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Evaluation Of Four Different Learning Ideas And Models

In this portion of the essay I am going to describe and critically examine four broad theories of learning in the context of my subject areas. I have a numerate history with undergraduate degree in Physics and an MSc in Software Engineering. I've a PhD in Ecological modelling and my research is focussed on the simulation and visualisation of complex systems. The subject areas I teach are numerate founded, and range from mathematics, statistics, education and visualisation and my coaching activities are across three colleges: SCS, CES and IAGM.

Learning ideas/models

The first learning theory to be explored in the 19XXX', based on the work of Pavlov and Skinner, is known as the behaviourist theory. In behaviourist theory learning is a mechanised process of habit formation, through frequent reinforcement of any stimuli - response sequence, this is thought of as conditioning. Behaviourist learning has been typically found in the coaching of dialects. Pavlov's behaviourist theory (Ref) underpinned the Audiolingual Approach to the 50's and 60's. Some features of the audiolingual method that align well with the behaviourist theory include: the series of learning a new language is rigid and involves, listen to, speak, read and write, repeated repetition essential for effective learning and all errors immediately corrected. Other discplines such as Chemistry and Physics have used behaviourist methodologies for sensible laboratories. Behaviourist learning is still used in colleges today as part of the whole teaching and learning process. In fact it can be argued that we do indeed prize our students by allocating good levels because of their demonstration of their learning. In this way good learners get compensated with good grades.

Behaviourist theory was criticised in the 1960's when Chomsky questioned the way the mind could transfer what it acquired learned in a single stimulus-response sequence to other novel situations. Chomsky (1964) suggested that if thinking was guideline governed a little, group of finite rules empowered the mind to cope with potentially an infinite selection of experiences it may encounter. The apparent implication of this was to consider learning as the acquiring of guidelines and not patterns much like the behaviourist model. This is stated more recently in Stevick (1992) when he considers that learning is much more than imitatic behavior formation. This was the go up of cognitive theory and one of the key features is the procedure of acquiring new guidelines i. e. increasing the cognitive network, drawing on the individual's activities. This way the person is an active cpu of information (Auszibel et al XXXX) somewhat than passive device of information. Cognitive learning is exemplified in basic coaching activities such as problem handling which can be used, albeit to differing degrees, in most disciplines.

The next development in learning theories was constructivist procedure, led by Jean Piaget and Bruner. Unlike the cognitive strategy which motivates learners to use mental power, to distill a workable guideline from information provided but was educator centric, the Constructivist methodology is very much indeed learner centric and resulted in the learner-centred educational paradigm. That is highlighted in the training Theories text message< REF) which claims ' Along with the constructivist methodology learner enquiry, breakthrough, autonomy and home motivation are key elements of the learning process'. This emphasises the difference with cognitive solutions where the professor shapes this content therefore little room is left for learners own do it yourself discoveries, adjustments and improvements.

Experiential learning a recently available learning models and with regards to the teaching activity can be categorised as a cognitivist or a constructivist approach. Kolb (1984) matched types of cognitive operations with specific types of instructional design strategies that encompass four learning styles: Reflector, Activist, Pragmatist and Theorist. In this esteem, Kolb's model differs from others since it provides both ways to understand individual learning styles, which he called the "Learning Styles Inventory" (LSI), and also an explanation of a cycle of "experiential learning" that applies to all learners. Kolb says "learning is the procedure whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and changing it. " That is illustrated in the diagram below. Depending upon the problem or environment, the learners may enter in the learning cycle at any point and can best learn the new job if they practice all modes.

Science uses mainly constructivist methodology but different models will be utilized at different.

