Introduction To Fashion Design Goals Cultural Studies Essay

Meaning of fashion

Fashion is what's accepted and used by the world at any given point of energy. In other words it is a lifestyle statement of an individual or several people. On this sense it covers a variety of human activities. Style, way, manner, function, method and approach are the common terms associated with fashion. Fashion can be an ongoing process and ever changing phenomenon that leads the planet and will there be atlanta divorce attorneys nook and spot of the world. As fashion is a strong process, there are a variety of external factors that contribute to it. There are various factors whose interplay impacts the fashion scenario; it can be factors like social factors, politics factors etc. The style circumstance is a reflection of the prevailing conditions or likes of people in the world. Exactly what one uses, buys, wears, acquires must be impressive and thoughtful.

Fashion varies from population to culture and from region to region. It really is a term which is mainly from the art of clothing and accessories. In its real sense it is a continuing process of changes in styles in any field, whether it be clothes, shoes, handbags, profession, furniture, fixtures etc.

The term 'fashion' found in this book is within a slim sense: fashion here means the style or styles of clothing and accessories worn at a particular time by a specific group.

Fashion life cycle

Fashion is an ongoing cycle where new trends take place, are accepted and get finally outdated and rejected. This brings about a change and provides way to newer trends. This process of acceptance to rejection forms a curve. However, the life of all styles is not the same. For some movements the routine may be completed in 6 months whereas for others it could even be considered a couple of years. This curve presents the structure of life of the trend that occurs in five stages (Amount 1).

Phase 1: Introduction

This is a level in which a particular style is merely introduced rather than many people abide by it. It is created by stylists or designers, who are involved in developing new designs. Changing or manipulating the design details, colour or routine etc. can bring about these changes.

At this level the price tag on the garment is generally high because the garment is not stated in bulk and thus the expense of production rises. These garments are generally showcased popular shows, fashion exhibitions and get considerable media coverage. The most popular method of showcasing, nowadays, is by sponsoring the soaps that are telecast on tv set and through the film industry. They are ways of marketing so the orders located from these activities can go set for bulk production. This might bring down its cost.

Phase 2: Rise

Once a specific style is created, its reputation then depends upon the response of the people to that style. In case the indications drawn are positive, then your other manufacturers start adapting and duplicating the same style. At times the designers too have an alternate brand, clothes line that is at a lesser price. This is done to be able to increase the exchange and to take the orders in mass.

To boost the attractiveness of particular style you can modify or change it a bit to match the category of individuals he/she is catering to.

Phase 3: Reputation Peak

This is a level where in fact the demand for a style is the maximum or reaches its optimum. The creation happens whatsoever levels but it is produced ct different levels at different prices. The manufacturers keep a close watch on the reactions/response of the customers to a specific style so much so that a good slight indicator towards popularity jumps these to take development in volumes. This thereby reduces the manufacturing cost per garment and leads to mass approval. Such situations, often, business lead to 'fakes' or 'Knockoffs'. Knockoffs are cheap adaptations of design, which get a good response. They may be priced low because of more economical versions of materials, trimmings and concluding techniques that are used. That is done by picking up an example from a particular garment and making a design for the same, but one must be cautious in getting into mass production as don't assume all style is intended for public. The practice of Fakes and Knockoffs works to a downside for the original creator or stylist. However one can avoid this situation by getting a copyright for a particular design, but remember the energetic fashion era, taking a copyright for a particular design is not useful. Firstly, fashion vis-a-vis modern-day fashion tendencies change very fast and secondly, the task of going for a copyright is sophisticated and wearisome. Therefore, by enough time one actually provides the copyright, the design could easily get outdated. Hence the alternative is developed for the problem whereby the developer themselves get involved in an alternate line of clothes where the cost of production is a lot lower than the initial. Many a times the manufacturers get involved in the malpractice of imitating the initial designer by using a similar firm name or label and making fakes. This illegal practice is completed on international level. Goods are confiscated as and when the raids are conducted but this however is not in a position to stop the malpractice.

