Group & and individual behavior

Introduction:

Group & a person behavior has remained one of the favourite topics of psychologists, sociologists & researchers from quite very long time. The characteristics of communities will be the composites of some characteristics of individuals forming an organization plus some unique to the group as a whole like military can act with more bravery when in group than alone (Spinks & Wells, 1995). Why we could influenced by being part of a group is because we connect to each other & shares common goal & prices by perceiving our self to be a person in group (Handy, 1985).

The focus of this assignment would be on the actual major types of organizations are & that they influence the tendencies of an individual? How groupings are made & what exactly are their implications on a person? What are the factors which are psychologically satisfying & potentially demanding for a person on gaining account of a group?

Behavior of a person and group aren't separate terms but are interrelated with the other person like warp and weft of fabric. Which is not essential that if one is doing something as a person is similar to when he is working in an organization. In early nineties, psychologist's target of review was on individual behavior in an organization. But it was after 1930's that psychologists advised that to be able to analyze patterns of a business, focusing on group behavior is really as essential as focusing on an individual. This is practically demonstrated by Hawthorne studies completed on group of employees and figured groups affect the member's perceptions, values, attitudes and patterns (Fincham and Rhodes, 1992).

Every individual has some limitations in his thinking, skill and ability. If we must do some work where we do not require much thinking, a person decision can be adequate to complete an activity. But if we have to fulfill some process which requires brainstorming, where one decision can affect the whole organization and where goal achievements is based on group dependence, we need groups to perform their part. In most cases effectiveness of an individual or groups is dependent both on the duty and on the amount of personal and situational factors (Mitchell and Larson, 1987).

Types of Categories:

Groups play an important role in shaping the tendencies of a person. Depending on the needs of a business and an individual, groups can be divided into two basic types:

1). Formal categories.

These will be the groups made by an organization to transport on its work activities (Moorhead and Griffin, 1998). They could be differentiated on the basis of their membership, process, and dynamics of technology or position within business (Mullins, 2007).

Relating to Moorhead and Griffin (1998), formal communities can be further sub divided into command (practical) groupings and task teams. The type of command word group is long lasting and is seen as a functional reporting relationship. Command groupings are part of organizational graph. Whereas task groups are non permanent in aspect and their life is limited to performance of some specific activity.

The organization in which I had been working had command word groups in departments like development, maintenance, electronic, compressor, commercial and quality guarantee. In production office, we've G. M production, who exercises his power on his sub ordinates like Professionals, Deputy Managers and Assistant Professionals of warping, sizing, weaving and quality departments. If sometimes we have to complete some specific job related for some issue. An activity group was formed by G. M production where managers from different departments discuss that issue and after completing the duty, they spread to carry on the regular work activities. This activity experienced a positive effect on our tendencies. We considered our self applied to be accepted and our analytical skills possessed greatly been upgraded.

Table Classification structure for types of categories (Moorhead and Griffin, 1998).

 

Relatively Permanent

Relatively Temporary

Formal

Command groups

Task groups

Informal

Friendship groups

Interest groups

2). Informal Groups

Informal groupings are produced by individuals to be able to meet their personal needs like camaraderie, support or recreational wishes (Hunsaker and Make, 1986). Within an Informal groups, people assign their innovator, who usually demonstrates the behaviour and principles of the participants, helps to resolve any turmoil and leads the group and connect to management or other individuals outside the group (Mullins, 2007). These groups can be seen in every group. There is absolutely no solid rule for their creation. Since these communities are developed on personal interest, so there is no restriction of designation, era or making love in these organizations.

Moorhead and Griffin (1998) suggests that there are two types of Casual organizations. First one is a a friendly relationship group, which is long term in its aspect. They are created credited to close marriage between members and pleasure they get on staying mutually. Second one can be an interest group, which is momentary in nature and is developed around a common interest or activity.