Different domains use different methods to varying degrees, in order to be a good scientist a amount of curiosity is necessary which explores ideas and possible solutions, applying the process of research to start minded enquiry and incorporating new experience with information already received as a personally constructed meaning is developed. Extyensions of Kolb's work include that of Honey and Mumford (1986). The main difference being XXXXXXXX

I will now discuss the use of each one of the models in my subject matter and identify personal encounters with these models. In my subject matter behaviourist theory continues to be requested example rote memorization, drill and practice. Also the utilization of a token system to reinforce positive academic performance and learner behaviour. A class room program of using drill and practice includes using computer software, such as Mathematics Blaster's. These types of software provide positive and negative reinforcements for responding to math problems appropriately or incorrectly. A final example highlighting the behaviourist theory is rote memorization. Rote memorization may include memorizing addition or multiplication facts or memorizing express capitals (Woolfolk XXXX). . The behaviourist method of teaching has sensible applications in education. In particular, understanding basic skills and key subject matter knowledge. The way of using negative and positive reinforcements to elicit desired behaviours of students is also useful in establishing and maintaining class room management. Cognitive theories however move beyond the habit formation procedure for behaviourism and when teaching mathematics or encoding the learner should be provided with the chance to spot patterns and infer connections between concepts in order to construct their own understanding. With cognitive solutions they are usually teacher directed I take advantage of this process in sensible classes for both statistics and 3D images programming where the first fifty percent of the laboratory is aimed to help learners apply the ideas of the lecture and also to ensure coverage of specific materials. Typical classroom education, constant with the constructivist learning theory that are being used in my subject matter area include: problem-based approach to coaching, hands-on activities, experimentation, and simulations. Hands-on activities are also found in the constructivist model. This example is extracted from Bruner (1973): "The concept of prime numbers is apparently more quickly grasped when the kid, through building, discovers that one handfuls of beans can't be laid out in completed rows and columns. Such quantities have either to be organized within a file or in an imperfect row-column design in which there's always one extra or one too few to complete the structure. These patterns, the child learns, happen to be called best. It is simple for the child to go out of this step to the acceptance that a multiple stand, so called, is a record sheet of volumes in completed mutiple rows and columns. Here is factoring, multiplication and primes in a building that can be visualized. " Overall, the constructivist approach to coaching allows students to positively be involved in decision-making and problem-solving cases. In 3D images students are often given simulations and demo programs of a specific approach i. e. the Phong light model they can change and change to see the effect. The student's process would then be to implement their own version of your Phong lamps model. . Prior knowledge and past experiences help shape student connections to new materials. Students use higher-level control skills and apply that knowledge to the earth where they live.

The use of Kolb's model has been applied in at least two of my getting activities, teaching computer programming for visualization and the mathematics of 3D design.

Kolb's model applied to learning a software program:

Active experimentation - Jumping in and carrying it out.

Reflective observation - Considering what you just performed.

Abstract conceptualization - Reading the manual to get a clearer knowledge on what was performed.

Concrete experience - Utilizing the help feature to get some good expert tip

Kolb's model put on learning algebra:

Abstract conceptualization - Hearing explanations on what it is.

Concrete experience - Heading step-by-step through an equation.

Active experimentation - Practicing.

Reflective observation - Saving your ideas about algebraic equations in a learning log.

Now after i teach these matters I expose Kolbs model and encourage college student to use it to to be able have a far more effective method of learning.

In conclusion, I've referred to the 3 main learning theories and how they can be found in my subject areas. From this it could be concluded that a single primary learning theory can not be found in HE exclusively, even in one specific discipline. It really is clear that each of these models has its strengths and restrictions. I hope I have shown that professors have to look at a balance between each one of the learn ring models paying particular attention to satisfying individual preferences of approaches by expanding inclusive coaching materials.

Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the info Given. New York: Norton.

Critique the development of a major educational insurance plan and practice in UK Higher Education since 1950

Higher Education has changed during the last half a hundred years in conditions of provision availability and participation which is partly scheduled to changing plans, practice and the rise of technology. I will describe in this article the key plan drivers that contain been released in HE and discuss that they have changed the face of ADVANCED SCHOOLING.