Phase 4: Decline

After attaining the saturation point of attractiveness, the design slowly starts being rejected thereby delivering a downfall in its demand. This happens when people get sick and tired of a specific style and start searching for a change that is progressive and fresh. In this stage the buyer is constantly on the wear the garment but does not eagerly switches into buying it. Thus comes the sensation of 'sales', to eliminate the left-over stock of designs that is discarded, before it gets too late plus they become out-of-date.

Phase 5: Obsolescence

This is level where a consumer completely discards a particular design because the consumers are tired of finding and wearing the same style which gives way to newer designs, styles to emerge.

These stages of fashion pattern may vary in time duration. A specific style may be accepted fast and may get rejected even more quickly, whereas the other might/may survive for an extended duration. Predicated on the length of time, fashion is divided into 'classics and fads'.

There are occasions when a particular design may continue to survive however in the meantime it may go through various changes in its design elements. For instance, the silhouette might change or the fabric used might be considered a different one. This clarifies the presence of a cycle within a circuit; for example, bell bottom level or straight lower in jeans pattern, where just the silhouette has modified. This marks the existence of a circuit within a circuit.

There are exceptions to a fashion routine, which causes a big change of trend in the move of the style routine. Such situation develops when we have an interrupted fashion routine, due to numerous reasons like maker might stop the development due to decrease in acceptance of a particular style, and may be the manufacturer wants to begin the production for a few other pattern of garment. A number of the other known reasons for such interruptions are: cultural factors, political, monetary and other factors. One good exemplory case of such a predicament is the radical change caused in the dressing of people before World War II and from then on. People shifted from intricate flared clothes to straight and more built in attires / dresses.

There are certain cycles that are continuing cycles. Quite simply, the style will there be for quite a while, follows the standard fashion cycle and then becomes outdated but only to be revived again. In this case when it reappears, the silhouette proportions might stay same whereas the look details and cloth might change to focus on the prevalent requirements or for enhancing the look of the garment. To understand this pattern, in Indian framework, one can ' take the exemplory case of short tight Kurtis of 1960's, which were revived again.

Fashion terminology

What is the difference between fashion, style, and design? Precisely what do high fashion, mass fashion, flavor, classic, and fad mean? In order to avoid confusion when talking about fashion, we must first understand the meanings of the terms.


The first step in understanding fashion is to distinguish between "fashion" and "style, " words that a lot of people use interchangeably although there can be an enormous difference in their meanings. In general terms, a style is a quality or distinctive creative expression or display. Styles exist in structures, sculpture, painting, politics, and music, as well as in popular heroes, video games, hobbies, household pets, flirtations, and wedding ceremonies.

In attire, style is the characteristic or distinctive appearance of your garment-the combo of features that makes it unique and different from other clothes. For instance, T-shirts are as not the same as camp shirts as they are from peasant blouses. Riding coats are as not the same as safari jackets as they are from blazer jackets.

Although styles come and go in terms of acceptance, a specific style always remains a style, whether it is currently popular or not. Some individuals adopt a style that becomes indelibly associated with them and use it whether or not it happens to be fashionable.


A pattern is an over-all direction or movements. For example, you will most likely read popular journals 'there is; a tendency toward longer dresses"; this means that several designers, including some leading ones, are displaying longer skirts, leading retailers are buying them, and fashion-forward customers are putting on them. Marketers always wish to know whether a fresh development is likely to be a development or a fad because they would like to profit from styles but avoid getting burned up by fads. A trend can originate everywhere, and has a solid foundation that facilitates its growth; a trend does not.


