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Experience In Team Working Using Management Theories

The case study briefly discuss about the my real life experiences of working in a team and real time activities includes, which were happen in my own past life once i was in several organizations. These include from college days to right up until now and how my behavior reflects in team. Here I am using ideas, principles or models which are interrelated to my experience in team and these theories helped me too much to build up examination of my behavior explained through types of my very own observation and experience. These ideas which were reflected my nature in various aspects of my entire life towards success.

2. Launch:

Here I am demonstrating my encounters in team working, even though the words group and team seems to be similar, there may be difference in interpretation and features. Hayes (1997) mentioned that notion of team must be one of the very most trusted metaphors in group life. According to Jon R. Katzenbach (1993)-"a team is a small group of individuals with complementary skills who are committed to a common goal that they maintain themselves mutually accountable".

Group can be explained as small collection of people with balancing skills and capabilities who are focused on leader's goal and under innovator control; teams make results better than groups (Mackin). Relating to Katzenbach and smith (1993)-"indeed, these days, the virtues of groups and team working are extolled very widely". So in my own inspection teams are sturdily activity oriented informal groups, teams are eternal or short-term, and these are formal groups and superb at achieving goals and placed for them by the organization (Rollinson, 2008). The main characteristics that produce a differentiation between groups from organizations include: multiple resources of information, task independencies, coordination among members, common and valued goals, specialized functions and tasks, task-relevant knowledge, extensive communication, and adaptive ways of help react to change. (Paris, Salas, & Cannon-Bowers, 2000)

Tuckman (1965) synthesized the results of number theorists into his popular 'Forming-Storming-Norming-performing' model. It shows the tendencies of the group.

Forming: This level; individuals form into an organization at first time. These customers are reliant, searching for support and information and having different types of culture. Here Users are high reliant on leader for support and avenue.

Storming: Here leaders face issues with associates. The turmoil management is highly recommended necessary in this stage in order to resolve specific decisions in group; this is due to sense of hopelessness. Due to irregular relationships, and associates are rebellion against the leader or leading members.

Norming: Customers are polite to each other, roles and tasks are obvious and acceptable, discussions and improvements about goal is an integral part of norming. Team members are less dependent on leader.

Performing: The team understands clearly need for task and reaching the goal. Problems are solved effectively if indeed they occur; here the team is ready for doing task. Everyone have equivalent tasks and posting of ideas in order to attain goal.

(Huczynski, 2001)

Team working:

Effective team work is a critical element in current management methods such as empowerment and total quality management (TQM). Operating organizations team work plays major role such as hospitality organizations where there is direct effect on customer satisfaction (Mullins, 2001). Team work increases competiveness by: improving output, value and motivating innovation; taking good thing about the opportunities provided by technological advances; improving worker motivation and commitment (Mullins, 2002). In team working any member point out other member immediately if member doing anything wrong, by communicate with him and present any ideas on location without fear, in teamworking. Buchanan (1987, P. 40) refer to the term 'High performance work design' expressing the problem where 'a work group is allocated a standard activity and given discretion over how the job is usually to be done'.

3. Experience in team working using management theories:

Here I will discuss about basic management conditions which are being used to signify my behavior in the team. First I will discuss about the classroom activities which I participated recently and also discuss later my earlier experiences.

Here I used two management theories which made me proficient at teamwork besides various other management models used to show my behavior in past. They are Vroom and Jago revised decision model and other the first is Interaction research.

This is revised style of Vroom and Yetton contingency model proposed by the Vroom and Jago, Consists of five main decision making styles from set of twelve of contingency variables. This model is mainly found in making the best decisions. We are able to use some of five decision styles may succeed in given situations. The contingency parameters are: Quality requirement; commitment requirement; head information; problem composition; commitment likelihood; goal congruence; subordinate issue; subordinate information; time constraint; geographical dispersion; inspiration time and inspiration development. They are responded to on five point range. We choose decision based on high rating distributed by majority users in team. For example, 'how much importance did you put going to gym?' the supervisor selects one of following responses: no importance; low importance; average importance; high importance; critical importance. Vroom and Jago developed four decision trees and shrubs to a universal kind of managerial problem:

An Individual-level problem with time constraints;

An individual-level problem in which the manager wishes to build up an employee's decision-making ability;

A group-level problem where the manager wishes to develop employee's decision-making abilities; and

A time-driven group problem.