In the 1960's the federal government (Labour at the time) setup a working committee to identify solutions to the lack of participation in ADVANCED SCHOOLING and encourage lifelong understanding how to appeal to the postwar bulge. This committee was chaired by Lord Robbins and were described with a clear task:

"to examine the pattern of full-time education in the uk and in the light of nationwide needs and resources to guide Her Majesty's administration on what principles its long-term development should be structured. Specifically, to guide, in the light of these principles, whether any new types of establishment are attractive and whether any improvements should be produced in the present arrangements for planning and co-ordinating the development of the many types of institution. "

The committee's findings were set out by 180 advice that may be summarised into three categories: 1) Courses of advanced schooling should be accessible for all people who are trained by capability and attainment to go after them and who want to achieve this task: 2)The enlargement should be completed mainly by development of existing kinds of institutions-existing universities, the creation of new ones, the granting of university status to Schools of Advanced Technology (Felines) and later for some Teacher Training Universities (TTCs) and Regional Complex Schools; 3) should be self-governing and financed by grants or loans distributed through an independent Committee like the present.

After the recommendations of the record that coincided with the 1960s noticed the surge of 'plate glass colleges, incidentally Robbins had not been in charge of their base, the rates of involvement in higher education soared before most objectives. The rate and the level of the extension have been unprecedented within the UK and some fantastic achievements are worthy of to be recorded and celebrated. For instance, the reports show that within one technology the UK has achieved equal proportions of women and men in undergraduate HE. (Edwards 1997, Williams 1977) This is achieved by extending the university network from the popular old and redbrick universities to include the plate wine glass universities. The number of institutions subsequently rose from 20 to 43 in a X time timeframe.

The success of the Robins record is a lot debated, it added to the extension of universities, although it was theUniversity Grants Committee in the later 1950s/early 1960s that was in charge of the introduction of the 'Plate Glass' universities, known as 'Dish Glass' credited to architectural style. In addition, the machine has still to build up a technique for lifelong learning. (Tight 2009), this is later resolved in the Dearing statement. Others point out the recommendations based on evidence provided was biased and imperfect. If other figures and figures had been used that it might have trumpeted the successes of the British system (Tooley 1996). To handle wider access issues in 1969 the UK federal government founded the Open University on the fact that communications technology could bring high quality degree-level understanding how to people who hadn't had the chance to attend campus universities. This was a unique and innovative method of HE in a number of aspects: its available admissions insurance policy and distance education strategy. There is little major coverage renewals and tips in the 1970's 80's. Since the Robbins record powerful forces, technical and politics, were driving the economies of the world towards greater integration and the Dearing survey was commissioned in the 1990's, tasked to make advice about how the purposes, shape, framework, size and money of advanced schooling, including support for students, should develop to meet the needs of the United Kingdom over another 20 years. In the report titled ADVANCED SCHOOLING in a Learning Contemporary society there were a complete of 93 tips made and perhaps the most notable change in financing was a shift from undergraduate tuition being funded completely by grants or loans from the government to a mixed system in which tuition fees were reinforced by low interest rate government loans. Those that benefit from HE should shell out the dough, as it is assumed that better paid jobs will be attainable with an increased degree. This is not baulked at as in the 90's there have been a lot of uncertaintly in Higher Education and plolicies possessed lurched from contracting the amount of students to increasing them. Underfunding experienced left colleges so stretched they were about to snap (Sheppard and Crace 2007 ). The amount universities had to spend on teaching experienced halved, and funding for infrastructure and research had been reduced. The problems in 1996 was the consequence of a period of very fast growth in student numbers, financed in very large part by severe reductions in the unit of source of information [the amount a university or college spends on each scholar] for teaching, and significant decay in research infrastructure. Other key issues raised were pursuing quality inside our coaching and research and a commitment to high requirements and as a result the Quality Confidence Company (QAA) was setup to monitor expectations of education in HE institutions in the UK in all coaching activities. The Research Assessment Exercise initiative was established to assess companies quality of research. Each institution department receives a rating on the quality and impact with their research and mapped to the report are research money from the united kingdom Research Councils. The RAE is currently superseded by the REF which is regarded as to be fairer. The Dearing review has been considered successful and there have been quantitative figfures published by Watson that computed that 28% of Dearing's tips have made a notable difference, 16% have been overtaken by occurrences, 11% were turned down, 29% happened slowly and 16% have observed no specific improvement.

