Examining Motivational Strategies in Multinational Organisations

Motivation is next to directing/leading. Professionals can inspire their subordinates while guiding them. Motivating means encouraging visitors to take more initiative and curiosity about the work assigned. It is an art of getting things done willingly from others.

Motivation avoids clashes and non-cooperation and brings harmony, unity and co-operative prospect among employees. Professionals have to are motivators of these subordinates. For this, effective communication, proper understanding of work done and positive encouragement are essential and useful. Drive is inspiring and encouraging people to work more and add for attaining the aims of the business The creation of the desire and willingness to perform the career efficiently is recognized as motivation

Motivation is a emotional and sociological notion as it relates to human patterns and human relations. It is the most fundamental and all pervasive concept of psychology. For motivation, sweet words are of help but aren't adequate. Motivation in essence relates to individual needs, wishes and expectations. In other words, these factors suggest the steps which may be used for the determination of employees.

In motivation, initiatives should be made to satisfy the several needs of employees in order that they will be satisfied, happy and from tensions. This creates favorable environment because which employees take more interest and effort in the task and perform their jobs efficiently. Drive is a method of creating interest for the job. It is motivating employees for better performance to be able to achieve the goals of an Organization. The process of determination is a continuing one (circular one) and is beneficial to both - workplace and employees. It really is a key to improve work performance of employees.

The term 'motive' comes from the Latin phrase 'emovere' this means to move or to activate. Desire is the function of making you to definitely act in the desired manner through positive encouragement. It really is through determination that employees can be induced to work more, to earn much more and to give greater results to the business.

2. Definitions of Motivation.

According to W. G. Scot, "Desire means a process of stimulating visitors to action to accomplish the desired goals. "

According to Michael J. jucius, "Drive is the take action of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired plan of action, to thrust the right button to get a desired results. "

3. Features or Characteristics of Determination.

Psychological Process: Desire is a mental health process useful for encouraging employees to take more curiosity about the work designated. It relates to human relationships.

Initiative by Administrator: The initiative for inspiration is by the administrator by offering assistance and also by other methods like appreciation of good work or offering incentives. Management has to adopt special actions for motivating employees. They include financial as well as non-monetary.

Continuous activity: It really is a continuous and circular process. Subordinates need drive in a continuing manner as their needs and objectives differ from time to time. A supervisor has to examine the needs of employees and use the technique of motivation accordingly. The procedure of determination must be made a regular and ongoing one.

Goal-oriented and action-oriented: Desire diverts human action towards certain goals. Attainment of organizational and specific goals is determined by the motivational programs.

Broad idea: Drive covers needs, individuals relations and satisfaction of employees. For staff motivation, economic and other incentives have to be offered. Job satisfaction is one such need and is useful for their desire.

Essence of management process: Desire can be an essential function of your manager. He must encourage his subordinates for reaching organizational goals. Motivated labour force is an advantage of any business unit. Motivated employees bring success to a small business unit.

Beneficial to employees and management: Determination offers benefits to employees and Company. It avoids crashes and encourages cooperative outlook among employees. Determination leads to cordial labour-management relationships. It provides more earnings to management and better welfare to employees.

Varied measures available for motivation: For motivation, various economic and non financial incentives can be offered to employees by the management. Attractive wages, welfare facilities, job satisfaction, understanding of good work, encouragement to self-development, job security and fair treatment are some procedures of motivating employees.

Motivation is different from satisfaction: Desire signifies a drive towards an outcome while satisfaction entails consequence already experienced and achieved. 'When desire is satisfied, worker is motivated'.

Related to a person in totality: A worker is encouraged in totality and not in part. Employee's basic needs are interrelated. Management must accomplish all the needs through monetary and non-monetary incentives.

4. Importance of Motivation.

Motivation occupies an important place and position in the complete management process. This technique can be used fruitfully for pushing personnel to make positive contribution for reaching organizational objectives. Motivation is necessary as human aspect needs some kind of inducement, encouragement or incentive in order to progress performance. Motivation of employee's offers may benefits to the Organisation and also to the employees. This suggests the importance of motivating employees. Determination acts as a technique for bettering the performance of employees working at different levels.

