This paper is set in the framework of Kenyan universities and their rapidly expanding use of information and communication technology. Its key target and emphasis is on the changes to teaching and learning that will derive from an e-education environment. Understanding the impact of e- coaching, e-learning and e- education sometimes appears as important to moving us ahead so we can make higher use of the opportunities provided by the Internet. E-teachers are believed central to the move toward e-education and the way in which ICT is integrated in our schools. To apply an ICT e-strategy without e-teachers will now be like piloting a fishing boat with out a navigator
Table of Contents
The "e" expression has become ever more visible on the lives of Kenyans with techniques many could not have imagined significantly less than ten years earlier. With relative efficiency, the "e" is mounted on pursuits like real property, retailing, bank, entertainment and today education. The "e" means electronic digital and it pertains to the use of the Internet to attempt the wide selection of activities. Even as we become more familiar with the dialect of the web we find the amount of it pervades our day to day lives in the dot. com age group. We readily identify http://www. . . . . . . . . as an online site and view it plastered on vehicles, billboards, hot air balloons, items and in the display screen and print advertising. Educators are now beginning to hear conditions like e- teaching, e-learning and e- education as it subtly becomes part in our regular vocabulary. Nice (2000) advised that e-learning "enhances the coach and facilitator roles of the teacher more than ever. "
It is no more a question of whether or not we will use e-learning in our institutions, but whether we can do it well. Just like the Internet itself, there is no way of handling the arrival of e-learning. Everything we can hope to do is start to comprehend the complexities of the new environment and how exactly we can support colleges and help professors to work well as e-teachers.
In Kenya, the tutor to student percentage is low as seen by the number of primary school leavers who don't get absorbed into supplementary schools. This is also as approved to the actual fact that there are less secondary universities especially following the government carried out the free primary education program. This move was a good the one that reinforced the less privileged in the population. However, what next after the K. C. P. E evaluation? This will have been taken into consideration.
Kenya's public universities see an average of 50 students for every teacher, though some classes have only 1 teacher for 100 pupils. Corresponding to articles within the Guardian from 6th Sept 2011, the professors' union assignments a shortfall of 115000 educators in the next year or two as the populace increases. Nearly 10% of 13 time old pupils cannot complete a straightforward math problem designed for 7 time olds, according to analyze done earlier this season by Uwezo, a pressure group that aims to improve literacy among children in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
As seen above, it is clear that the challenge of overcrowded classrooms can't be solved by employing more tutors in the foreseeable future as they are unavailable and projected to be even less soon. This creates a niche that gives room to the adoption of a new active and radical solution which is e learning.
Figure : Tutor to pupil ratio in Kenyan major schools from 2002 to 2010
Figure : Teacher to pupil percentage in Kenyan extra institutions from 2002 to 2010
It is important to recognize that while e-learning has much to provide it isn't a signal for the end of regular classroom learning as we know it now. Class room learning will continue to produce an important role to experiment with but as Rosenberg (2001) has diagnosed, "it'll be some other role from before" no longer the "default delivery system". With infrastructure still a significant challenge in many of the universities; it is clear that not absolutely all schools in the country can take up e education. Professors can learn on effective use of the e education materials but if the materials aren't in the areas of coaching then e education will be a challenge.
The purpose of this analysis is to examine changes to teaching and learning in an e education environment. This section explains the Methods used to come up with a thorough e education system that may be integrated into the Kenyan education system. Most of the researches that'll be discussed are from the National ICT Creativity and Integration Centre (NI3C). The Centre is part of the ministry of education in Kenya that models to combine ICT into education, especially in the principal and secondary institutions.
The Ministry of education create a holistic model that could see four academic institutions benefit with an ICT integration. The model was meant to be a pilot project where other university would take up. The selected institutions were predicated on the actual fact that they had not benefited from ICT from any business. They were Kiserian Secondary University, Marigat Area; Munyu Secondary University, Thika East District; Chebilat High School, Sotik District and Makutano Extra School, Mwala Region. They were recommended to start from scratch and develop a working e education system in their schools by making use of the ministry.