A part from satisfying personal needs, sometimes these casual teams can also become cause of rumors in an firm, which greatly influences the performance of a business (Mullins, 2007). When Managing Director of an organization in which I got working had fired two senior managers in the same month. This brought on severe job insecurity among other professionals. So, if we use to remain after duty time, we gossip on let's see who'll be another victim. Sometimes, a few of our colleagues also spread rumours about expected administrator to be terminated next month. Although, in the long run there was no such problem, but our morale and sense of job security was greatly affected by these rumors.

Group Creation:

Groups are developed for attaining various purposes. Mitchell and Larson (1987) claims that individual joins group whether formal or informal, because it is sometimes needed for them to join group in order to accomplish an organizational goal and sometimes to meet their personal needs. But, the reasons why individuals are determined towards forming a group can be best characterized the following:

1). Affiliation.

Individuals are captivated toward teams because they have a need to build up social interaction also to hook up with others. Festinger, Schachter, and Back again (1950) made a study on aftereffect of proximity on the forming of group of students. They figured those students who were living in apartments closer to one another were better associated with each other than those who had been at higher distance.

WHILE I became a member of Kohinoor Textile Mills as management trainee, the people with whom I affiliated the most were those who have been in my section or in departments nearer if you ask me. I felt myself to be identified by becoming a member of it.

2). Source of information.

The prefer to learn and know things around affects the tendencies of an individual in a good way. Categories can be a highly effective way to obtain information for a person knowing oneself and environment. In Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, he advised that require for knowing is an essential prerequisite for the satisfaction of individual's other needs (Brooks, 2009).

This season I joined College or university of Salford as a post graduate scholar. The very first thing as an international student I thought was to get some good information regarding culture and custom of Salford. I had developed come to know that there is some student mentor program run by "interlink" employed in College or university of Salford. It gives information to new students by assigning them a local mentor. It had been a great chance for me to satisfy my desire of getting some information about Salford. So, I was given a local mentor, who was no doubt a source of information for me personally.

3). Way to obtain reward.

Groups can be considered a source of reward for its associates. Reward isn't just limited to money but friendship, feeling of owed and status can also become rewards for an individual. An exchange theory better talks about the reward-cost benefits of interaction for group creation. Rewards (fulfillment of communal needs, benefit e. t. c) should be higher than cost (panic, fatigue e. t. c) to be able to form an organization (Homans, 1950 as cited in Luthans, 2002).

I still keep in mind whenever i was working in a Kohinoor Textile Mill; we have witnessed that the mending time of weaver for knotting a damaged end was higher than the typical. A competition was set up between them and it was released that person who will mend greater amount of knots in a given time will be compensated as being the best weaver. The results of this competition were astonishing as most of the weavers have mended higher amount of knots in a given amount of time in order to take business lead on other people of group. It was that sense of to be called "the best weaver", that they signed up with the group for competition.

4) Accomplish activity.

There are some jobs which can't be accomplished by themselves. Group cohesiveness is essential to perform such jobs. In university, we have to make task groupings when our professor asks us to present a case. We make our group to be able to fulfill that process. After success of activity we use to dismantle unless various other case is provided. I've detected that my critical thinking have been improved to greater extent by going right through those jobs.

5 ) Compulsory Account.

One of the down sides of formal categories is that it's essential for a person to become listed on it whether he wants or dislikes it. In this particular case, group is shaped out of conformity (Mitchell and Larson, 1987). If we will join any business, we became person in a formal group. Where we use to give and receive commands. In such organizations we require relatively high cohesiveness, standardized norms and approved member position.

When we join some institute like university or college, we were designated a department as I am in M. Sc. Management, so it is compulsory for me personally to be member of management department rather than HRM or International Business.

Factors affecting Specific Habit in Group:

These will be the factors which effect behavior of an individual, while working within a group. They are able to have advantageous as well as adverse effects on the personality of an individual.