Motivation of employees is one function which every manager must perform along with other managerial functions. A director has to function as a pal and motivator of his subordinates. Inspiration is useful in all aspects of life and even our family life. Precisely the same is the truth with business. This dearly shows that motivation is extremely important. It is a fundamental element of management process itself.

5. Benefits of Motivation.

(A) Benefits to Management or Corporation:

Increase in the efficiency and output of employees. Determination ensures a higher level performance of employees.

Better co-operation from employees and cordial labour-management relationships.

Reduction in the rate of labour absenteeism and turnover.

Reduction in the wastages and commercial accidents.

Improvement in the morale of employees.

Quick success of business/commercial objectives and favorable corporate image.

(B) Advantages to Employees or Individuals:

Employees get various financial and non-monetary facilities/benefits which provide better life and welfare to them.

Security of job and other benefits due to cordial relationships with the management.

Job fascination and job satisfaction.

Higher position and opportunities of participation in general management.

Positive methodology and view of employees towards company, management and superiors.

Reduction in the pace of labour turnover which is bad for employees and management.

Better range for improvement in knowledge and skills of employees.

6. Motivational Factors or Motivational Incentives.

(A) Monetary or Financial Incentives:

Monetary incentives are offered in terms of money. Such incentives provide more money or purchasing power to employees. Monetary incentives are extremely attractive to employees (especially those working at lower levels) as they get the benefit quickly and in concrete conditions. At the higher degrees of management, non-monetary incentives are usually more important than financial incentives. Workers prefer monetary incentives as compared to non-monetary incentives. Managements also offer liberal monetary incentives to all categories of individuals.

Monetary incentives may be further categorised as following:-

Individual Monetary Incentives: The benefit of individual monetary incentive is open to concerned employee only. For instance, F. W. Taylor advised differential part rate system which offers different wage rates to different staff as per their creation efficiency. Different motivation wage plans will be the examples of individual financial incentives as the benefit is offered separately to every worker. Here, an employee is paid as per his efficiency, productivity or according to the production given by him. Efficient/sincere workers give more creation and get higher reward in conditions of wage repayment.

Group Monetary Incentives: Inside the group financial incentives, the financial advantage is not given singularly but to several workers or to all personnel in the Company. Personnel have to work jointly/collectively as a team in order to secure the benefits of group financial incentives. Bonus payment, pension, P. F, production/productivity bonus, profit sharing, etc. will be the examples of group monetary incentives. For the workplace/management, group incentives are definitely more important as they offer many benefits to the management.

(B) Non-monetary Incentives for Worker Motivation:

Job security and job enrichment: Job security pays to for the inspiration of employees. Such security will keep the employee from the tension of becoming unemployed. Job enrichment has an opportunity for better recognition and progression. Job enrichment refers to redesign of careers.

Fair treatment to employees: Company should give attention to the needs, issues and grievances of employees. Small work organizations and effective communication are useful for solving the problems of staff. Employees must get decent treatment. They'll be co-operative only once they are simply treated with sympathy and love, love and dignity. Employees also needs to be given assist in personal things.

Recognition of good work: Identification of good just work at an appropriate time offers encouragement to employees to show better performance in future. As an understanding of good work, awards, rewards, deals, etc. should be given.

Encouragement to self-development and profession development: Employees should be given varied training facilities. Training facilitates self-development and also provides opportunities for career development. Every employee has a desire to expand, develop and climb higher. This desire should be exploited totally for motivating employees. For this, training as well as management development programs should be created.

Delegation of specialist: Due to delegation of authority, a subordinate worker seems that superior has beliefs in him and also in his capacity to use power in a proper manner. Employees get mental satisfaction when authority is given to them. They take interest and effort in the work and try to prove they are competent to just work at the higher levels. Thus, delegation of power becomes a motivating factor.

Congenial working conditions: It is a non financial motivation for motivation. Employees should be given various facilities and conveniences at the task place. The task environment should be pleasurable and safe. This creates desire to work well.

