Functionalism and turmoil: Sociological theories

'Sociology is a communal science that studies society and the average person in point of view of Society. The roots of Sociology lay in the 19th hundred years but through the 1960-70s, it became a significant social science subject, taught in universities and colleges, and colleges. The opportunity of sociology has only become more methodical with time'. (Sociology Guide, no time frame)

'Sociology is the study of human interpersonal life, organizations and societies. It really is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, having as its subject matter our own tendencies as social beings. The scope of sociology is extremely wide, which range from the research of moving encounters between individuals in the street up to the analysis of world-wide communal processes'. (Giddens cited on Sociology guide, 1989).

Sociology enables to gain a much better understanding how the interaction among the society customers works. Through the knowledge on sociology, we are able to improve our networking which is very useful and important for businesspeople.

The research of sociology today targets three primary theoretical perspectives: the symbolic interactionist point of view, the functionalist perspective, and the discord perspective.

1. 2 Functionalism

Functionalism views 'contemporary society as something that is clearly a group of interconnected parts which collectively form a whole' (India, 2009). It emphasizes on the macro degree of society and its own various parts are comprehended mainly in term of these relationship to the complete. The creator, Emile Durkheim recommended that communal consensus takes one of two forms: namely mechanised solidarity and organic solidarity. Mechanical solidarity is a predicament where people with similar eyesight and beliefs mutually achieve goal in the contemporary society. In contrast, organic solidarity said that although people in the modern culture are interdependent they maintain different prices and beliefs.

1. 3 Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

The symbolic interactionist perspective, directs sociologists to consider the icons and details of everyday routine, what these symbols mean, and exactly how people interact with one another (Cliffsnotes, no date). According to this theory, 'people attach meanings to icons, and then they act according to their subjective interpretation of the icons' (Cliffsnotes, no day).

Early Conflict Theory

Conflict theory was released by the great German theorist and political activist, Karl Marx (1818-1883). The creator of this issue mentioned that background of cultural life began from providing the essential requirements of life such as- food, clothing and shelter (McClelland, 2000). To be able to survive in the danger, humans realize the need to work together to enhance the social composition (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p. 28). Karl Marx insisted that all things with principles in society are the contribution of labor through their proposal in creating the contemporary society for his or her own lifestyle (McClelland, 2000).

According to Marx, the population is divided into two classes, the bourgeoisie which is the owners of capital and the proletariat- the labors. Department of labor identifies 'breaking down of large jobs into many little components' (Dhamee, 1995). Division of labors, therefore, leads to alienation that is 'the disenfranchising of employees from the merchandise of the work efforts' (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p. 29). Labor, in fact, is defined as the expense of production rather than basically the methods to achieve a collective benefit for the population (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p. 29). It offers humans a simply instrumental relationship predicated on their monetary value of potential to do work (Hatch and Cunfille, 2006, p. 29). Therefore, when the capitalists accepted this alienation, exploitation will need place. As The American Traditions Dictionary of the English Terminology (2000) cited in The Free Dictionary (no date), exploitation refers to the 'usage of another person or group for selfish purposes'.

The central establishment of the capitalist culture is private property, the system where the capital owned by the dominating groups is managed by the tiny minority of the populace (McClelland, 2000). The major conflict is on whether which group should get the biggest share of earnings. Who owns the land argued they are entitled as they are the providers of the factors of creation whereas the labor stressed they are the involving in every production.

Recent Conflict Theory

3. 1 Maximum Weber

Due to the weakness of Karl Marx's conflict theory which is too ideal, Max Weber reformulated the discord theory and thus he is also known as 'bourgeois Marx' (http://www. change. freeuk. com/learning/socthink/weber. html, no night out). Along the way of formulation, Weber concerned a great deal with testing, reassessing or developing Marx's ideas and thus, also called the bourgeois Marx (Marxism: Structural Discord Theory, no day). From his research of the contemporary society, Weber proceeded to go beyond ideas of Marx, for example, Weber focuses on the action in the social establishment which is different then Marx and Durkheim who viewed the modern culture as an thing alone (http://www. change. freeuk. com/learning/socthink/weber. html (no day). Although Weber decided with Marx's view that category is economical in its origins, stratification in the thoughts and opinions of Weber, includes also the concern of status, power and political gatherings (Marxism: Structural Turmoil Theory, no time frame). Weber (1924) cited in http://www. change. freeuk. com/learning/socthink/weber. html (no date) claims that status is 'sociable estimation of labours and the introduction of seen lifestyles. Matching to Weber, discord is occurring in virtually any social relationship when an 'action within it is focused intentionally to carrying out the actor's own will resistant to the amount of resistance of the other get together or get-togethers' (Henderson and Parsons, 1947).

