Posted at 06.10.2018
"Globalization" presents the progressive widening and conditioning of the world relations because the Second World Conflict. It has now reached a stage where no one is untouched by the occasions occurring outside its express boundaries. International occasions are now restricting any unbiased national action. Companies in america, Europe, and Japan is now able to produce a product in India or New Zealand, outsource clerical work to Ireland or Mexico, and sell worldwide without having to be concerned about the long distances or the variety of cultures engaged (Martin Carnoy 2005).
According to Noel F. McGinn (1999), globalization consists of the following flows which interact with each other:
Globalization can be seen as a direct consequence of the get spread around of the European culture throughout the world via colonialisation. The existing influx of globalization has already established a profound influence on the economic and political set ups of the world. Now, no country has any control over the value of its money or over the movement of capital in and out of the country. 'For the first time in human history, anything can be produced anywhere and sold all over the place' (Rui Yang 2003).
Education enriches human lives and raises the standard of individuals wellbeing. Education is definitely an important insight for the economic and social progress of the world. It not only affects the productivity of a country and consequently its capability to contend internationally, but additionally it is important to draw in international capital. Education is just about the key to global trading success. Other important elements for a successful market, such as infrastructure, productive government, health of the people, etc. are also related to education in a single way or the other (Frances Stewart, 1996).
Globalization is a trend that has damaged almost every sphere of the globe. The effects of globalization vary from being economical, interpersonal, political, cultural, and environmental. On one hand, globalization has shrunk the world, delivering people and nations closer to the other. On the other hand, it has strengthened the divisions by causing the rich richer and the indegent poorer. The magnitude of the effect of globalization is so huge that it has additionally affected the education all over the world. For me, globalization is most likely to have an indirect influence on the planet education systems by changing the surroundings where these education systems work. Education, in modern times has become a business. The focus has shifted from imparting knowledge and intelligence to making financial income. Similarly, globalization has increased the necessity and degrees of education, on the other, it has also burdened many countries to provide sufficient amount and quality of education. Globalization has made it possible for people from under privileged countries to access education even using their homes. But, at the same time has put up the pressure of it on such section of people which calls for high financial investments. They have at one end broadened the horizon for the move of wisdom, on the other has made people a slave of technology. Hence, it is; very hard to state whether the effects of globalization are positive or negative.
The creation of the Country wide Education Systems in European countries (and later in america) was the first major impact of globalization on education. Following was the imposition of such systems on other countries by the colonial forces. The world in those days had been struck by a influx of "westernization" and was dependent on the external economical causes. Before 1945, all 3rd party nations had similar systems of education with common goals, composition and contents. Most nations that gained their freedom after 1945, tried to expand the education systems set up by their colonial masters. However, in reality, they did not make any significant changes. A couple of countries, e. g. the United Republic of Tanzania, tried out to construct a distinctive system but later reverted back to the European models (Noel F. McGinn, 1997).
To meet the global needs and conform to the international criteria, advanced schooling in the developing countries is currently being built-into the world community. The international characteristics of the "university" is expected to be affected strongly due to this transformation. Higher education has turned into a commercial commodity when a global market is taking condition. The expansion of this market due to globalization is mainly motivated by financial factors. Managements assume that to be able to make it through and prosper in this globalized world, they need to become customer-focussed business entity. Very few people in the business of higher education identify the difference between globalization and internationalization of the systems (Rui Yang, 2003).
At various forums, experts have been communicating about how the training systems must change in order to attain a far more "global" way. Some emphasize on increasing the awareness about other cultures while others support the idea that knowledge and skill can make a region "globally competitive".
A major impact of globalization on higher education is the use of economic expectations as point of reference point. Volumes (of graduates, grants, magazines, etc. ) have become sole signals of the university or college accomplishments while educational principles are being lost in the process. These tendencies have also created a split among the list of more profitable content of systems and technology, and the ones based on theoretical values, especially of arts and humanities. It has also created institutional winners and losers, widening the space between the hardly any elite colleges and numerous 'mediocre' institutes. Successful economies are being accumulating by the symbiotic partnerships of colleges and industry. Lessons being shown rely intensely on the number of students enrolled and the financial back-up provided by the industry. Often, programs are terminated if enough students do not enrol. Conversely, if many students want, any absurd course can be trained. The 'class room' is losing its importance. Even the prospects of the students are changing. They expect lectures to be amusing talk-shows somewhat than informative. Before, the professors professed, now they can be just professionals, careerists, and internet marketers, as in the corporate sector. As Guy Neave sets it, "education is less part of public plan but is progressively more viewed as a subsector of economic policy" (Rui Yang, 2003).