Helpful frame of mind of management: The helpful frame of mind of management towards its employees creates a feeling of affinity for the Company. Good treatment to staff creates better understanding among staff. Cordial industrial relations also motivate employees. Thus, enlightened and pro-employee attitude of management serves as a motivating factor.

Fair opportunity of promotion: Rational opportunity of campaign to all qualified workers is yet another method helpful for motivating employees. They take affinity for the task as they feet that they can be rewarded in the form of promotions. Training center should be provided to employees to make them qualified to receive promotion.

Labour participation in general management: Labour contribution in management is useful for the desire of employees. Personnel get higher position and better opportunity for expressing their views through such contribution. Even the forming of quality circles or joint management councils pays to for motivating employees.

Designation and status: When an employee is provided with a better designation, it adds to his position. Employees are proud to expose their attractive and high-sounding designations.

7. Ideas of Inspiration.

A. H. Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory.

Hertzberg's Determination Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory).

Douglas McGregor's Theory 'X' and Theory 'Y'.

McClelland's Achievement Desire Theory.

8. Elton Mayo's Hawthorne Experiments 1927-1936.

The most famous of all individual relations activity and research were Hawthorne Tests. So called because these were continued in Hawthorne herb of american Electric Company of Chicago in USA.

Dr. Elton Mayo led a team from Harward University which cooperated with western electric co. in the period 1927-1936 to handle Hawthorne Experiments. They identified following details.

Recognized the value of employee attitudes such as understanding voluntary co-operations and willing dedication in accomplishment of organizational goals.

Found that worker performance is very much indeed inspired by his frame of mind towards his job, associates and management.

Proved that organizational company can gain only when its employees are satisfied contented in their jobs.

Pointed out that any change to be should be produced should be described and its so this means should be clear to employees. The fact that change is reasonable is insufficient because employees might not appreciate the logic.

Explored much of home elevators group patterns.

Thus have provided the foundation for much of what we know about getting along with all, problem employees in particular.

Employee Motivation: Theory and practice

The job of an manager at work is to get things done through employees. To get this done the manager can stimulate employees. But that's easier in theory! Motivation practice and theory are difficult content, touching on several disciplines.

In spite of great research, basic as well as applied, the main topic of inspiration is not plainly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand determination one must understand people dynamics itself. And there lays the situation!

Human nature can be very simple, yet highly complex too. A knowledge and appreciation of the is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in the workplace and therefore effective management and authority.

These articles on determination theory and practice concentrate on various ideas regarding human dynamics generally and motivation specifically. Included are articles on the practical aspects of desire in the workplace and the research that has been performed in this field, notably by Douglas McGregor (theory y), Frederick Herzberg (two factor motivation hygiene theory, ) Abraham Maslow (theory z, hierarchy of needs), Elton Mayo (Hawthorne Tests) Chris Argyris Rensis Likert and David McClelland (achievements motivation. )

Why review and apply employee motivation guidelines?

Quite in addition to the advantage and moral value associated with an altruistic approach to treating co-workers as humans and respecting human dignity in all its forms, research and observations show that well determined employees are more profitable and creative. The inverse also holds true. The schematic below suggests the contribution the practical application of the rules this paper has on minimizing work content in the business.

Motivation is the key to performance improvement

There can be an old declaring you may take a horses to the but you cannot induce it to drink; it will drink only when it's thirsty - so with people. They'll do what they would like to do or elsewhere motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the 'ivory tower' they must be determined or powered to it, either independently or through external stimulus.

Are they created with the self-motivation or drive? It depends. If no, they can be motivated, for desire is a skill which can and must be learnt. That is needed for any business to make it through and succeed.

Performance is known as to be always a function of potential and inspiration, thus:

Job performance =f(ability)(drive)

Ability in turn depends upon education, experience and training and its own improvement is a slow-moving and long process. On the other hand motivation can be better quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may well not even know the place to start. As a guide, there are broadly seven approaches for motivation.

