Islamophobia is described in the dictionary to be: 'hatred or concern with Muslims or of the politics or culture'. Since the terrorist disorders of Sept 11th and the London 7/7 bombings among others, some say islamophobia within the mass media has more than doubled. This work intends to discuss the coverage of Muslims and the faith of Islam all together within the 'middle market' papers The Daily Email and explore whether publications like the Email are representing the Muslim contest in a negative light.
One's fascination with the subject matter involved is one which has derived from what's seen, amidst others, as bad journalism; middle market and tabloid newspapers inaccurately confirming issues related to races such as Muslims. On a daily basis one can pick up a newspaper nowadays and spot numerous flaws, wrong terminology or overall representation of the religion such as Islam. Also, an individual affliction or view in the area is how Muslim neighborhoods within the united kingdom are slowly being isolated and are being criticised collectively for the activities of a little inhabitants of the faith.
When exploring the partnership between your modern Western world and the East, one should look upon the idea of Orientalism. Said's (1978) work draws on the concept of 'us' and 'them': "Orientalism is never far from what Denys Hay has called the thought of Europe, a collective idea discovering "us" Europeans as against all "those" non-Europeans" (Said, 1978: 7). This idea refers to the historical developing of Eastern beings as alien, the 'Other', by the Western world. It's the negative portrayal of extremist Islamic images within frameworks including the Mail that advances, as Halliday (1996)(remember reference because of this!, see notebook ) implies, this 'myth of confrontation' that pardons 'the West' of any need to reason its enmity for the East and religions such as Islam.
Before this newspaper looks at results of the theory of islamophobia, it will probably be worth evaluating the polarity of the word itself. Whilst some could say the branding of the term can draw focus on the issue for positive means, further thorough literature on the subject and enquiries commissioned (e. g. 1997 Runnymede Trust, Islamophobia: DIFFICULT for Us All), there is a flipside. Academics have inferred that is merely another, more refined form of 'new racism' corresponding to many sociologists. Sociologist Teacher Gerard Delanty represents the utilization of the word islamophobia: "It is rooted in mainstream hostility to migrant staff and asylum-seekers, and is situated to a considerable degree on ethnocentrism and xenophobia on ignorance and concern with 'the other'" (Delanty: Conference, see notebook for full research). Delanty says here that the categorisation of the idiom of islamophobia could be creating a new form of 'appropriate' racism.
The UK media industry is said by some to be institutionally racist:
"This racism is rooted in the country's imperial history, with emotions of racial superiority and crude nationalism now deeply inserted in the dominant culture". (Keeble, 2009: 175)
2 % of the NUJ regular membership was dark-colored, Asian and Arab in the first media-industry extensive survey in 1995 by Anthony Delano and John Henningham. Comparing this alongside the national ethnic minority people percentage of 5. 26 percent at that time, and it can speak volumes. My research will include a plan to handle this view and explore how far or to what magnitude this reflects an islamophobic characteristics within newspapers such as The Daily Mail. However, to discuss how 'profound rooted' this patriotism, or nationwide feeling of superiority over other races goes would be discursive from the expected talk of the title's subject.
The role of the national newspaper including the Mail must be highlighted to show the 'contextualising' link between islamophobia and the general public.
"The fact that a familiar magazine offers a sense of personality and possible security to its regular readers is an important contextualising factor when considering questions of 'competition' and ideology. " (Ferguson, 1998:175)
Considering middle market newspapers such as The Daily Mail and Express combined with the tabloids represent more than two thirds of the nationwide daily readership figures (1997 review: do footnote because of this), this is a first base debate for explaining the negative (probable) aftereffect of the press on the public.
A matter to take in to factor is the recent resignation of Daily Superstar journalist Richard Peppiatt, on the grounds of the papers islamophobic content. Albeit an individual letter to the Daily Star's proprietor Richard Desmond, the letter highlights a variety of anti-Islamic features in the each day characteristics of national newspapers including the Star and Mail and labeling the ex - as 'anti-Muslim propaganda'. The notice does make reference to how closely the content of the Star is to the Mail's through criticism of how the newspapers editors 'build a newspaper from cut-and-paste-jobs off the Daily Mail website'. Where he admits to 'stirring up somewhat of light-hearted Islamophobia' himself on the basis that this was in his professional duties at the Legend, his disapproval of the demonization is common throughout. He identifies a tale the paper posted regarding the condemnation of taxpayer-funded Muslim-only general population toilets:
"I was professionally tasked with writing a gloating follow-up declaring our postmodern triumph in "blocking" the non-existent Islamic cisterns of wicked" (Peppiatt, 2011).
