Posted at 01.10.2018
The issue of the study is the near future career employment potential client from college or university student's perspective. School students generally speaking have one main concern that they can consider during their university review, that is, their future profession dilemma. "What career must i choose? Is this the right degree for me personally? What should I do after graduation? What do my parents want me to do after graduation?" are some typically common questions that came out in student's brain during their university life. Many of them feel stressed and even frightened of pondering how their life would be totally different in just 3 or 4 years later.
I. 2. The Research Problem
As if to complicate the problem, the world-wide globalisation craze offers more dilemmas to student's job prospect. The job market is filled up with surplus of school graduates where university students are having a hard time to find the job that suits them. Furthermore, many firms add more requirements in job vacancies. For example, firms only allow individuals with at least many years of job experience. Such necessity is hard for fresh graduates to fulfil as the majority of them haven't any job experience (Densley, 2010). The university that students signed up for act as helpful information to shed some light for students on this problem. In cases like this, the college or university role is to provide the knowledge, skills and the labor force simple fact for students. However, many individuals questions the extend of university program in shaping student's future career. They believe there are many other factors that condition student's future job which makes the university influences become pale in comparison. Nevertheless, college or university program hold a huge role in shaping student's future job.
I. 3. Reason for the Research
The purpose of the research is to see how far the university or college programs (level offered, career rational, career opportunities, etc) help to form student's future job. In other words, whether university or college students can associate the degree they are really taking and their future career prospects. The two main changing used here are university or college student level program (variable x) and school student career potential client (variable y). Furthermore, the study also intended to determine other factors that affect university student profession prospect.
I. 4. Research Question
In carrying this out research, the experts seek to answer specific questions to slim down the study topic. These questions include, however, not limited by:
"Just how do students view their degree in regards to their future job?"
"What are other factors that affect student's future job prospect?"
"What's the university or college role in student's future job decision?"
These questions will be responded to in the info analysis section of the study.
I. 5. Importance of the Problem
The problem attended to in this research is very important for school students as many fresh graduates nowadays are experiencing career dilemma. Most of them cannot find employment due to various factors generated from globalisation. In fact, 78% of small to medium organizations offer less job vacancies this year 2010 to mitigate the result of recession (Rogers, 2010). Through the research, students will be able to identify various factors which could affect their future career prospect. Thus, the study would definitely help student's future profession planning, and help the university or college in its role as education facilitator - shaping student's future occupation.
I. 6. Range of Research
The opportunity of the study is on Linton School students, the Malaysia branch for University of East London. Among various degree courses offered, the study shall focus on Software Engineering Level students.
Many studies have been conducted to analyse various factors that could affect university or college student's profession decision. A study by Fouard & Byars-Winston (2005) argued that student's career aspiration doesn't have significant marriage with the student's specific race or cultural. However, student's respective ethnicities have significant impact on their notion of career barriers and opportunities. Thus, even though a student may contain the competencies to be successful in the required future career, the social-political aspects from the student's origins may cloud their judgement where he/she becomes uncertain to pursue the desired job. It's the role of career councillors to cure these negative perceptions and student's profession indecisiveness by giving students with encouragements and workforce realities at length.
Regarding school student's career indecisiveness, Ester (2007), proposed the word "Identity Fusion" - a person inability to effectively web page link their personal characteristics and their profession characteristics. The word represents university college student career indecisiveness where they feel uncertain on their career avenue and struggling to choose a career among many available choices. The research mentioned a moderate level of profession indecision among university students, which increase the value of job development guidance in all lessons offered in university. The university or college can do that through profession counselling, career seminar or even supplying a specific course that concentrate on student profession development. During the course, university student will learn more about themselves, the workforce-reality and also have clearer career route through the capability to make career-related decisions. Thus, student would be able to reduce their job indecisiveness which has strong-negative-impact on career development.
A research by Tansley (2007) put emphasize on the importance of persuasive verbal emails which make a difference college learner 'career-decision-making'-phase and their behavior. The message influences college student's take on what the future holds on their behalf and how to tackle possible problems in deciding their future-career. In this case, career fair and job counselling services often end up being the media to deliver the persuasive-verbal-message. The success of such services will depend on both the service provider and the students themselves.