Positive reinforcement / high expectations

Effective willpower and punishment

Treating people fairly

Satisfying employees needs

Setting work related goals

Restructuring jobs

Base rewards on job performance

These are the basic strategies, although mix in the ultimate 'menu' will change from workplace situation to situation. Essentially, there's a gap between an individuals actual state plus some desired talk about and the supervisor tries to reduce this gap.

Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. It really is inducing others in a particular way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator. Effortlessly, these goals as also the determination system must conform to the corporate insurance plan of the organization. The motivational system must be tailored to the situation and to the business.

In one of the most elaborate studies on employee motivation, involving 31, 000 men and 13, 000 women, the Minneapolis Gas Company looked for to know what their potential employees desire most from a job. This analysis was carried out throughout a 20 season period from 1945 to 1965 and was quite revealing. The ratings for the many factors differed only just a little between men and women, but both communities considered security as the highest rated factor. The next three factors were;


type of work

company - proud to work for

Surprisingly, factors such as pay, benefits and working conditions received a low ranking by both categories. So in the end, and unlike common notion, money is not the perfect motivator. (Though this will not be seen as a signal to encourage employees terribly or unfairly. )

Motivation theorists and their ideas (1 of 2)

Although the process of management is really as old as history, clinical management as we realize it today is actually a twentieth century trend. Also, as in some other domains, practice has been far before theory.

This continues to be true in neuro-scientific management, unlike the situation in some of the 100 % pure sciences. For instance, Albert Einstein, formulates a theory, which is later turned out by ages of extensive research and experimentation. Not in neuro-scientific management.

In truth this field has been so devoid of real important work so far, that Herbert A. Simon is the first management theoretician to get the Nobel Reward for Economics in 1978. His contribution itself provides clue to the issue, bordering on impossibility, of real fundamental work in this field worried about people. To be able to arrive at the correct decision, the director must have all the information necessary highly relevant to the many factors and at all times on the planet to analyze the same.

This is hardly ever, if ever, the case. Both the information available and the time at the managers removal are limited, but she or he must make a decision. And your choice is, therefore, not the ideal one but a 'satisficing' one - in place, a satisfactory compromise under the real conditions prevailing in the management 'market'.

Traditional theory 'X'

This can best be ascribed to Sigmund Freud who was no lover of individuals, and was definately not being positive. Theory X assumes that folks are lazy; they hate work to the amount that they avoid it; they haven't any ambition, take no effort and prevent taking any responsibility; all they need is security, also to get them to do any work, they need to be rewarded, coerced, intimidated and punished. This is actually the so-called 'stay and carrot' idea of management. If this theory were valid, managers must constantly police their staff, whom they can not trust and who'll refuse to cooperate. In such an oppressive and irritating atmosphere, both for the supervisor and the handled, there is no probability of any success or any creative work. But luckily, as we know, this isn't the truth.

Theory 'Y' - Douglas McGregor

This is sharp compare to theory 'X'. McGregor believed that people want to learn and that work is their natural activity to the degree that they develop self-discipline and self-development. They see their praise not so much in cash obligations just as the independence to do difficult and challenging work independently. The professionals job is to 'dovetail' the individual wish for self-development in to the organizations dependence on maximum fruitful efficiency. The basic aims of both are therefore met and with creativity and sincerity, the extensive probable can be tapped.

Does it appear too good to be true? Maybe it's construed, by some, that Theory 'Y' management is gentle and slack. This isn't true and the facts is in the 'pudding', for this has already demonstrated its worth in the USA and somewhere else. For best results, the people must be carefully determined to create a homogeneous group. A good head of such a group may conveniently 'absent' from conferences so they can discuss the matters widely and help select and 'groom' a fresh leader. The first choice does no longer hanker after electricity, lets people develop openly, and may even (it is hoped) enjoy enjoying the development and actualization of individuals, as if, by themselves. Everyone, and most of all the organization, gains because of this.

Theory 'Z' - Abraham Maslow

This is a stimulating change from the theory X of Freud, by a fellow psychologist, Abraham Maslow. Maslow totally rejects the dark and dingy Freudian basement and calls for us out into the fresh, wide open, sunny and cheerful atmosphere. He is the main founder of the humanistic university or the 3rd force which retains that all the good qualities are inherent in people, at least, at birth, although later they are little by little lost.