Fashion is a method that is accepted and utilized by the majority of an organization at any one time, no subject how small that group. A fashion is often predicated on some particular style. But not every style is a fashion. A fashion is an undeniable fact of social mindset. A style is usually a creation from an musician or a custom made. A fashion is an outcome or cultural emulation and popularity. A style may be old or new, beautiful or unattractive, good or bad. A method is still a method even if it never obtains the slightest popularity or even authorization. A style would not become a fashion until it benefits some popular acceptance. And it remains a fashion only so long as it is accepted. Miniskirts, moustaches, and theatrical daytime make-up have all been styles. And no uncertainty each will again be accepted by a majority of a group of people with similar interests or characteristics - for example, college or university students, young career women and men, retired men and women.


Some styles or designs continue being considered in good flavour over a long time frame. They are simply exceptions to the most common motion of styles through the fashion life cycle. A classic is a style or design that satisfies a simple need and remains generally speaking fashion acceptance for a long period of the time.

A classic is characterized by simpleness of design which will keep it from being easily dated. Sari and Lehenga are outstanding examples of a classic. Other examples include denim jeans, blazer spencer, turtle neck sweatshirts, etc.


A fashion that abruptly sweeps into popularity, affecting a limited area of the total human population, and then quickly disappears is named a gimmick.

The fad starts off when you are quickly accepted and then quickly imitated by others. Fads often start in lower-price ranges, are not too difficult to copy, and therefore flood the marketplace in a very short time. Because of this kind of market saturation, the general public auto tires of fads quickly and they end abruptly.

Fads follow the same pattern as styles do, but their rise in popularity is a lot faster, their popularity much shorter, and their drop much more swift than that of a true fashion. Because most fads come and go in a single season, they have been called 'smaller fashions. '

Fashion consumers

Fashion leaders

Fashion leaders will be the folks who are innovative and bold enough to start out a new fashion or try something away from what is widespread on the market. They have the courage to adopt new fashion definitely not to catch the attention of attention but to look different.

People of public, political, and financial importance here and abroad are seen as market leaders in the downward activity theory. The horizontal circulation theory recognizes individuals whose personal prestige makes them leaders within their own circles, whether or not they are known somewhere else. Finally, the key fashion role enjoyed by young, lower-income categories within the last 1 / 2 of the 20th century is recognized in the upwards move theory.

The theories of fashion adoption stress that the fashion leader is not the creator of the fashion; nor does indeed merely wearing the style make a person a fashion leader. As Quentin Bell ex loverplained, the leader of fashion will not come into existence until the fashion is itself created. A ruler or person of great eminence may indeed lead the fashion, but he leads only in the overall path which it has already adopted. In case a fashion parade is forming, fashion market leaders may mind it and even quicken its speed. They cannot, however, bring in regards to a procession; nor can they invert a procession.

Famous people are not necessarily fashion leaders, even if indeed they do influence a person style. Their affect usually is limited to only one eye-catching, style, one physical feature, or one time. The true fashion head is somebody who is seeking constantly for new fashion, therefore more likely to kick off a succession of fashions rather than simply one.

What makes a person a fashion innovator? A person looking forward to the new is merely an innovator or early on buyer. To be a leader, one must be important and sought after for advice within one's coterie. A fashion influential sets the correct dress for a particular occasion in a particular group. Within that group an innovator reveals current offerings and is the earliest visual communicator of a new style.

Such people can be put into two categories depending upon the role they play.


People who are the creator of new fashion styles come under this category. They may be renowned designers or a simple person who loves to experiment with his or her clothes. Such people have confidence in wearing clothes that are unique, in conditions of colors, trimmings, accessories, designs, the style of draping a garment etc. They might consciously or unconsciously give an impetus to a particular style that may get popular.

Influential or motivators

This group of consumers contains those people who are socially eminent and are an idol for other people, in doing so motivating them to look at a particular style of clothing. They could be movie stars, people who are the who's who of culture, politicians, interpersonal activists, etc. Their sense of dressing inspires people to follow them. Such people's style is cashed after by the manufacturers who start manufacturing in bulk. It could be anything ranging from jewellery, hair styles, accessories etc. You can rightly give the exemplory case of Princess Diana whose design of dressing was an example for quite a few.