Conflict :

Conflict in a group comes with an interesting perspective. It could be beneficial for group's effectiveness or it may bring about loosing group account. Conflict can rise from not properly defined roles, norms, activity, leadership, communication route, power and status. It can be inter or intra in nature. If conflict in group or groups is not supervised properly it will lead to physical, mental health and behavioral issue of a person (Luthans, 2002). Therefore, it is necessary to resolve issue to be able to make it good for an individual and group. There are some studies on group conflict which shows it sometimes aids to make better decisions, improving performance and creative imagination in organizations (Rispens, 2009).

Social Facilitation:

Social facilitation has a good influence on the performance of a person. Mitchell and Larson (1987) mentioned that groups can affect the habit of an individual in several ways. An individual's performance is facilitated by its presence in a group. The best example of sociable facilitation is discussed by Triplett research. He collected data on the results of bike races. What he witnessed was that the receiving time in head to head competition was faster than the winning time in which cyclist rode independently over confirmed course aiming to beat enough time. This is a fact that when we have people around, it increases a person's performance as he has a considered being evaluated.

Zajonc (1965) also advised that "public presence improves performance of simple or well-learned responsibilities".

Social Loafing:

The size of an organization also has a significant effect on the patterns of a person. If size of a group increases, public loafing gets its way into a group. Bowditch and Buono (1994) describe this trend as reduction in an attempt of an individual when he was employed in a group rather than as an individual. The main thing to be seen in here is that communal loafing does not indicate shyness or discomfort in working as a member of group. But it means low effort applied by a person scheduled to low motivation or disinterest. The reason behind this problem is merely since it is difficult to determine an individual in much larger group than in smaller one.

Matching to McKenna (2000), there have been some assumptions that communal loafing is likely to occur within an individualistic culture dominated by self-interest and the best exemplory case of it is U. S. A. Public loafing is considered to be less in collective societies like china, where individuals in such culture are motivated by group goals alternatively than self applied interest. It means Chinese can be viewed as nearly as good performers in teams as compared to individuals.

Norms:

Norms are such as a pillar for just about any group. They have got a significant effect on the behavior of a person. Kreitner, Kinicki and Buelens (1999) defines norm as direction to behavior of group of men and women by sharing attitude, opinion, sense or action and aren't a written format of guidelines but are generally better recognized by the people of group. Hackman (1976) claim that norms have concern with habit of group participants rather than their thoughts.

Mullins (2007) stated one of the Hawthorne tests, which best exemplifies the effect of norms on the tendencies of group customers and was related to Loan company Wiring observation room. He seen that band of 14 men had developed their own norms and decided to produce lower degree of productivity than their capabilities.

I JUST became a member of S and A Pillows and comforters Ltd in Manchester. On first day, while i was actively filling cushion covers. Among the employees, who were working over there, recommended me not to increase your degree of creation because if you can do so, manager increase level of output required. Finally, my performance was reduced when i had to check out that norm.

Group Polarization:

Group polarization has both positive and negative effects on specific behavior. Person in an organization can take risky decisions which he will never take by itself (Stoner, 1961 cited in McKenna, 2000). An individual's decision may become more risky or cautious as a result of group discourse. Social personal information theory explains conception of folks to consider their group in conditions of extremes and then move their attitude towards these extreme norms of a group (Mackie, 1986). The ultimate way to get positive outcome from it is to point out all the possible hazards before concluding anything. Mullins (2007) explains that you of the advantages of group polarization is an individual can take risky decisions but its downside is that no person is ready to accept the duty of this decision.

Conclusion:

Individuals have to form groups whether to satisfy needs, accomplish jobs or as a compulsory member. Group creation and the factors influencing individual patterns play an important role, generally to be able to evaluate the organizational performance and particularly individual's performance and performance. Subscribing to some group whether formal & casual has several advantages & negatives. But advantages which an associate gets on being a part of some group are higher than their disadvantages. There are some of the negative factors which can't be eliminated completely like conflict, norms (negative), communal loafing (in case of large group) or group polarization. The best way to offer with them is to study the patterns of group as well as a person and decrease the negative parameters impacting individual's performance.

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