Maslow's central theme revolves around this is and need for human work and appears to epitomize Voltaire's observation in Candide, 'work banishes the three great evils -boredom, vice and poverty'. The fantastic sage Yajnavalkya explains in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad that by good works a guy becomes holy, by evil works evil. A mans personality is the sum total of his works and this only his works make it through a guy at death. This is perhaps the fact of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, as it is additionally know.

Maslow's major works include the standard textbook (in cooperation with Mittlemann), Concepts of Abnormal Psychology (1941), a seminal newspaper, 'A Theory of People Inspiration' (1943) and the reserve, Eupsychian Management (pronounced yew-sigh-keyan) publicized in 1965. Maslow's theory of individuals drive is, in reality, the basis of McGregor's theory 'Y' briefly explained above. The essential human needs, according to Maslow, are:

physiological needs (Lowest)

safety needs;

love needs;

esteem needs; and

self-actualization needs (Highest)

Mans behavior is seen as dominated by his unsatisfied needs and he is a 'perpetually wanting animal', for when one need is satisfied he aspires for another higher one. This is, therefore, seen as an ongoing activity, in which the man is completely absorbed in order to attain perfection through self-development.

The highest talk about of self-actualization is seen as a integrity, responsibility, magnanimity, ease and naturalness. Self-actualizers give attention to problems exterior to themselves. His prescription for human being salvation is simple, however, not easy: 'Hard work and total dedication to doing well the job that fate or personal destiny calls anyone to do, or any important job that "calls for" doing'.

Maslow has already established his share of critics, but he has had the opportunity to achieve a relaxing synthesis of divergent and influential philosophies of:

Marx - economical and physical needs;

Freud - physical and love needs;

Adler - esteem needs;

Goldstein - self-actualization.

Frederick Herzberg - Hygiene / Inspiration Theory

This is dependant on analysis of the interviews of 200 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area in the USA. According to the theory, people work first and foremost in their own self-enlightened interest, for they are truly happy and mentally healthy through work achievement. Individuals needs are of two types:

Animal Needs (hygiene factors)


Interpersonal relations

Working conditions


Human Needs (motivators)





Unsatisfactory hygiene factors can act as de-motivators, but if satisfactory, their motivational result is limited. The mindset of determination is quite complex and Herzberg has exploded several myths about motivators such as:

shorter working week;

increasing wages;

fringe benefits;

sensitivity / individuals relationships training;


As typical illustrations, saying 'please' to shop-floor workers does not motivate those to work hard, and telling them about the performance of the company could even antagonize them more. Herzberg respect these also as hygiene factors, which, if acceptable, gratify animal needs but not human being needs.

Chris Argyris

According to Argyris, organization must be redesigned for a fuller usage of the most precious resource, the personnel, in particular their subconscious energy. The pyramidal composition will be relegated to the backdrop, and decisions will be studied by small communities alternatively than by a single supervisor. Satisfaction in work could be more valued than material rewards. Work should be restructured in order to allow individuals to develop to the fullest amount. At exactly the same time work will become more meaningful and challenging through self-motivation.

Rensis Likert

Likert identified four different styles of management:





The participative system was found to be the very best in that it satisfies the complete range of real human needs. Major decisions are considered by organizations themselves which results in obtaining high targets and excellent productivity. You can find complete trust within the group and the sense of involvement leads to a superior degree of inspiration.

Fred Luthans

Luthans advocates the so-called 'contingency strategy' on the basis that certain techniques work better than others for several people and certain careers. As an example, rigid, clearly defined jobs, authoritative command and tight controls lead in some instances to high output and satisfaction among staff. In a few other instances just the opposite appears to work. It's important, therefore, to adapt the control style to the particular group of workers and the precise job in hand.

