General Packet Radio Service Information Technology Essay

GPRS enables us to work with radio and network resources much more efficiently. The use is optimized by acquiring the network resources only when some data is usually to be directed or received. Fast connection and high throughput are key advantages of GPRS Systems.

The miniaturization in the sizes and upsurge in electricity of the mobile devices needed more data rate and then for that GPRS has been introduced to handle the growing demand of cordless data packet service that may then result in tremendous expansion of wireless internet utilization. Another reason is that GPRS may easily integrate in the existing installation (GSM) with very little modifications and can be employed incrementally. GPRS is capable of coping with the high bandwidth dependence on the heavy traffic and is way better suited with the available infrastructure.

GPRS coding

The error recognition and modification along with interleaving is conducted at the physical part. Error recognition and correction has been performed at many levels in the coding strategies employed by GPRS. Their use and dependence upon different facets categorize them from CS-1 to CS-4.

CS-1: The bigger level of disturbance and low SNR is coped by the defined level where maximum error detection and modification is being performed. The system helps avoid the data being often re-sent. Except for some conditions where data delays are unacceptable they doesn't matter for several varieties of data. The outcome of the design is a one half code rate, i. e. type of 12 pieces to the coder, offers 24 bits. You see, the acquired bandwidth can be given as 9. 05 kbps.

CS-2: A 2/3 encoder offers us a genuine bandwidth use of 13. 4 kbps including Radio Link channel, Medium access control and header etc. The system is employed for relatively better programs.

CS-3: The bandwidth of 15. 6 kbps is attained by the usage of the 3/4 coder.

CS-4: The situation where SNR is high and Interference is low CS-4 is applied. A bandwidth of 21. 4 Kbps is achieved as modification is not applied. If all the slot machine games are attained will cause 21. 4*8 Kbps of bandwidth.

Interleaving techniques are requested decreasing the consequences of interference and sound. Which assists with error correction and immunity to data problem in case of lack of data.

Architecture

GPRS can be thought to be an extension of the GSM Network aside from transitioning from Circuit to Packet transitioning and necessary up- gradation in the machine is done which mainly includes the GGSN and SGSN. For the GSM and GPRS to work in parallel some new elements are also added to GSM architecture.

GPRS network structures upgrades

With move from Circuit change to packet turning which resulted then in increased connection. Pursuing new entities are added in the architecture.

SGSN: GPRS Support Node " to obtain an intra-network gateway to the services.

GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node to do something as a bridge to the exterior world.

PCU: Packet Control Device is to decide on sending data to circuit or packet switched network.

The following diagram points out the architecture and its similarity to the GSM network can easily be driven.

GPRS network architecture

SGSN

serving GPRS Support Node aspect is accountable for a number of responsibilities in a GPRS network including IP elements belonging to the whole system. Beside so it also serve cellular devices as follows.

Packet routing and transfer

Mobility management

Attach/detach

Logical hyperlink management

Authentication

Charging data

There is a location register within the SGSN and this stores location information (e. g. , current cell, current VLR). In addition, it stores an individual information (e. g. , IMSI, packet addresses used) for all the GPRS users listed with this SGSN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [1]

GGSN

The GGSN, Gateway GPRS Support Node is one of the most important entities within the GPRS network architecture.

The GGSN organises the interworking between your GPRS network and exterior packet switched systems to that your mobiles may be connected. These may include both Internet and X. 25 systems.

The GGSN can be viewed as to be a combination of the gateway, router and firewall as it hides the internal network to the outside. Functioning, when the GGSN gets data addressed to a particular user, it bank checks if an individual is active, then forwarding the info. In the opposite path, packet data from the mobile is routed to the right vacation spot network by the GGSN.

PCU

The PCU or Packet Control Unit is a hardware router that is added to the BSC. It differentiates data destined for the standard GSM network (circuit turned data) and data destined for the GPRS network (Packet Switched Data). The PCU itself may be considered a split physical entity, or even more often these days it is integrated into the base train station controller, BSC, in so doing conserving additional hardware costs.

GPRS network upgrading

One of the key elements for any network operator is the expense of capital expenditure (capex) to buy and set up a network. Capex costs are normally high for a new network, and providers endeavour to avoid this and use any existing networks they may have to help make the maximum use of any capital. In addition to the capex, there are the functional costs, (opex). These costs are for basic maintenance and other functional costs that may be incurred. Increasing efficiency and trustworthiness will certainly reduce the opex costs.

Any upgrade such as that from GSM to GPRS will require new investment and operators are keen to keep this to the minimum amount. The enhancements for the GPRS network are not as large as beginning with scratch and rolling out a fresh network.

The GPRS network adds to the existing GSM network. The primary new entities required within the network are the SGSN and GGSN, and they are required as the starting point.

The base train station subsystems require some updates. The main one is the addition of the PCU referred to above. Some changes may be asked to the BTS, but often only a software upgrade is required, and this may often be achieved remotely. In this manner costs are held to a minimum.

Summary

The GPRS network structures may very well be an progression of the GSM network carrying both circuit switched and packet data. The GPRS network structures was also used as the basis for the 3G UMTS network. In this manner network providers could progress their sites through GPRS and perhaps EDGE fully 3G networks without having to replace and set up more new equipment than was essential.

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