In the modern culture today, communication has becoming an important reason behind conflict. As described in Webster's dictionary, communication will involve 'sending offering, or exchanging information and ideas', which is often indicated nonverbally and verbally (Romantic relationship- with -self applied. com, no time). For non verbal communication, text messages are expressed through facial gestures, body languages and the impression through dressing, body imaging etc. Verbal communication, on the other palm, means expressing what is on one's head through voicing out.

3. 2 Communication: Federal government and Media

The communication between federal government and press today is becoming an important focus and struggle in our society. Government authorities as the standing pillars of any country, plays a vital role in ruling and maintaining a country in a prosperous state. To be able to maintain the tranquility, fairness and truthfully will be the secrets to the balance. In other words, government should treat all the culture in a same way and reasonable. Besides that, authorities may control the economy in a great way, so the population can live in a wealthy environment. However, the written communication in Malaysia is implying that the status quo and special treatment of the prominent teams, the Malays can't be questioned. For instance, Malays are better treated by authorities than other races.

On the other view, the advertising performs an important role in providing the government's message to the general public. Therefore, nowadays, everyone profits current situation on politic, market and so on through mess media such as television set, radio and publication. People can know the genuine situations or what's presently happen in the society through the news spread by marketing. However, advertising is highly dependent on government. The marketing is in deep dilemma as they would like to spread the reality on the other hand, while being handled by federal. Intentionally, government possesses electric power on the media in order to secure the public trust and to create a positive image of themselves for the public. To further elaborate, government restricts and control media not to spread out government scandal and only pass on good or something that is benefit for government, The information needed by the marketing is so scarce. Therefore, marketing with limited resources to multiply for society must obey government's laws and purchases and since government is the minority that possesses the info. Since media is depending on authorities to provide them information, administration has the power to control and restrict what media can disseminate to population.

From the explanation above, we can see the interplay of conflict between administration and media. The government whom possesses the resources is offers the energy as well.

The Overlapping Between Early and Recent Discord Theories

The first overlapping is the fact that both of the conflict theories stresses on monetary factors. In the olden days and nights, labor and capital are contending over resources. Nowadays, labor and capital still exist. The conditions just are somewhat different. Labor in those times is today's worker. For instance employees are competing for job advancement and position in an organization or company.

The second overlapping between the early conflict and recent issue theory is on the reason why of occurring is because of scarcity. B's relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. For example, government got the power over press because government provides the information that advertising must be included in their publication, program and so forth. Another example in US, many of the candidates are participating in filling the positioning of a chief executive. But, it is rare. Only 1 person is entitled, quite simply, it is scarce and therefore leads to competition. Dependency increases when resources are essential, scarce and non-substitutable.

The third overlapping between early on and recent turmoil theory is inequality. For instance in US, there is actually inequality, the discrimination of the African american by the White. The white been regarded as the dominant get together. As described in Dictionary. com (2010), discrimination is an work of 'treatment or thought of, or making a difference in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, school, or category to which that person or thing belongs alternatively than on individual merit'. The normal discriminations are racial, gender and religious intolerance. Until today where the Dark colored has becoming the chief executive, the Black is still being cared for as the lower category despite of the fact the problem is slightly strengthening.


In a nutshell, turmoil theory is a theory that recognizes the modern culture as a place with inequality which in turn leads to advancement and communal change. In the first conflict theory, an investigation on social course in the free market economy was conducted. It stresses basically on the capitalist and the labor as the reason for inequality, which is too ideal. So that it causes the reassessment of the discord theory by Maximum Weber. Utmost Weber, being the supporter of bureaucracy, highlighted more descriptive by stating that we now have different types of capitalists and skills of labors are vary as well. From our discourse above, semi-struggle between federal government and media is unavoidable. In my own view, conflicts resulted in positivity because it strains on competition. To be able to make it through, people will make an effort to gain the limited resources which then effect in the improvement of the culture.

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