Victor Vroom

Vroom's 'expectancy theory' is an expansion of the 'contingency strategy'. The management style should be 'customized' to the particular situation and to this group. In some cases it seems best for the boss to choose and in others the group finds a consensus. A person also needs to be rewarded with what he or she perceives as important rather than what the manager perceives. For example, one individual may value an income increase, whereas another may, instead, value advertising. This theory contributes an understanding into the analysis of employee motivation by describing how specific goals influence specific performance.

We have discussed above only an array of the motivation ideas and thoughts of the various proponents of the individuals behavior institution of management. Not included here are, among others, the thoughts of:

Seebohm Rowntree - labor contribution in management;

Elton Mayo - the Hawthorne Tests;

Kurt Lewin - group dynamics; force field theory;

David McClelland - accomplishment motivation;

George Humans - the real human group;

William Whyte - the organization man.

What does everything soon add up to? Back to 'square one'? Yes, indeed, the entire picture is obviously confusing. This is not unusual, for the real human nature and real human head defy a clear-cut model, mathematical or otherwise.

In a few of the ideas and thoughts shown, however, one can see some 'glimpses' of the individual and exactly how, perhaps, he or she could be encouraged. This is rewarding alone. But, as noted earlier, practice has been before theory in this field, so why don't we now proceed to the practical part of management of real human behavior and desire at work.

Application of worker desire theory to the workplace

Management books is replete with actual circumstance histories of what does and what does not motivate people. Presented here is a tentative initial broad selection of the many practices that contain been tried in order to pull lessons for future years.

'Stick' or 'carrot' methodology?

The traditional Victorian style of strict self-control and punishment hasn't only failed to deliver the products, but it has also left a spirits of discontent between the "working class".

Punishment appears to have produced negative alternatively than excellent results and has increased the hostility between 'them' (the management) and 'us' (the workers). As opposed to this, the 'carrot' approach, involving approval, praise and identification of effort has markedly improved the work atmosphere, resulting in more fruitful work places and providing workers higher job satisfaction.

Manager's motivation 'toolkit'

The manager's main process is to develop a productive work place, with and through those they're responsible for. The manager should motivate his / her team, both singularly and collectively so a productive workplace is looked after and developed and at exactly the same time employees derive satisfaction of their jobs.

This may appear slightly contradictory, but it appears to work. The primary tools in the manager's kitbag for motivating the team are:

approval, praise and recognition

trust, respect and high expectations

loyalty, considering that it can be received

removing organizational barriers that stand in the way of individual and group performance (smooth business functions, systems, methods and resources - see format team building program)

job enrichment

good communications

financial incentives

These are established in order worth addressing and it is interesting to notice that cash is way down the ladder of motivators. Let's look at several examples taken from real life situations.

The Swedish shipbuilding company, Kockums, switched a 15 million dollars reduction into a 100 million buck profit in the course of ten years anticipated totally to a evolved belief of the labor force as a result of better motivation. At Traditional western Electric there was a dramatic improvement in productivity following the supervisors and managers started taking better interest in their employees.

Don't coerce - persuade!

Persuasion is a lot more powerful than coercion, equally the pen is mightier than the sword. Managers have a far greater chance of success if indeed they use persuasion somewhat than coercion. The former builds morale, initiative and drive, whilst the last mentioned quite effectively kills such features. The three basic components in persuasion are:


play on the person's sentiments; and

appeal to logic.

Once convinced, the individual is so determined concerning deliver the 'goods'. The administrator will have achieved the target quietly, carefully and with the the least effort. It is, in effect, an effortless accomplishment.

There has been a significant amount of research into persuasion / determination in the field of advertising and marketing. The study is entirely of the applied type, which can and has been used to great sensible advantage. A number of the findings in this field were first published in the fifties in a e book with the name, The Hidden Persuaders, which became a bestseller.

More modern day 'persuaders' used by marketing and advertising people include:

Faster talk is available to be more effective, since it is remembered better.

Brain emits fast beta waves whenever a person is absolutely interested in a specific demonstration. These waves can be found by an instrument.

Subliminal methodology using short length of time presentation, whereby the meaning is sent below the amount of awareness.