Willcoxson & Wynder (2010) mentioned that university university student retention relates to their selection of major which also influences career-direction. This means that students involved in a career-specific major, such as accounting and IT, could have clearer known reasons for attending university anticipated to clear profession journey and goals. In other words, students whose major is not career-specific, such as business management, tend to have vague career way. Alternatively, students who took career-specific majors, but still doesn't have clear career course would be at higher risk of attrition, in comparison to business students who lack clear career-goals. Therefore, school must provide career guidance even for career-specific majors that contain clear career journey. The career advice would provide students who've career-specific major with deeper understanding on available job options and clearer profession direction.
Overall, the literature has emphasized on the value of career-counselling for student's career-development. The research in this report also point out on the importance for school to provide career counselling, however, the debate shall give attention to various factors that impact student's career direction, specifically student's chosen level.
The research advises 3 Null Hypothesis:
"H0 - There is certainly positive relationship between Linton Software Anatomist student's degree and student's future job choice (Accept). "
"H1 - There is negative marriage between Linton Software Engineering student's level and student's future career choice (Reject). "
"H0 - You can find significant marriage between Linton Software Engineering student's knowledge of their degree and their future profession choice (Accept). "
"H1 - There is no significant relationship between Linton Software Engineering student's knowledge of their degree and their future job choice (Reject). "
"H0 - There is significant marriage between Linton Software Anatomist student participation in group activities and student's future career possibility (Accept). "
"H1 - There is absolutely no significant marriage between Linton Software Anatomist student contribution in group activities and student's future profession possibility (Reject). "
IV. 1. Research Method
In regard to the topic and questions in this research, quantitative method is recommended than qualitative method since it provides a more detail and specific data to answer the research questions. Thus, the info evaluation in this research is based on quantitative research method which acts as key data while the extra data received through qualitative method become supportive materials for research results.
IV. 2. Sampling Method
The society in the study is Linton College or university students in Software Anatomist degree. The total range of students in this level is significantly less than 200. Out of this, an example of 50 students is enough where they act as representative of the whole Software Executive students. The sample consists of yr-1 to 12 months-3 students and will not focus on a particular academic 12 months. The sample was chosen arbitrarily where researchers frequented the Software Anatomist institution area and asked random students there to answer the questions.
IV. 3. Data Collection Method
The approach to data collection is through questionnaires which contain 24 questions and through direct-interview to each sample approximately a quarter-hour. Through questionnaire, research workers received various replies on each question as the direct-interview allows researchers to receive clear and detail answers while directly observe the interviewee. One problem experienced during data collection was that some students who responded the questionnaire were unwilling to be interviewed. Thus, some interview answers and questionnaire answers do not necessarily came from the same Software Anatomist student.
IV. 4. Statistical Techniques Used
Statistical techniques such as T-Test, Relationship and Chi-Square were used to analyze the relationship between the variables in the study hypothesis. T-test is the test to see whether hypothesis should be accepted or rejected while Chi-Square methods the relationship between two factors in the hypothesis. Furthermore, frequency data of every question were also done to be able to execute more in-depth data evaluation.
IV. 5. Research Limitations
One restriction of the study is the questions it is wearing both questionnaire and interview. Some questions in the questionnaire are not accurate where the information received from that question is not highly relevant to the research. For the interview, some interviewees complained about the difficulty of the question in which they are having trouble answering clearly. In addition, a few of them are also unwilling to participate too much time in the interview, which restricts the interviewer potential to receive clear answers. As the effect, more than half of the sample only provided simple answers on the interview. In addition, some questions in the questionnaire have little relevance and even no relevance at-all to the hypothesis. This would limit the exactness of statistical research somewhat. Another restriction is that most the respondents are 2nd season Software Executive students (70%) with little involvement from 3rd year students (20%) who often have clearer job planning in comparison to 2nd time students. Thus, the study examination might be less appropriate where it reflects more on the view of 2nd calendar year students.