As monarchies were replaced with democracies, people of the rich and international units came into the fashion limelight. Whether these abundant and wealthy customers of 'society' derive their position from great fortunes and old family names or from recent prosperity, they bring glamour that attracts attention to everything they are doing. Today, through the constant vision of television, mags, and newspapers, the average person is able to find fashion command in a complete new stratum of world the jet set in place.

What these glamorous people are doing and what they are putting on are instantly dished up up to everyone by the media. As far as fashion is concerned, these folks are not merely in the news; they are the media. Any move they make is important enough to be immediately publicized. What they wear is of vital interest to everyone. The media reveal what the cultural leaders wear to dine in a stylish restaurant, to attend a charity ball, or even to go shopping. Because they're trendsetters, their alternatives are of excellent interest to designers and also to the world most importantly. Certainly, this inundation of reports about what sociable leaders wear affects the public. The average person is damaged because so many manufacturers and suppliers of fashion take their cue from these communal market leaders. Right or wrong, fashion sellers count on the fashion sense of the market leaders. They know that the overwhelming subjection of these market leaders in the advertising encourages folks of ordinary methods to turn them - consciously or unconsciously.

Fashion today took its impetus and affect from people in every possible walk of life. These people have one thing in common, however: they are really famous. Due to some special skill, charisma, notoriety, or acceptance, they are really constantly stated and shown on television, in fashion journals, and in newspaper publishers. They could or may well not appear in the society internet pages.

In this group can be found presidents and princesses, celebrities and religious market leaders, sports statistics and recording superstars, politicians and Television set personalities. Because they're seen so frequently, the public has a good sense of their styles and lifestyles and can imitate them to the magnitude of the public's means and needs. Prominent people have been responsible for certain styles that continue being associated with them.

Fashion followers

There are many individuals who are followers, and good ones. Individuals, who do nothing like to test out new styles, come under the category of fashion followers. They are people who first allow style be tried out by people and accepted by society, prior to going into adapting it. There might be people who like hoping but as a consequence to lack of resources they cannot do so. It can be monetary conditions or in terms of their time. There are even people who do not give a lot of importance to their design of dressing. As for them, clothing is just a basic necessity and therefore wasting time on it is not worth it for them. Among the known reasons for a person to become a fashion follower is the fear of being singled out as a new sheep in the herd. They like to be one among the categories.

In fact, fashion supporters' category of individuals is the most important category as this is the group on which bulk of the work of the fashion industry works. It really is for such individuals who manufacturers enter mass production. A lot of the manufacturers cater to this category of men and women and production whatever style goes along with them. Followers are in the majority within any group. Without followers the fashion industry would certainly collapse. Mass development and mass circulation can be possible and profitable only once large numbers of consumers accepts the merchandise.

The styles fashion leaders adopt may help manufacturers and suppliers in determining what will be demanded by nearly all consumers soon. Only appropriate predictions can ensure the continuing success of the gigantic 'ready to-wear' business in this country, which will depend on for its success on mass production and distribution. While fashion market leaders may promote and excite the fashion industry, fashion followers will be the industry's lifeblood.

One important section of fashion fans is individuals who form the 'Fashion Sufferer' category. Some followers of fashion become slaves than it and start following the fashion phenomena without considering if the particular garment suits them or not, as not every attire or style suit everyone. One has to keep a lot of things under consideration before adorning a garment. For instance, physical characteristics of an individual, occasion, local climate etc. , are few of the critical indicators that have an effect on the design of clothing. Thus people who blindly follow the fashion trend without since it suits them or not, come under the group of fashion victims.

Fashion movement

Fashion is, in many ways, such as a river. A river is obviously in motion, consistently flowing- it is sometimes slow and gentle, at other times rushing and turbulent. It really is exciting, rather than the same. It influences those who drive its currents and the ones who rest on its shores. Its moves depend on the environment.