(Mullins, 2002)

My class room activity: "Rescuing people at risk"

This is first class room activity that i participated lately. We received process from our tutor, entire category was split into different teams. The experience is rescuing the folks who are in risk. People details who have been in danger as mentioned as first one: military services person (age 50); second one: women with small baby; third one: young scientist (25) and fourth one: a vintage lady (years 67) who have been in building, caught by flames.

My team consists of five users including me, one act as team leader. The duty is, we make best solution i. e. which person is rescued first, everyone should give their priorities list individually and then at last we select best answer in given period of time. This model helps me and we in method of determines whether we have to make a decision alone or involve a group, and also to what magnitude the group should be involved.

Problem framework: It explains the type of the situation. I already explained the framework of the task previously. Here we have to understand problem successfully. Understanding problem is basis for just about any success. In our task we have less time here we performed the brainstorming technique which makes us proficient at understanding the structure of the building. Team analyzed the overview of structure for just about any loop openings to rescuing.

Goal congruence: Our team made a decision to produce the best solution and every member in team approved to this arrangement. Each member in team reveals their views and finally we give most main concern to the perfect solution is agreed by majority of the users in the team predicated on five point scale rating.

Time constraint: We should complete the task within fifteen minutes so we set time to specific to send solution in ten minutes and finally we utilize five minutes for talking about the best answer. We will be fail if we not make decision within confirmed time. I positioned my decision to leader with my priorities. Time management is important conditions in any corporation for getting better results.

Conflict with subordinates: Coming to my decision my priorities are pointed out as: first women with baby; second young scientist; third one armed service person and fourth one a vintage lady. The reasons for selecting people were first I offered preferences to age (baby) and second one talent (young scientist). Some associates acquired different priorities which is quite different from me. So here the discord happened, some customers give top priority to old people first and then younger ones. So team leader uses the five-point scale concept on basis of score on the range, the most effective one will be picked. This method cleans away the turmoil effectively. Our team is not having sufficient communication because of culture and words problem and mutual understanding. Turmoil as a positive and essential phenomenon is beautifully argued by Drucker (1977, P. 379):"the understanding that underlies the right decision develops out of the clash and issue of ideas and out of the serious account of competing alternatives". Yes I agreed with author Ducker' words why because almost all of the people becomes panic, we have to face turmoil effectively with this solutions by treating it as challenging, leader role is important to choose good decision from these set of alternatives. (Tyson, 1989)

Motivation development: MULLINS (1996, P. 480) identifies drive as "some travelling force within individuals where they attempt to achieve some goal to be able to fulfill some need or expectation". This means that all person has own perception about what does, it comes from experiencing failures. Here, to the first choice, there may be need to provide good drive among the associates, but also each member in the team has knowledge on determination theories. If folks are motivated, then are likely to make good initiatives in contribution then it leads good end result.

How to summarize this means title

Here the answer is submitted on basis o five-point range i. e. views of bulk customers in the team. It comes under third decision model i. e. group level problem, here leader wishes to develop member's decision making capacity. The priority order is identical to which was stated before, Personally i think very happy for getting lead to my views, which model helps me by doing this activity, great decision making techniques, discord elimination, quality management(in producing quality final result).

The concept of Interaction analysis:

This approach has developed by Bales, instructs that action in groups, and aim to provide means of explaining group process and factors influencing the procedure. In Bales's- 'Interaction process research' every take action of patterns is grouped, as it occurs, under twelve headings. These distinguish the 'job' and 'socio-emotional' functions. The categories put on verbal and non- verbal connection. Socio-emotional handles negative and positive reactions; positive reactions include solidarity, pressure release, agrees. And negative reactions contain disagree, tension, antagonism. Coming to job function, it involves attempted answers and questions. In attempted answers give idea about recommendation, opinion, and orientation. Questions deals with ask for orientation, recommendation and judgment.