V. 1. Interpretation Based on Statistical Techniques
The data compiled has in a position to shed some light on the problem presented in the study. The values used in this data evaluation were calculated using statistical techniques which can be observed in appendix.
"H0 - There may be positive romantic relationship between Linton Software Anatomist student's level and student's future career choice"
The T-test shows the value t = 3. 436 with df = 49. The rule is that hypothesis should be accepted when P < 0. 05. Corresponding to t-significance/probability table, with df = 49, t must be at least 2. 011 to reach P larger than 0. 05. Since the t-test because of this hypothesis is 3. 436, therefore, the hypothesis is not turned down.
The relationship test because of this hypothesis shows the worthiness 0. 621. To interpret this value, the desk of Relationship Test Value by Gilford (1965) is used.
Thus, based on the desk above, even though hypothesis 1 is accepted, the two variables in hypothesis 1 have modest relationship. In other words, there is positive marriage between student's level and their future profession choice.
"HO - There is certainly significant romantic relationship between Linton Software Executive student's knowledge of their degree and their future job choice"
Applying the same guideline from the prior hypothesis, with value of t = 2. 365 and df = 49, this second hypothesis is also not turned down. For the correlation test, the worthiness is 0. 314, much lower than the previous hypothesis. Applying Gilford table to the worthiness, even though positive relationship between your two parameters in hypothesis 2 is accessible, the significance is low. Thus, student's knowledge on the degree has little relevance with their future career choice.
"HO - There exists significant romance between Linton Software Anatomist student involvement in group activities and student's future job prospect"
The Chi-Square test guideline of approval is quite similar to the T-test. H0 is accepted if amount of significant is larger than 0. 05. The worthiness of degree significant in hypothesis 3 is 0. 02, thus, hypothesis 3 is rejected. However, predicated on the relationship test, the value is 0. 331 where small romance exists between the two parameters in hypothesis 3. The finding on relationship contradicts the Chi-square test. Quite simply, there may be statistical problem in hypothesis 3. This might as a consequence to researcher's negligence in making the questionnaire where only few questions related to hypothesis 3 or anticipated to calculation mistake.
V. 2. Research Based on Frequency Data and Interview
Regarding need for degree, the info confirmed that Linton University Software Anatomist students agree to some extent. That is reflected involved 12 in the questionnaire where 32% respondent agreed on the value of level. However, the data also implies that additional skills tend to be more important than level chosen (34%). In other words, the respondents believe the additional skills they have (computer, communication, multi-language, authority skills, etc) are evenly important in order to secure employment in the foreseeable future. This is mirrored in interview question 1, 2 and 3 where in fact the response between degree-as-the-main-factor-of career-direction and degree-as-'extra-knowledge' is divided almost evenly. Which means that level is not the only real requirements to be able to score the desired career in the future. There are other requirements, which most of them are included in additional skills discussed in this research. Linking this affirmation with the responses received in interview question 5, the reason behind that many requirements is because the changing principles in society. Contemporary society is becoming more complex which impact the society notion on education level. Just having 'a-bachelor-degree' is considered insufficient where job hunters need additional skills and even higher skills. As the effect, the job market and workforce are full of uncertainties. This example has made many fresh graduates to pursue further review (the specific course or professional degree) after completing their bachelor degree. This situation is shown in questionnaire question 13 where 58% of the respondents are planning to get higher qualification after getting their bachelor degree. Furthermore, question 14 in questionnaire also displays that many students don't possess clear arrange for employment after concluding their current level (72%). This might be due to the uncertainties in today's workforce where students have perceptions that with more qualifications and skills, their chance to land on the desired career will be higher.
In addition to changing culture values as external factor that indirectly influence student's career way, there are also other external factors that directly affect student's profession direction; parents, friends and the university that scholar enrolled-in. Based on the data from question 9, parents and friends are a solid indicator of student's career choice (36% for parents and 18% for friends). In-choosing career-path, students would do what-their-parents-recommend-them to-do and might-follow-friend's-career-path or follow friend's-suggestions. Quite simply, the students still don't have clear career planning for their future.