All of the will additionally apply to fashion, too. The constant movements of fashion depend on an environment made up of social, political, and monetary factors. These motions, no matter how apparent or how small, have both meaning and definite route. There's a special excitement to interpreting these movements and estimating their swiftness and direction. Everyone involved with fashion, from the creator to the consumer, is swept up in the motion of fashion.

The excitement starts with the textile producers. Fully 12 to 18 months before they feature their lines to manufacturers, the textile people must choose their designs, textures, and colors. From three to nine a few months before demonstrating a line to purchasers, the garments manufacturers start deciding which styles they'll produce and where textiles. Then, two to six months before the fashions can look on the offering floor, the retail potential buyers make their choices from the manufacturers' lines. Finally, the excitement passes on to the consumers, as they choose the garments that'll be adaptable, appropriate, and suitably charged for their individual needs and wishes.

Successful designers, manufacturers, potential buyers, and consumers have a good knowledge of basic cycles, principles, and habits that operate in the world of fashion. Their predictions are based on this understanding.

Fashion adoption theory

According to this theory, there's a category of people who are socially eminent or elite. They could be politician, celebrities, activities player, etc. This category becomes the trendsetters for the others who start pursuing them. Slowly and gradually manufacturers from each category start moulding the cloth and finishing of the garment to match the wallets of the strata of individuals they are wedding caterers to. This is done till the time the consumer does not lose interest for the reason that particular style.

The Trickle-down theory state governments that the motion of fashion starts off at the very top with consumers of higher socioeconomic position and moves right down to everyone. This is the oldest and most accepted theory of fashion movements. According to this theory, people who have lower incomes will only wear fashions which have recognition among consumers with higher earnings near the top of the ladder. As more folks begin to wear the fashions, those at the top become less interested and commence looking for something new.

Veblen (1899) was one fashion observer at the flip of the 20th century. He put forth Trickle-down theory. Searching at his or her own time, the observer notices that fashion is still limited to those near the top of the category structure-the rich and socially prominent. Fashion goes downward from the elite course to the lower classes in stately and slow-moving development, but never reached all the levels. The low classes didn't possess the income, gain access to, or the freedom to follow fashion's dictates. He defined the upper strata of the interpersonal system as the leisure category. Customers of the leisure course displayed wealth in two distinctive ways, through conspicuous leisure and conspicuous utilization. They take up an luxurious lifestyle of travel, entertainment, the quest for pleasure, Art work collection, and acquisition of luxurious homes and fixtures demonstrate conspicuous usage demonstrating conspicuous leisure. Highly obvious upper class constructed of these occupying ability positions running a business, politics, and media.

Simmel (1904), a sociologist, determined the engine of fashion change in the opposing human tendencies toward conformity and individuality. Conformity means strivings for social adaptation. The imitator school believes in public similarity, in acting like others. Individuality suggests the need for differentiation. The elite course differentiated itself through fashion, and the adjacent lower classes reproduced the appearance. The individual seeking differentiation constantly tests with the new, relying in large part on personal convictions. These dual drives can also be enjoyed out in interpersonal communities where fashion together functions as a way of class differentiation and as a button / image of group uniformity.

Mass dissemination theory

Due to globalization and better international network, there is certainly mass dissemination of fashion. For example: A show that is conducted in Paris might get treasured in India and manufacturers start the variants of the same style such that it suits the category they may be catering to. Along with the media participating in an important role in everybody's life, the trickle across theory is gaining a lot more relevance in today's scenario.