In order to make group successful, there are two main group of functions must be take on - Task and Maintenance functions. Activity functions useful in: problem handling, the fulfillment of the duty of the group, exchange of ideas and information. Maintenance functions are worried with emotional life of the group and aimed at building and keeping the group as a successful working unit. It provides resolution of turmoil, support, retaining cohesiveness, relationships among the list of group members. Activity and maintenance functions are performed by either group head or users.

My class room activity:

Task: Design of patterns with limited resources.

The activity is to create triangle, flag, wedding ring, string with limited resources. The school is divided into different clubs, in each team there exists insufficient resources. There are a few measurements in set in centimeters, length and breadth. In such a activity my team consists of five people including me, here my role was as observer for making full list observations which were happen, related to my team. One become team representative, the duty consists of different groups having different kinds of resources to make design, in order to complete the duty, team representative in each group exchange resources with each other. We ought to complete the duty in a given timeframe.

Socio-emotional: Positive and negative reactions:

I observed a lot of things both in positive and negative aspect. Positive reactions include; displaying solidarity in the sense of mention the position of participants work, providing help. I also observed that my team head encouragement to the participants, means of making jokes shows joy. My team members are energetic in means of sharing ideas, mutual understanding and contribution; exchange of resources effectively between clubs. Negative reactions include: insufficient time management and lack of determination and planning and also poor communication of my team leader with other group team leaders. There is another thing that cheating tutor by use of scale that was taken from one in our teammate handbag secretly for calculating purpose without requesting other teams; aiding in doing cheating (concealing scale from tutor).

Task functions:

Task functions bargains answers and questions. The duty functions that i seen in the team as observer: My innovator and also associates providing suggestions to one another, expressing view on work of others, exhibit the feelings towards incorrect things, clarifying the uncertainties lifted by the users, evaluation and examination of work and turmoil management during design. My team members clarified several questions by conservations with others in effective way.

How to summarize this means title

We failed in distribution of our own design work not all some design designs due to insufficient time management and inappropriate communication of my team leader with other leaders in exchanging resources (displaying less interest). My observations uncover that due to insufficient knowledge on brainstorming and creative thinking. Poor knowledge on mathematics. I think it is good notion to apply JIT (just in time) strategy in team work which reduces consumption of your energy, it is new procedure which put in place in creation systems related to procedure management (Rollinson, 2008).

Brainstorming: This is important concept which can be used in many organizations (for managers). Brainstorming is way to getting large number of ideas from an organization of people in a short time. This is doesn't say brainstorming produce good notion. By using we make multiple ideas contains bad and the good, it is our work to choose good solution from set of ideas. We faces brilliant to silly ideas, all ideas are acceptable. In our process brainstorming concept pays to in making decisions (developing plan) and using this technique we effectively take care of enough time. Here our team generated different ideas in a nutshell time including all the members at time. (Rawlinson, 1981)

Maslow's hierarchy of needs model:

This theory was offered by Maslow in 1943, and concentrates on specific development and motivation. Matching to Maslow-'people are looking beings, they always want more and what they want depends upon what they already have'. Individuals needs are assemble in the series of levels, in hierarchy worth focusing on. Maslow recognized eight natural needs, like the need to know and understand cosmetic needs, and the necessity of transcendence. Though, the hierarchy is usually shown five main levels, at least expensive level physiological and at highest level personal actualization.

The hierarchy needs are shown in group of steps, shown in form of pyramid. The level contains physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization needs. He also recommended that there is no importance to order. This theory comes under content theories of determination, which clarifies specific things which actually motivate the individual at work, and also determining people's needs and talents.