Each of the four universities preferred a team of instructors to be their ICT integration team. The team was then trained on the technological facet of ICT and how to deliver their courses using web solutions. The ministry as well as NI3C trained the professors on how to utilize sites such as YouTube, Facebook, e_blackbord for effective teaching.
Implementing e education without proper infrastructure in the institutions is a significant challenge. To make the model run smoothly the ministry bought projectors, printers, pcs and installed internet in all the model academic institutions.
The Monitoring team from the Ministry of education made appointments to the academic institutions to observe how the integration was heading on. From your questionnaire packed by the educators, the majority of them liked the e education system. The Monitoring team also discovered the course delivery was more planned since most teachers could save their notes in a centralized database.
The all natural model will definitely be considered a reference point for any school that needs to put into action e education from scratch. Having computer labs in academic institutions doesn't necessarily mean that ICT has been put in place in education. The computer systems can be used effectively in course delivery.
Virtual Essence has introduced an e-learning solution for kids in top primary school, educators and parents through a thorough e-learning package called Msingi Pack that is not hard and exciting to utilize, allowing the kids to analyze and revise and providing the instructors and parents as well with more teaching resources and a way of tracking the kids' performance. Msingi pack premiered in 2008, primarily for class eight students, but the current version is perfect for kids in course 6 to 8; but kids in school four and five can also use the courses. Suitable for kids in category six to eight, Msingi Pack includes courses on all the subject matter, topical questions, each week projects, KCPE past paperwork from 2005 up to now, Msingi pack examinations, and lessons plan templates for instructors, and studies. The team of 50 practicing professors and two full time education specialists help to make this system work. The pack comes in two different modules -a home module that may be employed by up to six people and the mother or father; and a institution module that can be networked and generate reports.
The exam section is a simulator of the real exams, as it has been made to time the pupil, draw and revise with the university student, taking him by way of a narrative step of each and every question. This helps one in monitoring the performance, and the tests can even be customized so that certain goes at his own speed, or choose different questions from different documents.
The tutorial section is interactive as the exam and entails the kids studying the tutorials, that have worked out cases, topical ointment questions and each week tasks on every subject, every week to which may then be marked by the educator or the mother or father. All the courses are from the new 8-4-4 syllabus and therefore very relevant. The bundle also comes with more than 1000 proverbs in Swahili all, explained as well as tutorials on in structure and insha writing, with scanned compositions and inshas compiled by other pupils and already designated.
The load up include guidance and counselling tips on various issues impacting on adolescents including making love and pregnancy, teacher child relationships, presenting good instructions to children, questioning in teaching, parent's role in instilling discipline and life skills among other issues.
Msingi pack can be purchased online on www. vlckenya. com, where one fills in an application which in turn gets Sh3000 for the home version and Sh2000 for the school version, with one being required to buy at the least five for the institution version.
Kenya is just about the third African country to unveiling eLearning facilities in secondary schools. The programme by Intel, and whose only other beneficiaries are South Africa and Nigeria, was launched at Kamiti Secondary College in the outskirts of Nairobi. The programme enables students to be trained through information communication technology (ICT) and is also a collaboration work between the Ministry of Education and many local and multinational ICT companies.
The project consists of the use of computers and wireless connectivity for all sorts of category work. The teacher runs on the laptop to that your students connect from other low-cost laptops known as classmates. Inside the new classroom, the blackboard has been changed with a touch screen and students send their work to the educator through wireless connection.
Kenyan Colleges are increasingly embracing e-learning as a tool to facilitate increased education. They also want to rope in more students through better usage of facilities, hoping to reach a wider base in a cost-effective way. The efficiency accruing from e-learning is probably the advantages gained by local colleges that have used the utilization of technology. Using different systems, students can follow lectures online, interact with lecturers, submit tasks and check up on their levels. Lecturers can also publish course materials, post tasks and generate discussions online using sites. However, these establishments have to train both students and lecturers about how to work with the programs.
Strathmore University, USIU and College or university of Nairobi (UoN), all students are enrolled in e-learning courses when they first sign up for. Strathmore School has adopted the use of e-learning in a lot of its classes via the Moodle program. The school (Strathmore) uses this as a way of facilitating lectures and is applicable a blend of immediate lectures and e-learning techniques in many courses as technology profits acceptability among lecturers and students.