This theory hypothesizes that designs are produced by any means price levels at the same time. The merchandise quality and lines may vary, but new fashion is out there for all groupings. Within confirmed fashion season consumers in every socioeconomic groups simultaneously have the freedom to pick from a range of styles and this range is enough to meet personal flavour. Imitation and differentiation were still part of the vibrant because others would imitate innovators and influential within their communal strata and the ones fashion market leaders would move to new looks. Rather than elite adding fashion ideas into society, King saw command within each cultural stratum and within each cultural group. Fashion popularity begins among several socioeconomic groupings and the leaders within each group influence its customers. This theory is particularly probably in the 21st century because technology allows designer fashions to be copies quickly and easily, making them available to all consumers quicker.

Bottom up theory

This theory expresses that the motion of fashion starts with consumers on lower-income levels, then goes to consumers with higher incomes. For example, the denim textile was initially used for work clothing for labors and was later used by hippies and other lower socioeconomic teams. From there, the designers used denim as a cloth and designed clothing for the bigger socioeconomic consumers. Thus it isn't necessary that new style claims emerge only from the economically socially eminent people.

Fashion dresses

Fashions appeal to many different groups and can be categorized according to the group to that they appeal.

High fashion

High fashion identifies a fresh style accepted by a restricted amount of fashion leaders who wish to be the first ever to take up changes and development popular. High-fashion styles are generally introduced and sold in small quantities with relatively high prices. These styles may be limited because they're too advanced or extreme to charm to the needs of everyone, or they can be charged well beyond the reach of most people. However, if the style can charm to a broader audience, it is normally copied, mass-produced, and sold at lower prices. The fashion market leaders or innovators who first accepted it then move on to something new.

Haute Couture

Haute Couture is a French expression for very wealthy quality / fine costume or dress design. It's designed to evaluate tailoring, in simple words it is made to the dimension of a specific customer. It even means the artwork of dress-making. These clothes are costly and are worn by stars. They have a restricted volume of clients. From couture originated the term 'couturier' which means a male developer having his own couture house and 'couturiere' means a female having her own couture house. Haute Couture again a French phrase means high fashion clothes that contain finest of textile and craftsmanship.

Ready to wear

Ready to wear fashion is also called Mass or Size fashion. They are garments, that are produced in good sized quantities thereby reducing the price of production and thus making the clothes less expensive. These are standard sized which makes them more suitable for larger productions. Ready to wear collections may also be divided into Designers series and streets fashion.

Designer collection

These have a superior quality, a superb carry out and a unique slice and design. These selections will be the most trendsetting compared to Haut Couture and Designer prepared to wear choices contain often Concept goods that represent a certain beliefs or theory. Generally introduced and sold in small quantities and at relatively high prices. These things are not so much created for mass sales but just to make a affirmation. The designers prepared to wear collection is also shown on the international catwalks.

Street fashion

To comparison with high fashion, mass fashion contains styles that are widely accepted. These styles are widely produced and bought from large amounts at moderate to low prices and charm to the best most fashion mindful consumers. Mass fashion accounts tor nearly all sale in the style business. Mass fashion is the "loaf of bread and butter" of the style banquet!

Meaning of design

The word 'Design' is utilized both as a noun and a verb. Being a verb, 'to design' identifies the procedure of originating and expanding plan for a product, structure, system, or aspect within intention. As the noun, 'a design' is employed for either the final plan (e. g. proposal, attracting, model, description) or the result of utilizing that plan in the form of the ultimate product of the design process.

Design is a Visual Language. A vocabulary is the medium of communication. Communication is nothing but the copy of information from sender to receiver with the info being understood by the recipient accompanied by a feed back to the sender. Visible language is home explanatory, where the information is transferred to the people by making use of indicators, sketches, images, photos and videos.

Design is the process of selecting and managing different elements in order to fulfil a particular target in terms of design. Elements are the basic components or blocks of a design. A process is some actions taken towards achieving a particular goal. Selection process is targeted at carefully choosing things as being the the most suitable. Organizing activity aims at arranging all the items or elements within an orderly way. Design is often seen as a more rigorous form of design, or design with a evidently defined goal.