Globalization has had its impact on the secondary level of education as well, i. e. the classes. Stakeholders, who before got no say in educational decision-making, are actually making unreasonable requirements that the colleges cannot meet. Today every institution in the world is trying to fix up its existing education system to meet up with the global requirements (Noel F. McGill, 1999). Students are now exposed to latest technologies, like the internet, at an extremely early age. Brad Pitt and Tom Sail will be the heroes for today's youngsters instead of Abraham Lincoln or Mahatma Gandhi. University students spend more hours on computers or before television sets than they spend using their catalogs. Parents also expect the utilization of hi-tech accessories in classrooms in exchange of the high fees they pay.
Today, most governments are under a regular pressure of looking at the growth of public shelling out for the training sector. They need to look for other resources to invest in the expansion of their education systems. Regardless of the increase in the number of student enrolments, an over-all trend towards reduced amount of the per capita money to raised education under the impact of globalization has been discovered. This has led to the existing fiscal crisis of the training sector. The responsibility of financing this sector is being shifted on the shoulders of individuals. Many public universities and institutes are also depending upon non-governmental options, such as scholar tuition and other fees, donations from alumni, payment from industrial options in exchange of services being provided by the universities. The privatisation of the education sector, running parallel to the financial cuts, favours those who are able the high fees involved. These problems of the machine are putting the destiny of universities on stake by disregarding the calibre of the graduates produced and the product quality and end result of the academic staff (Rui Yang, 2003).
Without distinguishing the media hype from the reality, today there can be an international trend to jump into the market for electronic digital delivery of education. The technology-delivered instruction is being marketed as convenient, self-paced, interactive, faster and cheaper, versatile with respect to time and space. Early in the 20th century, motion pictures were speculated to take place of books as the mode of instructions. The trend of the air also sparked the drive to connect the rural areas to various universities. Video, satellite tv, and cable television communication implemented. In each case the training opportunities for people, who might not otherwise experienced them, broadened. However, the outcomes of such cutting-edge technologies were short-lived. The latest feeling is the on-line coaching and learning. Distance education, which relies seriously on these solutions, is fast becoming a convenient option for students all over the world. Management pundit, Peter Drucker has forecasted that the residential school campus would disappear within the next 30 years (Rui Yang, 2003).
The current system of globalised education will depend on many cost-effective, socio-political and technological reasons. They are related to the meant advantages of the global pupil body- increased ease of access and versatility, which is thought to get over the rigidity of the traditional system of the colleges: constraints on what constitute the academic calendar, where and exactly how credits are allotted, and the way the programs are modularised. Those that market the on-line education, often gloss the idea by overlooking the limitations of the technological capacity and literacy, as well as different cultures, languages and learning styles across the world. The electronic campus may widen the opportunities for a few by providing versatility and ease, but not for those at the low end of the economic strata. Electronic space is infinite but it lacks the universality or equality. Actually, it can create a "digital divide" between wealthy and poor within countries. On a global platform, this divide may leave the Third World countries, where phone and electric services are unreliable and radio is known as an extravagance, further behind the global economy (Rui Yang, 2003). However, we can not underestimate the future use of such new solutions as it has the capacity to web page link the students from even the most remote parts with the rest of the world. Globalized information sites may change the world culture (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).
Globalization of education has been centred on "consumerism". Learning is no longer about analysis, dialogue and evaluation. It has turned into a product that can be bought and sold, is packed, advertised and marketed. The growing global competition is damaging to the heart of education. This is true particularly for the case of distance education. Globalization of education, though offers variety of options, this comes at a cost of campaign of national beliefs, skills and knowledge. This also spreads the dominant ideologies, in a way bringing back again the age of colonisation. Use of English terminology as the prominent words in globalised coaching and learning, annihilates the local cultural values of many countries. This also provides an edge to the British vocabulary providers to monopolise the sector (Rui Yang, 2003).
Overseas scholar education could very well be the most significant market nowadays. It is now a multi-billion dollar business. The related industry of coaching English language, organizing students for several entrance examinations, helping students with school applications and related formalities, has also gained a great deal of importance. Several are unregulated and have added to the budget of the training business. Universities of developed countries are offering lots of "off-shore" levels. Polished brochures and adverts are being used to catch the attention of student dollars. Though some off-shore courses are given by renowned universities, many worthless and unrecognised institutes are also set up which sell certificates in return of money. Institutes are becoming "degree mills" (Rui Yang, 2003).