It is the role of school to guide university student in deciding their job path. However, based on question 5 and 6 data in the questionnaire, 56% of software executive students believe Linton University does not provide enough job advice (career-seminar and career-counselling) to them where only some colleges that receive plenty of career direction. As the effect, software anatomist student's satisfaction toward Linton University or college is low where 48% feels that the university fail to meet their expectation. The lack for career advice for software engineering students might be due to the nature of software-engineering-degree that is career-specific. Linton University or college management might assume that more career advice should be on training that is not career specific such as Business Studies. Such assumption is inaccurate because a career-specific course will not imply that the students have clear career path (Willcoxson & Wynder, 2010). In fact, the data collected in this research suggest the opposite - most software-engineering students still don't possess clear career way. Thus, it is suggested for Linton University or college should treat all classes fairly insurance agencies sufficient career assistance for all courses, not only on courses that's not career specific. In addition, student's involvement is compulsory for the effectiveness of these career assistance programs. The profession guidance program will provide all students with better understanding on the profession options and connect it to the present situation in the labor force and contemporary society. However, the objective of career assistance program will not be achieved if this content itself is boring and irrelevant. Matching to student's testimony, a lot of career fair conducted by Linton School were quite monotonous. This makes the students become hesitant to wait future career program. Thus, the college or university must be careful in selecting the spokesperson in profession fair as it has significant impact on the success of job good itself.
The research concludes that student's level relates to their future career prospect in a way that it becomes the guide for students to choose the job that suits them. Taking the example in this research, having software engineering degree doesn't mean that the college student must become a software engineer. Students can pick the career they would like to do even though it's not that related to the chosen career. This is shown in another of the results in this research; small marriage between software anatomist student's level knowledge and their future profession prospect. It means that student's knowledge of their degree is not exclusive to the related profession, but can also be use within other career that might not seem related to the knowledge learned from level. This situation displays the statement where knowledge discovered from degree can be viewed as 'an extra knowledge' rather than the main need'. It is also important to note other factors that will impact student's career choice, mainly the high uncertainty in the current job market rendering it necessary to have other knowledge and skills aside from the one discovered from degree. University also has a job of providing students with the required information regarding job prospects because school is a 'gateway' to the next step of student's life. Thus, it is a-must for students to employ all available information and knowledge that gives them clearer potential customer on future career path.
Many years back, my permanent aspiration was to become writer since I love writing tales. However, that aspiration has long gone because 'fact' has struck me down. Seeking such aspiration takes a skill as a copy writer, which I don't have. Globalisation in today's society has created a style where people are starting their own business rather than seeking career from others anticipated to lessen job security in today's job market (Bhaduri, 2008). This example has influenced my permanent career aspiration; to become a successful businessman. To do this, I need to fulfil both medium and short-term aspiration first. For short-term aspiration, I plan to continue learning in UK for Get better at degree after finishing the bachelor level. This is where the data I acquire from the bachelor degree will be useful in assisting me to complete master degree. In ways, the business enterprise studies knowledge I receive in bachelor level is transferable to the marketing field for professional level. Thus, what I will learn during grasp degree is the continuation of what I'm currently studying now. After getting master degree, only then I can commence to work on the medium term aspiration; get a good job in international company. In this stage, I seek job experiences, build network and seek the required skills and knowledge for a company man. Additionally it is in this period where I could practice and apply what I've learnt in university years. At exactly the same time, I'll also start building my very own small-business which become a base of what I wish to become for the long-term profession aspiration. Thus, all the data and skills that we currently have and will have from school degree are useful since it is transferable on the items I plan to do. In fact, I'm currently performing a small-scale business with some friends. This is why why learning for business level is beneficial for me personally where I try to apply knowledge I have learned during the course of the amount in real-life business. It's just like a trial-and-error process where not all the stuff I applied is working. A very important factor I learned is that doing everything predicated on theories is wrong. Sometimes, people have to act predicated on their own instinct and self-judgement after carefully analysing the problem at hand. That is also one important skill for a businessman. In conclusion, university degree can help me to possess a better attitude for my future career. It also acts as the bottom knowledge for the chosen profession. In addition, through learning from your errors process of making use of the knowledge, I learn even more knowledge and skills that are crucial for my future job.