In Physique 1. 2 (a) different components like a big group, two small circles, a vertical line and an arc are determined. However they do not express any particular message, because many of these components maintain their split identity. In Amount 1. 2 (b) each one of these components are sorted out so that all of these dissolve their own personal information in order to constitute a individuals face. The top circle symbolizes the outline of the face, small circles assume eye, the vertical range constitutes a nose area and the arc presents mouth.

In order to learn any dialect, one should be acquainted well with alphabets and grammar of that words. Components of design are alphabets of design language whereas rules of design are grammatical syntax of it.

Aspects of design

Every garment makes a statement. It communicates along with you. It has its own identity. It may give illusion for you such as

Shy or Outgoing

Dashing or cautious

Cool or Dull

Sophisticated or primitive

When you go directly to the market to purchase a garment, a particular garment calls you, it appeals to you or it communicates to you; and finally, you get garment that suits well to your personality and profession. Not every dress works with with everybody. One dress may be the most suitable to a person, however the same dress may be the most unsuitable to others. Understanding of body patterns and illusion created by elements and guidelines of design will definitely help one to choose correct kind of garment. More will be discussed on this matter in the section 'Smart Dressing'.

There are three areas of design: Structural, Functional and Decorative.

Structural design

It determines what sort of garment is set up. Structural design is originated while constructing a garment itself. It is inherent in every garments. It preserves structure of the garment. Structural components are responsible for original beauty of an application. They are important showing natural property of your subject. Structural design may be either very simple or very complex. Any depth that is an integral area of the dress is structural design. Common designs include darts, pleats, tucks, etc.


A pleat is a kind of fold created by doubling fabric back after itself and acquiring it set up.

Knife Pleats

Knife pleats are used for basic gathering purposes, and form a clean line somewhat than springing away from the seam they have been gathered to. The pleats have 3:1 ratio-three inches of fabric will generate one inch of finished pleat. Blade pleats can be recognized by just how that they overlap in the seam (Body 1. 3).

Box Pleats

Box pleats are blade pleats back-to-back, and also have a inclination to spring right out of the waistline. They have the same 3:1 proportion as knife pleats, and could also be stacked to form stacked pack pleats. These stacked pack pleats have a 5:1 proportion. They also generate a bulkier seam (Amount 1. 4).

Inverted Package Pleats

Inverted field pleats have "box" inside as opposed to the outside (Figure 1. 5).


It is a strip of cloth, lace or ribbon tightly compiled or pleated on one edge and put on a garment (Amount 1. 6).


These are small pleats in textile, of even width, used for ornamental effects on clothes. They are being used for having fullness as well as for shortening and shaping clothes. Common types include pin tuck, mix tuck, shell tuck, fullness tuck, cord tuck, graduated tuck, etc. (Number 1. 7).

Functional design

What a function a part of a garment or a complete garment must perform? A pocket to be designed must contain the things. A belt must buckle. Button has to fasten. Functional item can even be decorative in mother nature. Common useful designs include belt, hooks, loops, buttons, pouches, zippers, etc. (Figure 1. 8).

Decorative design

Decorative design is no thing itself. It decorates an application, object or framework. It generally does not originate, but it boosts the beauty of the thing. It really is applied once a form is complete. Design should be added only once required and also to the extent that improves original structure, and will not damage original beauty. The wonder of the garment will be improved upon when attractive trims follow the structural lines of the garment. While making use of decorative design necessary care should get to the scale and surface of the garment. Bulky beautification will not be suitable for a very delicate, skinny and transparent textile. Ornamental designs can be employed to the clothing by various methods like stamping, connect & dye, embroidery, trim work, fancy switches without buttonholes, piping, laces, trims such as mirrors, beads, sequins, appliqu, etc.


Embroidery is the skill of decorating fabric or garment by stitching designs using thread or yarn and a needle. Often, other materials such as steel strips, treasured and semi-precious stones, and sequins are used to add to this attractive stitching approach (Physique 1. 9).