Teachers were earlier considered themselves as "good sages on the stage" who imparted information, knowledge and wisdom to the students whose heads were "clear vessels" waiting to be loaded. Globalization has generated a demand for a workforce for whom the aim of education is to instruct how to learn, problem-solve and make the old with the new. Education is no more filling the vacant vessels by conveying information. They have enhanced the ability of the learners to access, assess, adopt and apply information. The altered education system makes them think separately but at exactly the same time collaborate with others to complete an activity. Globalization has infused into today's learners the ability to become more familiar and comfortable with abstract concepts and uncertain situations. In the current academic scenario, the majority of the students are offered ready-made problems and then must solve them. This makes the students prepared to face the issues of the work-place where they are required to look for problems, gather necessary data and make enlightened decisions (Derrick L. Cogburn).
The revolution in the field of it has improved the role of professors from "sages on the level" to "guide privately". The use of internet, World Wide Web, printed, audio, video tutorial and other kinds of media enables students to acquire and utilise knowledge in various forms round the world. Students are now required not and then work in groups actually but also figure out how to become a part of a more substantial global electronic network. International organisations are significantly employing such online teams for research and development activities (Derrick L. Cogburn). Together, computer technology and telecommunications has made it easy for organizations to relocate their businesses to any area of the planet that provides cost-competitive labour and infrastructure. Due to advances in it, money can be moved across edges with just click of a button (Leon Tikly, 20001).
Earlier, creation of primary commodities used to occur in the under-developed or growing countries while their transformation into produced products took place in the developed parts. Along with the expansion of the training sector, this technique has changed, delivering with itself economic growth to the Third World countries (Leon Tikly, 2001).
Women's educational opportunities have been widened because of the increased dependence on highly-educated, low-cost labours. Therefore, the countries that have been earlier resistant to providing identical opportunities to women are also gradually and steadily changing their policies (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).
The ramifications of globalization won't be the same everywhere in the world, nor are of these negative.
Despite a few positive aspects, the globalization of education is in the end powered by the international market thereby creating more issues for the producing countries than opportunities. Quality control, information management, handling the costs and benefits are amongst the most important challenges. Together, all these aspects endanger the real spirit of education, placing the continuing future of universities at stake. However, not all hope is lost. The impact of globalization also depends after the response of people which is a reflection of the neighborhood conditions. Therefore, the partnership between the individual and the global circumstance should be the primary of any education reforms (Rui Yang, 2003).
Active responses are needed within the general public and private sectors at the regional, national, and international levels, to be able to experience the opportunities created by globalization and all together overcome its troubles. At the countrywide level, as many folks as is feasible should be allowed to become a part of a jobs that increases their standard of living. Also regulations should be made to meet up with the increasing requirements of global organisations working within the global overall economy (Derrick L. Cogburn).
Globalization is a very real phenomenon. It really is changing the earth in every possible aspects, knowledge and information being one of the most important elements. Tremendous assistance is required between local and global organisations in order to address the issues created by globalization (Derrick L. Cogburn).
Governments are under great pressure to attract foreign capital and must source skilled labour. Thus giving rise to a pressure to improve the degrees of skills and education of the labour push. Before few years, there has been a rise in income inequality. The demand for universities increase with the upsurge in earnings of higher-educated labour pressure. This further increases the pressure on the governments to expand their education industries (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).
The education sector is under an increasing pressure of reaching the demands of the new information-intensive global overall economy.
Globalization has evolved the perception of knowledge and skills around the world. This has led to the establishment of a whole range of new sectors.
Due to globalization, diverse kinds of market sectors are emerging, such as biotechnology, material sciences, artificial brains, medical therapeutics, computing advancements, etc. This creates a demand for highly specific personnel. Research and development has become a critical component of any industry. Therefore, knowledge and skill is just about the main factor for development and economic development (Derrick L. Cogburn).
The methodical world is being dominated by the research-producing countries, who are behaving as the "gatekeepers" of technology. Statistics show that most scientific journals are edited by the scholars of the major American countries (Rui Yang, 2003).
Universities surrounding the world would like to include 'learner exchange programs' in order to market cross-border education (Noel F. McGinn, 1997).