Geriatric Nursing


This paper will try to indicate different ways for geriatric attention that are of help to a LPN who encounters maturing people in daily life. Because they are complex, older people always are worthy of personal attention. Nurses address physical, psycho public, cultural and family concerns as well as promoting health and emphasizing successful aging. Life span is growing at rates which demand the proper preparation of nurses for taking proper care of the rapidly increasing quantity of the aged. It is important to tell apart changes involved with normal ageing from changes due to pathophysiology. Modifications in the framework and function of multiple body may affect a mature person appearance, freedom and capability to struggle off attacks. Geriatric medications need to be managed so as to avoid too much use of remedies since this group receives a lot of medication if poor care is used. Multiple medications can result in a variety of medicine interaction in older people. Primary medication reaction occurs when one medication causes one side-effect, secondary drug effect occurs when one medication reacts with another. That is as a result of polypharmacy. Old people should be cured in ways that are of great benefit and do no injury or as little harm as is possible Principle of examination: data regarding biomedical, functional, psychological and social issues are obtained to help in planning and implementation of individual healthcare. A pressure ulcer is a lesion caused by unrelieved external pressure caused by occlusion of the blood flow, structure ischemia and cell death. Pressure ulcers tend to be seen as a complication associated with an acute or chronic illness. The presence of ulcers may also be proof poor nursing care and attention. Although pressure ulceration can be avoided, it may also arise despite optimal nursing health care and advanced technologies. To be able to provide effective nursing look after the more mature adult with pressure ulcers, the nurse must approach patient care in just a holistic frame work. This framework will include an integration of good examination, use of research-based involvement and methodical involvement of patience effects. Some specific issues of reduction, assessment and treatment of adult with pressure ulcers are, increasing age pores and skin: The older people have an aged skin and anticipated to exposure to sunlight the skin wrinkles, epidermis thins, blood vessels recede, dermal- epidermal ridges flatten and your skin appears skinny and fragile. This related changes may lead to ulceration. Your skin which is our major organ can assist in viewing the overall working of the complete body. All clinicians working with older people vulnerable for or experiencing pressure ulcers must keep an eye on these varying romantic relationship in using the cutaneous "window" of person to plan and apply individualized, comprehensive care.


Ulcers have different periods. Stage one ulcers are seen as a non-blancherble erythema of intact skin area. It is important to note that level one pressure ulcers are difficult to identify in darkly pigmented people and are usually suggested by discoloration, comfort, endyma, indurations and hardness. Level two ulcers are partial lesions extending in to the epidermis and the dermis. Stage three ulcers are defined as the full thickness skin reduction. Stage four is characterized by extensive tissue damage which extends to the muscle, bone or the underlying structures. Through a holistic assessment and analysis a nurse can create a plan of care for those patients who have problems with pressure damage. When dealing with an ulcer wound treatment should concentrate on wound healing. For the chronic, non restoration ulcer, comfort should be considered a top main concern. For pressure harm careful positioning padding to lessen the chance of pressure ulceration is important. Wound curing occurs only when the fortitude is physiologically able to provide needed substrate; wound cleanliness, damp and infection free and the cause of damage is removed. For older people it takes longer to heal therefore extra care and attention should be taken. When normal interventions neglect to heal a pressure ulcer, surgical intervention may be the best option. In case the paitent is not mobile you have to frequently convert the paitent to avoid the sore/ulcer getting any worse. Cardiovascular disease influences the heart and soul and the arteries. The condition is caused by disruption in the blood vessels circulation supplementary to decreased vessel. Cardiovascular disease is common in 50% of the population over the age of 65, and accounts for 40% of fatalities in this group. Because of the changes associated with normal maturity and some of the unique areas of reporting and showing in old adults, underestimation of the seriousness, cardiac disease often occurs. This can lead to misdiagnosis, under treatment, and even death. There are different kind of heart disease: Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is an illness of the arteries, characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls, it also causes atherosclerosis. Due to advance in age the disease easily confirms its way to old people therefore it should be carefully diagnosed and proper treatment given. When diagnosing consider instances of fainting, continuous torso pain, nausea, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, rapid weight gain, pain in the abdominal, swelling of thighs among others. Then address the issue of hypertension, high blood vessels cholesterol, diabetes, fatness and over weight, smoking, and hereditary issues. Treatment includes medication and physical exercises. The following age group related changes may occur in the respiratory system of an old person: reduced muscle durability in the diaphragm and thorax, stiffer breasts wall, decreased flexible recoil, reduced elasticity in the alveoli reduced surface, with diminished capacity for gas exchange, lowered vital capacity, and drier mucous membrane resulting in more difficulty in mucous excretion. Testing should be carried out by doing x-ray coupled with physical examination. The following are possible diseases in old people; bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some of this disease leads to cardiovascular disease due to influence on the lungs by polluting of the environment. Nurse should attract an idea for treatment which include working with other specialties like center experts. Diabetes melitus is a metabolic disorder with two major types, type one and type two. Their final result is hyperglycemia. Type one is caused by insufficient insulin development by beta skin cells. Type two is the most typical and is triggered by insufficiency or inadequacy of insulin receptors in skin cells. Treatment goals are to symptoms and maintain as normal blood glucose as you possibly can without inducing hypoglycemia to diminish the chance of lasting problems. Nurse should stress nutrition and exercise that are vital for victims. For the elderly monitoring for problems which can result in lower extremity amputation, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart stroke, vision reduction, or nephropathy should be carried out especially in type 2 diabetic patient.


Changes in composition and function of the stressed system happen with normal aging and can cause changes in flexibility, balance, coordination, sensation, comprehension, cognitive performance or behaviour. These changes reflect a slowing of neurological response as fewer neurons are available to provide sensory and motor text messages to and from the central anxious system. The common terms for dizziness include vertigo, pre- syncope and disequilibrium. Stroke is also called brain attack It really is created by interruption of blood circulation to some regions of the mind. This interruption can occur therefore associated with an occlusion or hemorrhage. Occlusion brings about ischemic stroke, classified as thrombic and embolic. Thrombic stroke occurs in vesicles when oxygenated blood fails to stream to the occlusion site. Embolic stroke occurs when clots form everywhere

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