awareness of possible implications of such a technology has been completed in the Maltese world. This is slightly disturbing as the utilization of the technology is exponentially increasing. When legal actions should be taken, it is important to take actions based after different scenarios in order to address cultural, honest and also technological issues.
It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity.
~ Albert Einstein ~
They that can provide up essential liberty to secure a little temporary safe practices are entitled to neither liberty nor security.
~ Benjamin Franklin ~