Since the Dearing survey there have been political drivers to ensure that the united kingdom skill market for 2020 can maximise economical growth, production and social justice. In 2006 the Leitch report was tasked to think about this and consider the policy framework necessary to support it. It accounts on skills from level 1 - 4, level 1, 2, 3, and 4 maps to numeracy and literacy, GCSE's, A levels and higher degrees respectively. Among its goals is that more than 40% of individuals should be certified to Level 4 and above in 2020 (equal to degree-level skills), up from 29% in 2005.

Another issue from the Leitch survey is tat of graduate employability. There is no debating a major responsibility for the clean integration of graduates into professional life and therefore society, lays with the HEI's. (Pukelis et al 2007). This is changing the shape of Universities and requires universities to become more outward looking. Reputation of the responsibility has prompted significant question within educational, employer and political spheres about the skills and attributes expected of graduates, and how these might be fostered. Universities are devising strategies for ensuring that their graduates have a set of graduate attributes that can be associated with employability and taking care of rapid socio-cultural, political, economic and scientific change.

To summarize HE has altered significantly from the 1960's. The increase and projected further increase in student amounts is one important change. Concurrent with this has been the higher equality and diversity in the profile of HE. students. The progression of technology and options for distance learning have evolved, devolving the idea of a central College or university to a distributed University, assisting the upsurge in student quantities. As student volumes increased there was a strong focus on maintaining quality via the QAA insurance policies and strategies for guaranteeing quality of research and coaching have been overhauled and change the way in which where University's coaching and research are assessed. There has been a move for colleges to become more skill focused where level 4 common skills, also termed graduate capabilities, can be engendered in students and probably measured. Finally there is a move for to become more outward looking.

http://www. guardian. co. uk/education/2007/jul/24/highereducation. tuitionfees

Edwards T (1997) "Educating leaders and training enthusiasts?". In Edwards, T et al Separate but Equivalent? A Levels and GNVQs, London: Routledge.

Williams G (1977) Editorial, Higher Education Quarterly, Vol 51, No 1, January, 1-5.

Tight, M. 2009. Higher Education in the United Kingdom since 1945. Modern culture for Research into ADVANCED SCHOOLING and Open School Press 288pp.

Leitch Review Index, HM Treasury, 2006-12-05

http://www. guardian. co. uk/education/2007/jul/24/highereducation. tuitionfees

Pukelis, K, Pileiikien-, N, Allan, A and Dailidien-, E (2007) European and National Level Approaches for Competency-Based Curriculum Development: overview, HEGESCO, available at: www. decowe. com/static/uploaded/htmlarea/finalreportshegesco/European_National_and_Universities_Strategies_-_Summary. pdf

Plan, deliver and reflect on learning and instructing sessions within a particular subject discipline

The purpose of a curriculum design technique is to try and increase the success and efficiency of the training process predicated on current knowledge of how people learn. There are many methodologies open to curriculum design but a basic methodology that can be applied in the look of most types of coaching/learning scenarios is the Systems Strategy. The systems methodology will try to mould the insight of an course/module in such a way to enable the perfect assimilation of knowledge and skills to take place through the learning process and therefore maximise the product quality productivity, [Ross TLA guide 3]. A diagram of the systems strategy can be found in Appendix A.

For the goal of this report ideas must be analysed with respect to the lecturer's subject willpower. Including the curriculum design of SE216 Operating systems and Systems will be mentioned. The writer ran this module last treatment but didn't write the original component descriptor.

The first stage in the systems methodology is to consider the target society characteristics and the topic area. The next season cohort will usually consist of carrying on students with a few direct entrants. It's important to profile the various educational backgrounds in conditions of their previous knowledge to achieve a balanced approach to the look of SE216. Another exemplory case of this which is indirectly related to the writers experience, is at the design of first 12 months curricula to support changes in the pre college or university curricula and to provide a smooth transition to higher education when confronted with an increasingly diverse student society, (Cox, B. & Ingleby, A. , 1997).