Can these findings be used in genuine work conditions? AT&T (The North american Telephone and Telegraph Co. , ) recognizing the importance of invisible needs, at onetime succeeded in promoting long distance telephone calls by use of the simple phrase: 'Reach out, reach out and touch someone'. Managers will need to adjust this persuasion / motivation technique to their own situation.

Application of employee inspiration theory to the workplace

Job satisfaction - will there be a trend?

This is the title of a study completed by the united states Section of Labor among 1500 individuals, who had been asked to rate the work factors, from a list of 23, that they considered important beginning with the most important factor.

Their conclusions (Sanzotta (1977)) are within the stand below.

Job Satisfaction Findings

White-collar workers

Blue-collar workers

A. Interesting work

A. Good pay

B. Opportunities for development

B. Enough help and resources

C. Enough information

C. Job security

D. Enough authority

D. Enough information

E. Enough help and resources

E. Interesting work

F. Friendly, helpful coworkers

F. Friendly, helpful co-workers

G. See results of own efforts

G. Clearly described responsibilities

H. Competent supervision

H. See results of own work

I. Clearly defined responsibilities

I. Enough Authority

J. Good pay

J. Competent supervision

It is interesting that out of the 23 job factors outlined for the survey, yet apart from two items (white-collar staff' choice (B) and blue-collar personnel' choice (C)) organizations decided on the same top ten factors, although with different ranks. It really is significant that good pay was considered as the most important factor by the blue-collar staff, but it ranked as minimal very important to white-collar employees.

Individualize drive policies

It established fact that individual behavior is intensely personal and unique, yet companies seek to use the same policies to motivate everyone. That is mainly for convenience and ease compared to catering for individual oddities (Lindstone (1978)). 'Tailoring' the policy to the needs of every specific is difficult but is far more effective and can pay handsome dividends. Fairness, decisiveness, presenting reward and constructive criticism can become more effective than profit the matter of desire.

Leadership is considered synonymous (Tack (1979)) with desire, and the best form of authority is chosen as SAL, situation versatile leadership. In this style of leadership, an example may be never surprised or shocked, leadership must start with the chief executive and it is more a matter of adaptation than of imparting knowledge. Eventually, it is the authority quality which brings about the success of an organization through team building and motivating its people.

'The one-minute manager'

A contemporary bestseller (Blanchard & Johnson (1983)) aimed at professionals who seek to make star performers of the subordinates. To start with, the manager sets a goal, e. g. one webpage read in a single minute, which is seen to be performed by 'one minute' of praising or reprimand as the situation may be. But to work, these must get (a) promptly, (b) in specific conditions, and the patterns, rather than the person, should be praised or reprimanded.

The strategy is basic and it seems sensible, although the publication looks for to 'dramatize' it. 'One minute' praising is seen to be the motivating push. Everyone is considered a winner, though some individuals are disguised as losers, and the director is extolled not to be fooled by such appearances.

'Lessons from America's Best-run Companies'

Another bestseller, Searching for Brilliance (Peters & Waterman (1982)). Several requirements, including analysis of annual studies and in-depth interviews, were used to choose 14 'model excellent companies' out of a short sample of 62 companies. Needlessly to say, the majority of the action in high-performing companies revolved around its people, their success being ascribed to:

productivity through people;

extraordinary performance from typical employees;

treating people decently.

Personnel function and in particular control were considered the most significant components. If the leaders in an business can create and sustain an environment in which all employees are determined, the overall performance will be good. The three basics for creating such an environment are:


job security; and


Of all the resources available, the individuals resource is evidently the most significant, but also the most challenging to manage. Excellence can only be achieved through excellent performance of every person, alternatively than by the high-pitched performance of a few individuals. And desire is, definitely, the crux.


There is not any simple response to the question of how to motivate people. Can money motivate? Yes, but money together is insufficient, though it does help. We've discussed some of the pertinent ideas bearing on real human motivation which is well balanced by a few of the sensible factors which can lead to excellence. Human learning resource remains the center point and leadership the critical element, and motivation has to be 'tailored' to each individual. The next section deals with an important mode of motivation, namely financial areas of rewarding employees.

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