As Pope is our best poet of the town and of artificial life, so Wordsworth is our very best poet of the united states and of natural life. He has been called, and rightly, 'the keenest eyed of most modern poets for what is profound and essential in aspect (Hudson, 190)
It is normally meant that the British Romantic Movement started in 1798, with the publication of The Lyrical Ballads. Nonetheless it is a mistake to assign any definite night out to it. It had been not a sudden outburst but the consequence of long and progressive progress and development. The poets of the affectionate school-Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, etc. -were not the first romantics of Britain, for the Elizabethan books is essentially affectionate in spirit. Additionally it is full of that sense of wonder and secret, that love of daring and adventure, that curiosity and restlessness, which associate with the poets of the first 19th hundred years.
However it may be, the romantic spirit suffered a complete drop and eclipse during the Augustan or the Pseudo-classical age. The Augustan literature was mainly intellectual and logical, deficient in sentiment and imaginatical. It dealt only with the unnatural life of the upper classes of the city of London, and its own form and diction was as unnatural as its theme. It experienced no sense for nature no feeling for many who lived outside the narrow confines of trendy London contemporary society. The romantic movements started as a effect against the dried up intellectuality and artificiality of the Pseudo-classics.
Return to Character played an extremely prominent part in the revival of romanticism. Suffocated with the cramped and packed city atmosphere, people longed for the freshness of Character. They wished to return to the free and invigorating life of the world of leaves and blossoms. It was in The Seasons (1730) of Adam Thomson that mother nature came up to her own for the very first time. This is actually the first important poem where nature, instead of remaining subordinate to man, is made the central theme. The seed sown by Thomas grew and flourished in the poetry of such poets as Grey, Collins, Burns up, Cowper and Crabbe.
A very important period of the intimate movements was the middle ages revival. Not only were the historical masters analyzed, but old English metres and poetic varieties were revived. Bishop Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, Chatterton's Rowley Poems, and James Macpherson's Ossiam are important landmarks in the history of English romanticism.
A long step of progress in the history of romanticism was taken with the publication of "the Lyrical Ballads" in 1798. Uptil now the movements acquired no unity, no set programme, and no aim. It was not a conscious movement whatsoever. It had been now for the very first time that both friends-Wordsworth and Coleridge-emphasised the goals and targets of the new poetry. Coleridge pointed out that he would treat of things and occurrences supernatural, however in such way concerning make them look real and convincing; Wordsworth, on the other side, was to cope with subjects extracted from normal and commonplace life but to be able to cast over them by the magic of his powerful power of his creativity the elegance of novelty. The previous would make the unfamiliar, look familiar, and the last mentioned would make familiar look unfamiliar. Sukumar Dutt while writing about the common earth between Wordsworth and Coleridge writes, "it is clear that the supernaturalism of Wordsworth and Coleridge, at the very least in theoretical conception and speculative concepts, has greater than a mere superficial or adventitious relation to romanticism. Its important or originative idea, as we've seen, is involved in the charming conceptions of Character and man; its peculiar form as a tale of individual experiences, --of your brain and also of the senses acted after by the mind, --is determined by the humanity and idealism of romantic imagination"(Dutt, 221).
In this was they enunciated the theory and methods of the new poetry, gave a new awareness and purpose to the movement, and thus opened up a new chapter in the history of British Romanticism.
No account of the introduction of English romanticism can be viewed as complete with out a mention of the effect on it of the French Revolution and German Idealistic school of thought. More specially, the French Revolution and the writings of the creators of the Revolution, fired the imagination of the English romantics. A re-awakening of the love of real and outrageous dynamics and of the easy humanity residing in her lap, have been there even before the revolution. But now it acquired a philosophical basis and gained a fresh stimulus. The Go back to Characteristics and the democratic nature were nourished and fostered by the Trend. It also fed and strengthened the revolutionary idealism of poets like Byron and Shelley. Passionate poetry does not turn its back again on each one of these shattering changes and wander off up an Alp to sniff flowers and contemplate eternal verities (Flinn, 6).
Keats is a unique phenomenon in the annals of English romanticism, in more ways than one. To begin with, he represents a distinctive balance of classicism and romanticism. Highly imaginative and mental matter is enclosed in forms of perfect beauty. The music and melody of the romantics is combined with well-chiseled and highly done manifestation of the classics.
The term "Romanticism" has been variously defined by various writers. Pater, for example, message or calls it the "addition of strangeness to beauty" and Watts Dunton identifies it as, "the renaissance of question". Abercrombie, on the other side, stresses the subjective aspect of romanticism and writes, "Romanticism is a drawback from exterior experience to concentrate upon internal experience".