The next stage is to estimate the relevant existing skills and knowledge of learners. Students after entering University have a variety of skills all to differing degrees. The 1st season Dip HE Processing and IT, (replaces the HND) students are a mixture of university leavers and immediate entrants. These students are given a series of study skill workshops so that they all know very well what is expected of them and to bring them to a typical level. Another exemplory case of students bringing different histories to college or university is noticeable in the coaching of first year coding - SE111. These students encompass a huge selection of skills from those who have never programmed to the 'expert' programmer. The teaching approach can't be customized to meet every student's needs however the courses/labs were streamed to understand the vast individual differences also to ensure that the students received quality teaching, whether they needed to be trained from a beginners' level or their knowledge strengthened.

After taking these issues into consideration the next stage is the formulation of goals/Learning Outcomes. It's the learning effects that encapsulate the new skills, knowledge or attitude that the new students will acquire. Listed here are the current objectives and recommended content of SE216 not compiled by the author:


Understand the role and top features of an operating-system.

Utilise at least one operating system to perform common duties.

Understand network topologies and protocols.

On studying these the author sensed that the objectives are ambiguous and vague using expressions such as understand and notion which can be too illdefined to mention the exact aspect of the behavior being sought. It is rather important that the targets and learning benefits are obvious and concise to the university student. Learning outcomes should be written in future tense and conveyed by verbs, which describe precisely what the college student is, likely to have the ability to do after doing the training process. Moreover the LO's should be written in such a manner that the students may easily understand them. An excellent educational goal is one, which is made up of an action verb talking about an observable measurable performance, (Gronlund 1978, Mayer 1990). Taking this into account the previous objectives were rewritten by the author and are as below:

Learning outcomes

By the end of this module the student can:

Define the role and main features of an operating system.

Demonstate the use of at least one operating system to perform simple jobs.

Describe various network types, protocols and topologies.

Outline the OSI Interconnection model and equate to existing operating system implementations.

Once the LO's have been designed the appropriate coaching method must be chosen. You'll find so many coaching methods available but is limited by institutional constraints. The coaching methods must be selected with the correct LO/objective in mind and a combination of teaching methods can be utilized for a specific course. In SE216 a lecture is given which is the useful and most common way to mention information to a large group. The students also participate in a tutorial and laboratory group. Since one of the LO's is usually to be able to utilise an operating-system it was believed that this learning process was suitable to an active laboratory. In the tutorials group discussions were encouraged also providing the students with an active part in learning this content of the module. It's been researched that group learning and discussions improves the grade of learning, (MCB, 1990). Directed study of materials in textbooks is also used however well set up handouts received out at each lecture which web page link this content of the lecture to the LO's more carefully than the directed analysis. However it was felt that the directed reading was an important part in creating a culture of self-employed and profound learning. Students adopting a profound learning approach to their normal studies related new materials with their own knowledge and experience, stressing the value of reorganising new information in conditions of existing knowledge composition, (Svennsson, 1977). Separate learning is inspired as it leads to increased responsibility and autonomy on the part of the learner, (Richardson, J. , 2000). There is a multitude of teaching approaches which is important that the educator must feel comfortable with his/her choice of teaching methods or you won't be successful.

Once the coaching methods have been chosen the course must be evaluated. The purpose of examination is to provide feedback and information to the learner also to judge the magnitude of learning. The evaluation should test each LO and it's been found that various assessment contributes to improved learning, (Cox, B. and Ingleby, A. , 1997). Regarding SE216 it was sensed that the learning outcomes were attainable to two distinctive areas the cognitive and the physchomotor area. The cognitive domain put on LO 2, 3, and 4, which required the acquisition and request of knowledge and understanding. Learning outcome 3 belongs to the physchomotor domain name and handles the introduction of manipulative or physical skills. The physcomotor LO1 was assessed by the logbook which documented the students activities and experience whilst carrying out specific lab sheets. The second part of the assessment handled LO 2, 3 and 4, which engaged knowledge and knowledge of the content, (lower cognitive skills) and was examined within an exam. The exam was set up in a way that the student acquired to build up higher cognitive skills in the synthesis and control of these knowledge i. e the first part of the question was knowledge based mostly and the second part was program of the knowledge in a specific context.

