In 1918, half the world's human population was attacked by the Spanish flu of the 1 billion attacked 50 million past away from the condition. In 2003 humanity was faced once more by a terrible pandemic, Severe serious respiratory symptoms (SARS). SARS was only a wakeup call, phoning to attention the unpreparedness of Canada. In 2005 the globe Health Firm (WHO) addressed this concern by applying an influenza pandemic preparedness plan checklist. Canada taken care of immediately this fear of unpreparedness with the "Ontario health plan for an influenza pandemic". Among the ethical key issues that were attended to was healthcare workers obligation to provide health care during a communicable disease outbreak. That is to say do health care workers from professionals to nurses to volunteers produce an obligation to come quickly to work throughout a pandemic. Having a believed absenteeism rate of 39% amidst all health care staff in Canada during the first fourteen days of any pandemic and 34% of nurses who would seek other job throughout a pandemic scheduled to fear. Stricter guidelines must be established for Canada health care workers standard of care and attention throughout a pandemic crisis. Engaging the public to set these suggestions is among the finest ways to attain a consensus on what the work of healthcare personnel should be. Although there are punishments should a health care worker breach their responsibility to provide care and attention it is inadequate. Health care workers will be faced with an ethical issue when a pandemic arises as a result of conflict between performing their responsibility to provide care, self applied preservation, and the health of their families. Health care workers have to have a range of facts towards a pandemic situation then contemplate their position on how to proceed whenever a pandemic occurs using deontological, teleological, bioethical ideas and Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
When the general public was engaged 90% said that healthcare personnel should face all risks if safety precautions are used, 47% of the public agreed that the government has the right to conscript healthcare workers throughout a pandemic. 50% of the general public agreed that health care personnel should face lose of work and licensing should they not arrive to work. However, as of now health care employees are subjected to a 184050 buck fine according to the occupational health insurance and safety act. Due to 30% of most SARS situations being health care workers, there can be an understandable level of fear. Nurses in particular seem to have a reserved fear throughout a pandemic with 34% of nurses mostly young nurses would give up during a pandemic. Nurses also display the highest level of fear with 61% of nurses who have been scared to look after SARS patients to the point where they would prevent them. This fear felt is induced generally from having less than two time of infectious disease control training. The first step to preparedness, to make an ethically audio decision is to educate and raise understanding. Increased fear was anticipated to conception of greater threat of death, lifestyle change and being treated differently because they are health care employees. Therefore, Health care workers need to comprehend that although they are in a high risk area there were several steps taken in regards for his or her safety. Knowledge of preventive measures shouldn't be assumed by the personnel but rather informed by the employers. The data of preventive methods can be learned and maintained by facts, process, methods and practise. When medical care workers are up to date of the safeguards they are trained with lessens the fear from the pandemic. Once the proper factual presumptions are made the health attention worker can then apply honest knowledge to make their decision.
Deontology ethics stresses that a morally right action is directly brought upon by ones carrying out their duty. Since a deontological ethical approach emphasizes our actions be governed by our tasks, then a explanation of duty must get concisely. Inside the Canadian Medical Association's Code of ethics the expected process of medical professionals during an epidemic is vague and silent to say at best. However, medical doctors like all health care employees have a work to provide health care. The work to provide good care is the one which is directed at all healthcare staff this assumed responsibility to provide care and attention is set up and educated in medical care system. Work of good care is the legal term for the obligation that a health care worker must his / her patients. There exists both a responsibility of attention and a responsibility to provide care for both nurses and physicians. When you first accept the conference the standard of health care you recognize responsibility to care then your continuity of this care is medical care workers duty to provide good care. When a health care worker, nurse or specialist won't go to work during a pandemic they breach both their obligation to worry and work to provide care and attention. They are incorrect when they violate the work to look after any new patient and they are wrong when they have going against their responsibility to provide care with their current patients. Furthermore, when a health care worker will not go to work they impose on the rights of others. Residents of Ontario and individuals of Canada have the right to health care; this right is ill-treated when healthcare workers do not go to work. Therefore, although there are no specific responsibilities during a pandemic crisis the standard duty to care and attention also to provide care are still valid and should be obeyed from a deontological viewpoint.