(Mullins, 2002)

Figure 12. 6 Maslow's hierarchy of needs model ( how to guide image it extracted from google images)

My real-time activities at graduate level:

I was functioned as student mentor and national cultural service (NSS) member in our college during period (2007-2010). The motivation of both careers is same i. e. providing service to the people internally and externally. Pupil mentor services includes providing information about school services and make a notice of college student problems to higher expert and communicating with students in various aspects like study guide, sports activities level, conducting workshops about latest information, I provide service within university level to students. Arriving at NSS activities include providing help poor people with help of management and students like conducting blood camps, financial aids to folks who are in below poverty lines and many sociable activities. In both services there some categories depend upon type of service. In university student mentor services we were 35 associates on overall school. And in NSS services there are roughly one fifty users from all branches. At first time while i was becoming involved services I got training and my encounters are brought up using Maslow's theory of hierarchy needs.

Maslow's model which gives the basis for might work in means of individual action and inspiration, I studied this theory which referenced by my pal, this theory mainly deals with five areas that happen to be talked about in the diagram.

Physiological: It reflects my individual considering in sense of homeostasis (the body's automatic attempts to hold on to normal working) such as satisfaction of craving for food, thirst and needs for oxygen and maintain temperature legislation. It really is significant need of each member in the team for team success, and also I comprehended the ideas related to natural way rather than form or structure. It can help me in understanding different kind of individuals.

Safety: I provided real human safety training seminars to folks who are in tribal areas as part of NSS activity. Included in these are protecting from hazard, security, predictability training. Individuals were participated efficiently. Safety techniques plays vital role on individual life. My group users also participated efficiently with good knowledge.

Love: These are also known as communal needs, include making friends, social activities, it is important factor for either university student coach or NSS member, and we provide service heart completely like our great Mom Teresa. It is important to show love not only to the outside people but also participants among the list of group. I motivated by reading catalogs of Mom Teresa, and her services to the people.

"You will find no great things, only small things with great love. Happy are those"-Mother Teresa.

(David, 2001)

Esteem needs: It is our basic ethic to provide respect to people of different culture. The activities include self-respect that involves the desire for confidence, strength, freedom and independence, and achievements. My course work consists of mingle with people, showing great respect, appreciation. Every member in the team should provide self-respect to each other then only the team will get success.

Self-actualization: This is the development of and realization of your respective full probable. In Maslow's point of view-'what humans can be, they need to be', or 'becoming everything that one with the capacity of becoming'. It includes growth, creativity on the list of team members towards goal.

Here I am eager to say some useful ideas which shown my behavior whenever i was doing my services:

Leadership: A management should be considered a 'charismatic' i. e. that enables leaders to encourage group to attain spectacular performance. In simple we say that leaders are person who has followers. Market leaders having some essential qualities such as eye-sight, integrity, determination, creative potential, communication, risk taking and presence. Management differs in the sense enjoy it is artwork, doing things effectively by folks in order to attain organizational goal. A good organization should have a variety of leaders and managers to achieve success (Storey, 2004).

Action-centred authority: It really is general theorey associated with work of John Adair, focuses on what leaders actually do. He says that the potency of leader depends on mainly three regions of need within work group: the necessity to achive common process, team maintenance and individual needs. In my openion it good notion to the leader having these responsibilites

sugests the write

Due to knoweldge in Maslow's theory, it offers basic knowledge about human mother nature and also determination towards success. I am successful in the team by implementation Maslow methodology.

Personal observation:

I wish to express my very own observation from mother nature is team work of birds which are flying in the air, in order to attain long destination in short effectively, these wild birds practices the team work in creation of v-shape. The reasons behind development of v-shape is the fact whole flock escalates the flight efficiency compared to flying by itself (without group), the flock sustains some good characteristics habits(in form of team work) like moving in same direction with constant speed, helping dynamics in exchanging its positions.

4. Summary:

I recognized my behavior while employed in team as specific using management ideas in different ways like experiencing with people of diverse culture and environment. I learned how to respond with people and mingle in team work. After discovered from different sources of knowledge, I discovered some recommendations that are needed for team working. Atlanta divorce attorneys organization there exists need to implement efficient strategies for building effective team or group besides customer satisfaction even though organizations experienced Human learning resource Management(HRM). I recommend parents, institutions and schools to provide basic content which improve team work and offer special involvement in producing management skills.

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