Industrial Training Report

Department Of Civil Anatomist Industrial Training Report


Reinforcement is employed to consider tensile force and the as compressive drive. Only reinforcement bars hold tensile stress where compressive stress is taken by both encouragement pubs and concrete with respect to the situation carry weight. Normally steel bar is used as reinforcement because it has enough power and steel pubs are available at required strength with fair cost. In start wooden bar also was used for this function.

Concrete is vulnerable in stress and strong in compression. Support is provided to improve the moment having capacity of structure. Tor steel bars are being used as reinforcement material at our site. T-32, T-25, T-20, T-16 and T-10 pubs which are imported from Singapoor, Malasiya and local product also and amount of 6m and 12m, are being used inside our site.

The support is laid based on the structural drawings. From then on the following checks are done.

  • Spacing
  • Diameter & type of bars
  • No of stirrups
  • No of links
  • Lap length
  • Starter bars if needed
  • Cover blocks & Covering
  • Regular binding of pubs together
  • Placement of pressure & compression bars

If there are any building joints, they should be chipped and cleansed to bond properly.


Engineering drawings is a terminology of communication of details. Therefore there's a standard to indicate reinforcement in sketching such as

6T16-101-8 B or T

This means that

'6'- No of bars

'T' - Indicate tor steel

'16'- Suggest the diameter of the pub in mm

'101'- Indicate the bar mark

'8'- Indicate the length between two bars in inches

'T'- Indicate the positioning of the pub (top pub)

'B' - Signify the position of the bar (bottom club)


Bar twisting is transported by equipment method and manual. For slight works it was done by hand with the aid of chopping lever. Skilled club benders are involved in this process. The bar bender do his job regarding to bar program which is given to him. It includes

  • Size & type of bar
  • Number of bar
  • Dimensions
  • Bending length
  • Crank size position
  • Shape of bar
  • Bar mark
  • Name & type of structural member
  • Place & Grids between those grids it is used

For transferring the strain at the end of bars have to be welded or lapped by the end. The lap should not be significantly less than the anchorage length. The minimum length of lap in anxiety and compression is 45 times of diameter of the pub. The types and numbers of pubs are planed previously and lower. Sufficient amounts of stirrups are also created by club benders. Before positioning the steel pubs, they are cleaned out well.

Lap size - 45 times of club diameter

Anchorage duration - 40 times of pub diameter

Stirrup anchorage period - 10 times of pub diameter

Diameter of Ї

45 Ї

Figure 7. 1: Lapping of Bars


All reinforcement should be put in correct positions as shown in pulling. It will not be allowed to move when concreting. Cover blocks are used to place reinforcement pubs with cover. Cover blocks are made of just one 1:3 cement & fine sand mortars. Cover blocks are not removed after concreting and it is important component. Its' strength shouldn't be significantly less than to strength of cement. Sizes of cover blocks change based on the structural users. The cover block thickness of, slab is 25mm, beam, column, lift up wall& retaining wall membrane are 30mm and shoring area & water retaining structures are 40mm.

When beams are bound it is placed out of the pit of beam for the simple of work. First top pubs of beam and stirrups are destined. Then other bars are put and destined. While reinforcement of beam is brought down after concluding the task, very beautifully it is get down without impacting on the formwork.

Usually for many structural associates lap is not allowed at a same level for all those bars. And solution bars having laps at a same level. But columns have laps at a same level because of challenges of binding of long pubs and encouragement is congested at the junction of beam and column. Lap is averted at critical position of pressure and compression.


Schedule of bars gives the volume of pubs required in each type for a support network. With bar schedule following advantages may be accomplished.

  1. Time keeping in the reinforcement work
  2. Amount of steel required can be exactly computed. So purchase excessively or high move cost can be prevented.
  3. Wasting of cut off bits can be reduced give more efficiency as reinforcements are expensive.
  4. Laps occurring in tension portion can be prevented.
  5. Bar benders may easily understand.
  6. Easy to take care of at site.

While we make a pub schedule we should know about the strain and compression how to functioning on the member. And lap should not be allowed to maintain the tension portion and critical compression section also. Whenever we are doing schedule for slab if part of slab is completed for the total amount work we take site dimension for required length of reinforcement. The normal lap position for beam is shown below:











Physique: 7. 3 TYPICAL END Pub OF BEAM


Slab is a kind of dish, which can hold loads. Fundamentally slabs are divided in to two types as one-way spanning slab and two-way spanning slab. Depending on the kind of slab the amount of reinforcement, which put to resist the moments, is different. Most probably slabs are strengthened only for stress and compression is reinforced by cement. Usually for midsection of slab encouragement is put at bottom level and advantage (near the beam or aids) of slab support is placed at top. But cellar floor slab reinforcement is placed in opposition way. Therefore midsection of slab encouragement reaches top and border (throughout the beam) of slab support is at bottom level. Between your top pub and bottom pub of the slab should be preserved while concreting it may be disturbed due to weight which is the load of workers, device and concrete movement pipe. Overall reinforcement cover is checked out by leveling device. To keep the space between those two bars space bar is used. Shape of space club is shown in the Figure: 7. 4. Reinforcement for slab is shiwn in Figure: 7. 9 & Physique: 7. 10.



Physique: 7. 4


Beam is the load-transferring member building, which copy load from slab to column. Within the beams stress is backed by reinforcement and compression is supported by concrete and support. In most situations, middle of beam undergoes sagging second and beam nearby support undergoes hogging instant. For supporting the bigger tension, additional pressure bars are put at lower part of midsection and top of advantage therefore near by support. But cellar floor reinforcement is in the opposition way. For basement floor beams additional stress bars are put at top of midsection and bottom level of nearby pile caps. While bars are destined to the beam space between two pubs shouldn't be less than 1. 5 times bar diameter. This minimum amount space is required for, to create an enough bonding between reinforcement concrete and minimize the destruction while impact fill is applied on the beam encouragement take dynamic activity.


Column is the main member to transfer the strain to basis. Column is principally designed for transporting the compression. Nonetheless it was created to support the moment also while deciding the eccentricity and side force therefore wind flow load. In column compression is carried by concrete and encouragement. Column reinforcement is principally created for support the compression and little bit of stress that is induced by instant. For large size pubs (T 32, T25, etc. ) lap is held at same level. Because of the handling problem if the lap is in the junction of column and beam concreting is very difficult time huney homb may occur. Column typical lap is shown in the shape 7. 4. Probably almost all of columns reinforcements are symmetrical about two axes. First when pubs are destined verticality of club is looked after.






Stair case

Stair case is same as slab reinforcement. Therefore pressure reinforce is provided at bottom level with the edges anxiety encouragement is provided at top. Here in addition to slab some pressure support is provided junctions. Typical support is shown in Figure: 7. 6.
















Stirrup is main aspect in promoting the shear power. If we consider column, stirrups are being used for to opening the vertical pub together. Due to fill column mar bulk in this example cracks may appear in vertical path. Without happening volume stirrups bound the column. Inside the beam, there is more probability to occur the shear failer because it transfer insert horizontally. Beam is not really a continuous element this is the compound of cement, sand, aggregate and encouragement. These elements are bound by bond, which might fail in transferring the shear stress. Of cause we use stirrups to handle the shear stress for beams and columns. In our site stirrups are made by bar twisting machine. Stirrup form is shown in the shape 7. 6

10 Ї


Physique: 7. 6 Stirrup shape









Pile cap encouragement is shown in Figure: 7. 11

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