"Romanticism is often referred to as a return towards nature but this notion is indeed highly complex because for the French article writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau there was a go back to the resources of our being that is less a primitive hostility than a go back to the state of the 'noble savage'"(Wolfreys, 103).
It would become more profitable to consider the salient top features of Romanticism than throwing away time in defining it.
The main characteristics of affectionate poetry are:
All romantic books is subjective. It is appearance of the inner urges of the heart and soul of the artist. The poet will not care for rules and regulations, but offers free appearance to his thoughts. Emphasis is laid on enthusiasm and intuition alternatively than on the observance of place rules.
Romantic poetry is spontaneous overflow of powerful passions. The passionate poet is gifted with a solid "organic sensibility", he feels more than you can find to feel and sees more than you can find to see.
The passionate is extraordinarily alive to the wonder, mystery and beauty of the world. He feels the occurrence of unseen forces in aspect.
A charming is a dissatisfied person. He may be dissatisfied with the circumstances of his own life, along with his era, with literary conventions and customs of your day, or with the general fate of mankind.
While some may avoid into the history, (the world of traditional antiquity or the Middle Ages) others may imagine a much better and more content world to come and build "utopias" into the future.
Zest for the beauties of the exterior world characterizes all loving poetry. Romantic poetry provides us away from the suffocating atmosphere of critics in to the fresh and invigorating company of the out-of-door world. It not only sings of the sensuous beauty of aspect, but also considers in to the "heart of things" and shows the spirit that lies back of.
Love of Dynamics leads, by a fairly easy change, to the love of those who are in her lap. The romantics come with an instinct for the elemental simplicities of life.
Not only do the Romantics treat of the normal man, they also use language for his or her purposes. Thus Wordsworth increased his voice against the inane and manufactured diction of the 18th hundred years classics, and advocated the utilization of the dialect of the common man for purposes of poetry.
Their interest in the past leads the romantics to experiment with old metres and poetic forms. The 18th century had limited itself to the utilization only of 1 metre i. e. the Heroic Couplet. With all the coming of the romantics there is a revival of lots of ancient metres.
English romanticism is thus both a revolt and a revival; it is just a revolt against 18th hundred years customs and conventions; this is a revival of old British metres and old English experts of poetry.
Victorian literature is the books that was produced during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). England was undergoing a tremendous cultural upheaval and all the types of literature, fine art and music acquired been through a radical change. The Romantic movement which preceded the Victorian Renaissance got often portrayed the individual quest for knowledge and electricity as a beautiful thing for example in works of Wordsworth.
During the Victorian era, there is a whole lot of radical cultural change and as such, many poets of the time didn't like the romanticized version of society. The Victorian poetry is split into two sets of poetry. The High Victorian Poetry and The Pre-Raphaelite Poetry.
The following are key characteristics of Victorian poetry:
The use of sensory elements. Most of Victorian Poets used imagery and the senses to convey the displays of battles between Religion and Science, and the ideas about Aspect and Romance, which carry the readers into the heads and hearts of the people of the Victorian years. Lord Alfred Tennyson lives up to the expected feature in the majority of his works. One noteworthy example is the poem Mariana, where Tennyson writes,
The doors after their creaked;
The blue fly sung in the pane; the muse
Behind the moldering wainscot shrieked
This images of the creaking door, the blue soar singing in the windowpane, and the mouse with moldy solid wood paneling, all work together to create a very certain image of a dynamic, yet depressed farmhouse.
The sentimentality is another strategy. The Victorian Poets composed about Bohemian ideas and furthered the imaginings of the Intimate Poets. Poets like Emily Bronte, Lord Alfred Tennyson prominently used sentimentality in their poems. The couple poet duo, Elizabeth Barrett-Browning and Robert Browning conducted their love affair through verse and produced many tender and keen poems. Dramatic monologue is also a method that was quite definitely in practice. It is a 'crystallization of many of these trends. It really is a mix or cross of the styles of dilemma and lyric'(Hawlin, 63).
The reclaiming of the past was a significant part of Victorian books with an interest in both classical and medieval books of England. The Victorians adored the heroic, chivalrous reports of knights of old and they hoped to get back some of that commendable, courtly patterns and win over it upon people both at home and in the wilder empire. The best exemplory case of this is Alfred Tennyson's idyll of the King.
Matthew Arnold offered several pronouncements on poetry that happen to be also regarded as the features of Victorian Poetry when he says (a)" 'Poetry is a criticism of life under the conditions fixed for such a criticism by the laws of poetic real truth and poetic beauty. . "(b) He says in his article on Wordsworth that 'the commendable and deep applications of ideas to life is the most essential part of poetic greatness" (c) "Poetry is merely the most beautiful, impressive and widely effective setting of declaring things"(James, 82, 83).