It is essential to realize that the systems methodology is a cyclic process. Poorly achieved targets/LO business lead to a course custom to examine the whole system to see where improvements can be produced. In SE216 less ambiguous assertions of LO/aims may improve pupil learning. Also a preceding understanding of Computer Architecture, SE215 was wrongly assumed even though it is a prerequisite on the component descriptor. A little collaborative group has been set up within the SE section to ensure a consistent blast of Computing Infrastructure/Sites runs through the 1st - 4th yr BSc Computing course. The module descriptors of modules have been changed to indicate this. This will ensure that the students after undertaking SE216 have the relevant background knowledge to do so. As a supplementary precaution the lectures will be modified this session to add a revision of computer architecture. On analysis, (via questionnaires) of the module some students felt the component was biased with the majority of the content on OS'S. The updated module descriptor aims to obtain a more balanced quite happy with respect to OS'S and Sites.

Finally there are cons from the systems model. The main disadvantages being that the course/component may become too prescribed and lack spontaneity with an over focus on the LO's, REF. I felt that these negatives can be get over by the educator bearing these points at heart and keeping in mind that the LO's are just a guide to give the student a concept of the content of the component.

Evaluation and Reflection

The TLA rule, which is the emphasis of this narrative, is a lecture directed at 2nd time BSc Computing students. The lecture is from SE216 OS'S and Sites. The module is split into two portions, part one being Operating systems and part two being Networks. This narrative pertains to one lecture provided of seven on Operating Systems.

The aim of the series of lectures is to supply the students with the theoretical groundwork associated with O/S. Each lecture is not cared for independently or in isolation of other lectures but instead each lecture supplies the basis for future lectures in the series ultimately creating a coherent picture of OS'S.

The delivery method chosen because of this particular component was the traditional approach. This was found to be the most practical considering the large number of students, the kind of material being shown and environmentally friendly and personnel constraints. The lectures were well structured always proclaiming the seeks and objectives of this particular lecture and providing a summary at the end. The lecture was always created so that the students were alert to that particular lectures relevance and how it built in with the prior lectures and future lectures. The writer feels that stimulates effective learning, Bligh 1998. REF - all natural methodology. The lectures were always written in simple British, which is also considered to help students synthesise the materials. It had been also sensed appropriate to require the students in the lecture, which motivates lively learning stimulating deep learning. Stalling the lectures and providing discourse questions based on important and important issues achieved this. The students were also likely to sketch their own diagrams and perform their own computations.

At the lecture handouts were also given out. It was believed these were necessary to permit the students to listen and synthesise the materials rather than spending most their time writing notes. Writing their own records has disadvantages such as slow-moving authors are penalised. However on analysis next session a complete group of lecture notes will not be provided. Instead a partial set of records providing the students with the bullet details will be provided. The students will be expected to include any details they felt were important that may again provide a more active learning experience.

Directed reading was also given to the students to encourage deep learning. The primary disadvantage of directed reading would be that the student might not exactly have the ability to relate the info to the LO's. It had been noticed that the directed reading was necessary so that the student would take part in impartial learning which is the main goal of learning. REF

Although the traditional methodology was utilised it was experienced by the author that it designed modern flavours making the lectures more interactive, fun and interesting. This hopefully prompted the students to learn separately and deeply. It was felt that on the whole this was achieved. It really is however vital to remember that this do not just be based upon the method of delivery and style of coaching but also on many uncontrollable factors. Included in these are amount of reading, prep by students, attendance, participation, interest and desire, (Moon 1999).

The second coaching situation is a 2hr lab, which is also area of the SE216 Operating Systems and Sites.

It was believed these were needed in conjunction with the lectures as one of the LO was to utilise an Operating system to execute common tasks. It was felt that the traditional approach had not been appropriate, as the materials cannot be conveyed effectively in a lecture. It had been experienced that the functional skills of using an Operating system were essential in any subject on operating systems. The materials that would have to be conveyed would be supplied better in a smaller group where there was a large-scale exchange of ideas and face-to-face contact. Each lab had a target that was clear. This ideally guaranteed that the lab had a worthwhile purpose. The lab sheets also shown learning outcomes. This is experienced necessary so that on completion of the useful exercises the university student could be alerted to what they had achieved. Within the labs a complete set of instructions were provided with blanks and spaces to answer any questions asked. This helped increase learner work and also let students really know what was expected of these. It was mentioned however that some students filled out the bed sheets but were unaware of the fuller picture.