One area in which the university has utilised e-learning is through video recording conferencing for browsing professors; this is performed especially in partnership with other business colleges. Strathmore has a tie-up with the IESE Business University which is under the College or university of Navarra in Barcelona Spain.
The intro and the development of the e-learning system, e-classroom and e-teaching have impacted the education system in many other ways both negative and positive. Not merely has it affected the students but also it has made a very great impact to teachers. These influences are both negative and positive.
E-learning has managed to get possible for professors to be able to coach their classes even when they aren't physically in class. This is authorized for the reason that they can record their teaching sessions and publish the videos to the site in order for their students to access it and down load them. E-learning also allows for live video transmit in that the educators can be able to teach their students live as they watch and have questions.
E-learning allows for interaction between educators and the students. That is possible in that both the teachers and students can post community forums for discussions. Professors are able to post forums where the students can be able to get access to it and make remarks and subsequently the professors can be able to answer the questions asked and describe details clearer to students for clarification purposes.
E-classroom has allowed for room of instructors to permit their students to make use of electronic devices during course. These gadgets include computers, notebooks, tablets and cell phones. This has doable for students to search for further information apart from what is educated to them by the professors. Instructors have found it simpler to explain concepts with their students especially if it requires demonstrations.
Teachers use the e-learning platform to give out assignments and notes to their students from wherever they are really as long as the can access the internet. They are able to also set up links for submitting the task with deadlines to be attained by the students. E-learning also facilitates the utilization of other software like the transform it in that helps the professor to have the ability to check out for immediately copied work by students
E-class has managed to get possible for more interactions between your teachers and their students for the reason that instead of the normal class sitting agreement of the category for the reason that the educator stands in front of the category and teaches on the panel, they can make the students be seated in groups with all the electronic gizmos and they can move around openly during class and taking into account the actual students are doing in the smaller groups. This boosts and stimulates close contact between the instructors and the students.
E-education has also caused some negative effects in the education system in the following ways.
It has made educators shortage originality in their ways of teaching. Most of the times they tend to send their students to the internet since they know that the internet has almost everything. This is a great disadvantage for the reason that most students cannot understand what they directly see in the internet without the concepts being created and explained to them by the teacher in school first before they go to the internet.
E-learning has made professors miss classes in physical form with a justification of posting records and assignments. Personal contact between your teachers and their students is very important especially when there is need for presentations or useful work and for that reason both the old methods and techniques of teaching should be used hand in hand with the new technology.
As much as e-education has made it easier for the learning and teaching process to be more fun and enjoyable, these devices that are being used through the process sometimes can cause interruptions especially the mobile phones as the users may tend to deviate from what their expected is at that one point in time when they are in category.
Students have expressed higher satisfaction from the computer mediated learning, when compared with traditional learning and scored the e learning as far better than in the traditional framework. It has been argued that computer mediated or online learning is more Student-engaging. ELearning includes many components that are familiar from traditional learning, such
as: display of ideas by the students, group discussions, arguments and a great many other forms of conveying information and accumulating knowledge. The items of the course's Curriculum might be arranged according to topics and in a serial manner. ELearning also contains advantages which are not within traditional learning, such as: time for digesting the info and responding, improved communication one of the Learners, both in regards to quality and in regards to urgency, knowledge being obtained and transferred among the learners themselves, the ability to conduct an available dialogue, where each learner gets more of the same ranking than in a face-to-face discussion, usage of information and discussion ability, responses may be produced around the clock with no limitations, a higher drive and involvement along the way for the learners. The use of technology for learning has been found to have a positive effect on the student's dedication to the learning process. Also, use of technology creates a greater commitment on the students' part to learning. The following desk summarizes several views regarding the contrast between traditional learning and eLearning:
Table : Traditional Learning and ELearning
The tutor usually talks
more than the student
The student talks at least as
much as or even more than the
The learning is conducted
with the complete class
participating; there is certainly almost
no group or individual study
Most of the learning process
takes put in place groups or by
the individual scholar.