Cutwork or slash work is a needlework approach in which helpings of an textile are minimize away and the ensuing "hole" is strengthened and filled up with embroidery or needle lace. Cutwork is a related to attracted thread work. In attracted thread work, typically only the warp or weft threads are withdrawn (cut and removed), and the remaining threads in the resulting hole are bound in various ways. In other styles of cutwork, both warp and weft threads may be attracted (Number 1. 10).

Fabric painting

Painting is the procedure of applying coloring to the cloth or garment by using paint clean (Amount 1. 11).


Textile printing is the procedure of applying shade to textile in definite patterns or designs by making use of printing machine, engraved wooden blocks, stencils, displays, etc. (Physique 1. 12).

In resist design of printing, a polish is printed onto fabric which is eventually dyed. The waxed areas avoid the dye, giving uncoloured design against a colored surface. Tie-dye is also a resist style of dyeing. It really is an activity of resist design of dyeing fabric. It really is a modern version of traditional dyeing methods used in many cultures throughout the world. Fabric is linked by various methods like subject insertion method, concentric method, thread moving method, pleat method, twisting method, etc. to create different designs.

In discharge style of printing, a bleaching agent is imprinted onto recently dyed fabrics to remove some or the whole colour and also to produce a design.

Appliqu work

An appliqu is a smaller ornament or device put on another surface. Within the framework of sewing, appliqu relates a needlework strategy in which pieces of textile, embroidery, or other materials are sewn onto another piece of fabric to create designs. Applique is used extensively in quilting (Shape 1. 13).

Trimming work

It is the skill of decorating fabrics or clothes with stones, beads, sequins, etc. A bead is a small, decorative subject that is pierced for threading or stringing. Beads range in proportions from under a millimetre to over a centimetre or sometimes several centimetres in diameter. A glass, plastic, and rock are probably the most frequent materials, but beads are also created from bone, synthetic nutrients, wood, ceramic, fiber, paper, and seed products. Sequins are disk-shaped beads used for attractive purposes. They can be purchased in a multitude of colors and geometrical patterns. Sequins are generally applied to clothing, jewellery, luggage and other accessories. Probably one of the most attractive things in Indian embroidery specifically Gujarati embroidery is including the shisha or the reflection. Mirror work is the art of stitching mirrors on to the fabric in a variety of designs. Mirrors of different shapes (square, diamond, around, etc. ) and sizes are being used for Reflection work. Mirror work can be done on any textile in saris, blouse portions, skirts etc. After correcting the reflection you can stitch beads around to make it more attractive (Amount 1. 14).


The term illusion refers to a particular form of sensory distortion. An illusion is a misrepresentation of the senses. It really is nothing but false understanding of a thing or situation. Illusions change certainty. Some illusions derive from some general basic assumptions the brain makes during belief of a thing or situation. An optical illusion is often characterized by aesthetically recognized images that, at least in common sense conditions, are deceptive or misleading. Therefore, the information gathered by the eye is prepared by the brain to provide, on the facial skin of it, a percept that does not tally with a physical dimension of the stimulus source. The human brain constructs a world inside our mind predicated on what it samples from the encompassing environment. However sometimes it attempts to organize these details it feels best while other times it fills in the gaps. This way in which our brain works is the foundation of any illusion.

In Physique 1. 15 which vertical series is taller? Which horizontal line is wider? They may be exactly same, but the vertical range on the right and horizontal lines on the bottom look like longer. This illusion is triggered by the inverted arrows at the ends of the two lines, on the other hand with the standard arrows at the ends of the other two lines. In Amount 1. 16 which circle in the middle appears larger? They can be exactly same. But the circle bounded by large circles is apparently small and that ornamented by small circles appears to be big.

The understanding of illusions, if they are illusions of lines, of forms, or of colours, is very significant to all or any fashion designers. Many amount irregularities can be rectified taking help of illusion created by various types of lines, forms and colours.

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