On evaluation of the labs the writer will still provide process based lab bed linens but with additional conversation factors that will connect the work carried out in the lab to the information conveyed in the lecture hence finding a fuller picture. It has been cited that group work and conversations increase the quality of learning, REF. It may also be worthwhile supplying the students planning reading and primary questions for every single laboratory. When students have already done some planning the quality of their learning experience in the laboratory is greatly increased. Requiring students to carry out some reading before they come to the laboratory can have considerable dividends about the learning payoff of the useful work, (Race and sally).

The author did not speak too much in the lab and set up a rapport with the students making a comfortable environment, which prompted the students to ask and discuss problems. The writer aimed to create a relaxed scholar centred learning environment. It had been felt that overall the students loved the participative aspect of the labs and the slow paced life and participation increased the quality of students' learning.


Cox, B. & Ingleby, A. , 1997. Functional hints for quality evaluation. Biddles Limited, Bolton.

MCB, Quality assurance in education, 1997, vol. 5, number 4

Moon, J. 1999. Reflection in Learning and professional development. Kogan Page Limited, London

Race, P. & Brown, S. 1998. A practical guide to instructing, learning and analysis. Kogan Site London.

Richardson, J. 2000, Researching scholar learning. St Edmundsbury press, Suffolk.

Svensson, L. (1976) Research Skill and learning. Goteborg; Acta Universitatis


Appendix A The Systems Approach to curriculum design


Self-ctitique a short filmed program and acquire and act on appropriate peer feedback

The teaching period for which I completed this device of evaluation was a second yr lecture for component FS087Oa - Applied reports for which I am module teacher (around 53 students).

This is a component that generally students do nothing like. Previously there is a high failure rate in this module and most students portrayed a disinterest in figures most probably due to its numerate aspect and memory of mathematics at college. As a result one of the main element difficulties was to persuade students of the usefulness of statistics using real world rather than abstract problems. There has been an explosion of material, especially in mathematics that use games and real life examples to show the significance and the contributions of mathematics to modern culture. For example

The lecture that i filmed (and for which I got peer researched) was an Introduction to statistics. As a result, I targeted to make this very much an introductory time, with a wide overview and instances particularly highly relevant to Forensic Technology. and the problems if using reports in Forensic Research.

It took time before I watched the video tutorial of my lecture, when I viewed the lecture it was quite revealing in a number of ways:

Firstly, it was immediately noticeable that I speak too fast, it has been remarked on before in casual conversation options and it appears worse in the lecture. I also speak quite loudly. I am conscience in lectures that the students at the trunk need to listen to me. I also looked unrelaxed in the first 5-10 minutes of the lecture and this is most likely because I am just a little anxious at the start of a lecture especially with a new cohort, as this is the first lecture of the 2nd semester. I was also struck by the fact that although I am animated with my hands once i speak, I had been practically rooted on the same spot during the entire 50 minutes. Overall following the first ten minutes the atmosphere was calm and this was aided by me requesting the students some questions regarding a case study I had shown. The research study was a 'real' one and highlighted some cases that used inappropriate statistical proof in court docket. This stimulated discourse between your students and myself. It was time consuming, although interesting, sourcing all the case study material to highlight the significance of statistics in Forensic Research, however I think that this had substantial advantages as it was ways to obtain the students 'hooked into' the subject area, somewhat than delving in to the statistics right away.

Part of the feedback provided in my own peer review was that I possibly could have included the personal references of the case studies and further reading material. This is something that I've done since.

To summarise, I've found this a good exercise in figuring out my talents and weaknesses in delivering lectures. Because of this, I've made some changes such as making a genuine effort to discuss slower, pausing between slides and requesting questions. I also take some profound breaths before I enter into the class room and today I am not nervous at presenting a lecture.

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