The educator conducts the
lesson in line with the study
program and the existing
The scholar participates in
determining the subject
matter; the learning is based
on various options of
Information, including web data bankers and net-experts located by the learner.
The students learn "what"
and not "how"; the students
and the instructors are busy
completing the required
subject subject quota; the
students aren't involved in
inquiry-based education and
in dealing with problems, but
rather in tasks place by the
The students learn "how"
and less "what"; the learning
includes research study
which combines searching
for and collecting
information from web data
banks and authorities on the
communications network; the
learning is way better connected
to real life, the subject
matter is richer and includes
material in various formats.
The students' drive is
low, and the subject matter is
"faraway" from them.
The students' motivation is
high due to the involvement
in things that are closer to them and to the use of technology.
The professor is the authority
The tutor directs the learner to the information.
The learning requires place
within the classroom and the
The learning occurs with
no fixed location
The professor dictates the
structure of the lesson and
the section of time
The framework of the lessons is influenced by the group dynamics.
them to incorporate technology to their teaching
Courses offered in the Kenya to teach educators in the uses of ICT have centered on the technical aspects of ICT with little training about the pedagogical techniques required and how to incorporate ICT in the curriculum. In lots of ICT professional development courses, teachers are not often educated how to revise their pedagogical practices, how to replace other conventional lessons without depleting the curriculum coverage and so on. This means that after teachers got attended a course they still did not know how to use ICT for teaching pupils, They only realized how to perform certain software packages also to fix the printing device.
Much research by Fullan (1991) as well as others has shown that the most effective way to bring about the adoption associated with an innovation in academic institutions is to activate the whole university in a democratic procedure for planning change. This means that all the educators are involved in the decision to adopt ICT in the school and are supportive of anybody teacher heading on a course and prepared to learn from their new knowledge and skills when they return. If the school, and particularly the head teacher, are not committed to adopting change and especially ICT, then if one professor continues on a course, all of those other school creates antibodies to any new ideas that your unfortunate tutor brings back to the school. The last thing the other professors will then do is to improve their practice.
The majority of teacher's first main concern is to keep order in the classroom and to have a handled learning environment. Any recommendation of adopting very innovative coaching techniques such as using ICT is therefore viewed as intimidating this orderly routine and therefore not desirable. There's a genuine fear among many educators about ICT and skepticism of its value to their pupils
Even if the aforementioned problems are get over there is often a difficulty for educators who have had some training to have the ability to use ICT because there are insufficient ICT resources in the institution or there is not enough time to review then and plan lessons adding their use.
In spite of the problems listed above and many others, some positive things have been learnt from previous encounters of different initiatives and training programs. Where academic institutions experienced the backing of the head teacher and there's a long term coverage for the institution to incorporate ICT into the teaching then they have been successful in gradually producing the use of ICT in different areas.
Projects in which individual teachers have been given lightweight computers to develop their own personal ICT skills show that teachers then begin to utilize them in their teaching as well.
Teachers who have eliminated on longer lessons, spread over a year have had time to practice among sessions back in schools and have had the time to assimilate enough expertise and knowledge to have the ability to continue to utilize them of their curriculum.
Lessons from days gone by have shown us that we now have effective as well as ineffective approaches for providing professional development for teachers which will lead to their successful integration of ICT in their coaching. Another section discusses a few of the precise skills which educators need to have to make the best use of ICT in the class room.
E education is picking up at convincing rate in the Kenyan education system. The government now needs to part of and lay out regulations about how various solutions and softwares should be utilized for effective course delivery. Training of educators on effective use of e education should be achieved while they are still in teaching practice. With well-trained e educators and e learners, Kenya will be able to achieve an e education system.
Fullan (1991) The brand new meaning of Educational Change. Cassell. London
Rosenberg, M. J. (2001). E-learning: Approaches for delivering knowledge in the digital get older. NY: McGraw Hill.
Fancy, H. (2000). Content material of a talk delivered by Howard Nice at the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies at Massey University or college. [On-line]. Available: http://www. minedu. govt. nz/web/document/document_page. cfm?id=5432