A Teleological stand point evokes that in order to make a morally great decision the decision manufacturer must consider out rationally and objectively the outcomes of their actions. The decision maker has to consider ethical hedonism which preserves self interest, versus moral altruism which emphasizes the advantages of others even at the price of self sacrifice. Fear and concern for do it yourself was the second largest barrier for health care workers determination to work. If medical care employees do go to work the good consequence is they are helping several people and the bad consequence because of this action is the fact only one person in addition is at risk; themselves. Versus, if medical care worker does not go to work he by itself is safe while many others are struggling. However, the largest barrier for health care workers willingness to work is dread and concern because of their households. Now the bad outcome of heading to work does not only have an impact on only the health care worker but their complete family is at risk. Teleological Utilitarianism says that the morally good action provides the greatest best for the greatest number. In the illustration where the healthcare worker decides to go to work they are most likely serving and supporting more people then they puts in danger, even though those they puts vulnerable are their own family. Therefore, what is teleologicaly good is the fact health care employees go to work during a pandemic. Moreover, the decision never to go to work is seen as ethically hedonistic, but at the same time could be selflessly made if it's to protect their own families that may use them. The public appears to support the last mentioned 64% which agree that health care workers with small children and or elderly shouldn't be likely to work throughout a pandemic.
There are four traditional ideas that guide health care workers how to ethically function at the job. The first is the rule of nonmaleficence as observed in the Hippocratic Oath, fundamentally state governments that no action used should result in any harm unless it's important to prevent better harm. The health care staff are creating damage indirectly by not heading to work and supporting, this neglectfulness that is creating the damage is just as bad as directly doing the injury themselves. The second rule is that of beneficence which states that the professional has a duty to do good. In order for the health health care worker to prosper and become in compliance with the guiding concept of beneficence they need to go to work throughout a pandemic and perform good; This good is conducted by helping others. The third rule of Autonomy is according for the individual to really have the liberty to choose their own plan of action. Most likely a patient with SARS or similar disease will need some kind of treatment. In order to even have the option of treatment, to allow autonomy a health care worker must are accountable to work especially during a pandemic when they are needed the most. The final guiding process of justice interjects that patients have to be treated pretty without discrimination. For treatment to be non-discriminatory then healthcare staff need to provide treatment to everyone evenly including folks who are experiencing the pandemic disease. Also caution should be constant from prior to the pandemic to following the pandemic. If the health care staff member should decide never to go to work throughout a pandemic both people experiencing the pandemic and non pandemic diseases suffer from and don't obtain just treatment.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development can be employed to this moral maxim to choose which decision would be preconventional, standard or post standard. A preconventional action focuses primarily on an egocentric basis. The decision for a health care worker to not go to work during a pandemic anticipated to fear of their own lives is a hedonistic decision. Therefore, regarding to Kohlberg your choice for health care workers to not go to work credited to selfish concerns is preconventional. A typical decision would encompass a decision be made that'll be good for a group rather than purely yourself. Your choice to not go to work for the sake of taking care of your family and children is a self less decision for a certain group. Although the decision is still to not go to work it is known as conventional since it is for the sake of the health care worker's family. A post conventional decision holds true to regulations of justice. Regulations of justice and specific human privileges can be applied to this situation because every resident of Canada has the right to healthcare and health care is usually to be distributed justly. Your choice for medical care worker to visit work for the sake of universal society is known as post conventional. To make a truly moral decision Kohlberg's theory of moral development could be used as a guideline for healthcare workers to make ethically appropriate decisions.
In conclusion, the choice whether or not health care staff is going to work during a pandemic can be an ethical dilemma. In order for health care staff to make an informed decision they need to be made alert to the reality. Although there is a fine occur the occupational health and safety work of 184050 dollars the charges is insufficient as the general public agrees healthcare staff who do not go to work should face lack of employment and licensing. The decision for healthcare workers never to go to work during a pandemic credited to selfishness and fear even thought safeguards have been placed is a hedonistic decision. This hedonistic decision falls under Kohlberg's stage of preconventional or immature level of moral reasoning. Although healthcare workers have a duty to care and to provide care with their patients there is also a obligation to look after their families. The decision for healthcare workers never to go to work during a pandemic scheduled to fear of infecting their family which needs them, falls under a typical and older decision. The decision for health care workers to visit work throughout a pandemic in compliance with the work to care also to provide attention is a post standard decision which is most applauded. Since this decision supplies the greatest best for the greatest amount of people it comes under utilitarianism. Furthermore, this decision also conforms to the key points of professional ethics. A healthcare worker going to work prevents harm from being done i. e. nonmaleficence; this treatment being provided is beneficial and is in accordance with the principle of beneficence. Autonomy and Justice is fulfilled by the health care worker heading to work since it provides patients the option of treatment and everything patients acquire treatment justly without discrimination. The rules currently place for healthcare workers role throughout a pandemic are to incoherently put and need to be clearly explained in terms with their responsibility to go to work. The guidelines should integrate a full array of ethical theories in order for health care workers to reach a audio and up to date decision.