Comic verse abounded in the Victorian age. "there was lots of fun, not always drawing-room fun in Tennyson" (Elton, 351)says Oliver Elton.
Victorian Poetry thus makes an important era in the history of poetry, providing the hyperlink between the Intimate Motion and the Modernist Motion (Pre-Raphaelitism) of the 20th century (Web).
Georgian poetry is the poetry of the period from 1910 to 1935 when Ruler George V ruled over Britain. It is easy simple poetry, generally in the charming vein, having certain marked characteristics of its. Says A. S. Collins, "The Georgian had, of course, a positive target; it was to treat modern, nor too like Tennyson. In their treatment of dynamics and cultural life they discarded the utilization of archaic such as 'thee' and 'thou', and eschewed such poetical constructions as 'winter drear', and 'coordinator on armed web host'. They fell all stunning and grandiloquent expressions in thought and expression. In a reaction to Victorian didacticism their verse prevented "all formally religious, philosophic or bettering themes", and in reaction to the decadents or Aesthetes of the nineties they prevented all subjects that smacked of, "sadness, weakness and escapism". These were neither imperialistic nor pantheistic but "as easy as a child's reading book". Their styles are "Nature, love, leisure, old age, childhood, animals, rest, and unemotional subjects". They write simply, evidently and melodiously about sheep, bulls and other home or wild animals. It really is a poetry for the countless, and not for the scholarly few on your. It could be loved even by the unlearned. Georgian poetry has been put through severe criticism, by critics like T. S. Eliot.
These characteristics are best illustrated by the poetry of John Masefield, Walter De La Mare, W. H. Davies, John Drinkwater, etc.
Twentieth century poetry is a inquisitive mixture of the original and the experimental, of the old and the new. It really is intricate and many-sided. The chief characteristics are:
It has large quantity of its result. The variety and quantity of modern magazines is bewildering, and one is baffled by all of the names and brands which are used.
Modern poetry is the poetry of revolt against custom, and there is a lot in it that is experimental.
Each writer creates regarding to his own feelings and temper.
It can be an get older of anthologies which bring together the go for works of several hands for the pleasure of the viewers.
The new poetry is a poetry of revolt, causing generally from the impact of technology. This revolt is usually to be seen both in the form and content of poetry which is best exemplified in the poetry of T. S. Eliot.
Deep sense of love and delight in dynamics is a prominent characteristic of modern poetry but the modern poet will not spiritualize character like Wordsworth.
Nor does the modern poet love nature exclusively; he also enjoys and seems for the lower animals living in the lap of dynamics.
The get spread around of democracy has made the poet more and more aware of the dignity of man. Even such outcasts of society as bad guys, suicides, prostitutes, drunkards etc. , find sympathetic treatment. Thus David Herbert Lawrence considers "the flesh as being wiser than the intellect".
The new poetry is realistic and the poet's consciousness of the grim realities of life has shattered all illusions and passionate dreams. The tragedy of every day life has induced in the poet a mood of disillusionment so the poetry today is bitter and pessimistic. The Waste material Land of T. S. Eliot demonstrates its tragic gloom and despair of the postwar world.
Despite its stark realism in theme and treatment, there also operates a vein of romanticism in modern poetry.
Modern Poetry has also been influenced by the techniques of music, sculpture, painting and other fine arts.
The modern poet is continually tinkering with new verse varieties and poetic techniques.
Impressionism, Imagism and Surrealism are various other improvements in 20th century poetry.
"The verse of Harold Morno (1879-1932), the poet and cherisher of poetry, so recently lost, is metaphysical in the sense that he tries to go previous appearances to the awareness, or the reality, that is in it; an instinct that performs in two path, outward and inward" (Elton, 422).
In Midnight Lamentation and in other places he muses on the baffled work, only quit by death, of addicts to be truly united:
I cannot bear the thought
You, first, may expire,
Nor of how you will weep,
We are too much by itself;
What can we do
To make our bodies one;
You, I; I, you?
I cannot find a way
Through love and through;
I cannot reach beyond
Body, for you.
When you or I have to go
There'll be forget about to say
--But a locked door.
I want to quote Dante's words that great subject areas of poetry that and which by itself the greatest dialect is appropriate, are salus, amor, virtus; determining them as valour in hands, the open fire of love, and the instruction of the will(Elton, 423). We are able to say that valour, love and direction of the will will be the salient of top features of poetry.