This could just be viewed as one individual's personal episode on the proprietor and therefore not have much well worth but it does relate to, and support the idea of institutional racism within the British media.
For the suggested intentions of this paper, it will probably be worth noting the occurrence of Muslims within Britain. Inside the 2001 UK Census the populace of Muslims from all cultural teams within Britain was just brief of 1 1. 6 million (add reference to desk of information in appendices here). This old debate from many anti-immigration supporters is usually that the Muslims within Britain do not try to immerse themselves within English culture or 'our' way of life, due to increased tensions between the two cultures. Figures show that practically 1 / 2 (46. 4%) of most British isles Muslims now moving into England were blessed in the country. It could be said that those Muslims who came to the country as individuals (first era) are grateful for the chance to live in a more open society and therefore more eager to combine themselves within 'our' culture. The sooner Western societies such as Britain help this technique of integration with famous brands first generation Muslims, the better. As the younger (3rd and 4th) technology of Muslims given birth to in England grows up, we're able to see Muslim communities become progressively ostracised credited to young Muslims anger on the role of 'the West' in Muslim lands and issues such as islamophobia within the media becoming more customary.
It is also worthwhile presenting the PCC editorial rules with regards to discrimination:
The press must avoid prejudicial or pejorative reference to an individual's competition, colour, faith, gender, erotic orientation or to any physical or mental disorder or disability.
The second area of the guideline identifies the details of these minority groups and how one should avoid inclusion (of those details) unless necessary to the story. The way in which newspapers like the Daily Mail steer their content around these rules, in order to include xenophobic 'views' will be explored later in the literature review.
As this paper explores the encompassing designs of discrimination and fake representation within the press and directs them towards impact of a certain publication, it's important to pull from relevant background of the Daily Email. Some would say the papers prejudice against religions such as Islam is something of its deep-set DNA shown via the paperwork sympathetic views of Nazi Germany during the warfare period. The first joint proprietor and owner Lord Rothermere was regarded as a pal and supporter of both Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler and praised the Nazi regime's accomplishments, which aimed the Mail's political stance and was consequently used as propaganda by them. Lord Rothermere posted insurance quotes such as: "the small misdeeds of specific Nazis would be submerged by the immense benefits the new regimes already bestowing on Germany" (Rothermere, 1933), as well as printing headlines such as "Hurrah for the Blackshirts" (Email, Jan 1934). The Mail was also sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists. The support for this group was withdrawn after assault at a BUF rally in Kensington Olympia in 1934, which shows the potential unsafe influence of newspapers on the people.
Muslims within Britain have struggled with issues of integration and racism ever since there was an elevated concentrate of attention from the press on the Iranian Revolution of 1979 (Asad 1990, see recommendations in 'muslim britain' booklet). Television screens around the world exhibited three million people celebrating on the pavements of Tehran when Ayatollah Khomeini, known for his support of hostage takers and his contacting for the loss of life of Uk citizen Salman Rushdie, arrived of exile; a disconcerting image for some Westerners. The Salman Rushdie affair in 1989 proven the degree to that your media and English Muslims who protested up against the book's (The Satanic Verses) publication became 'emotionally unhinged' (Parekh 1992, see same book + ref) over the issue. The reserve deeply offended Muslims and ignited issue on blasphemy laws and independence of conversation. Other historical occurrences have all played out a component in what Huntington's (1996) thesis explains as a 'clash of civilisations', these being: The Gulf Conflict (1990-1), the genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1993-6), the Oklahoma bombing (1995), the Taliban in Afghanistan (1997-2002), Grozny and Kosovo (1999), the recent Palestinian Intifada (since September 2000) and the Warfare on Iraq (2003) (Abbas 2005: 14).
These occasions have and the advertising, some say (Huntington 1996) widened the gulf between East and Western, Islam and Christianity and amplified the idea of Orientalism.
(maybe do a little on September 11 episodes here)
This newspaper intends to explore and discuss the various factors owing to the islamophobic content viewed in the Email and how far it is harming the representation of Muslim communities within Britain. It would be pointless to make clear how islamophobic reporting increased or decreased over the past decade or so as it would be plain to start to see the raises in islamophobic content around the times of terrorist activities. One will analyse adding factors such as the roots of islamophobia, the recognition of islamophobic content, how directly does indeed that content follow editorial rules and the effect on Muslim areas through critical dialogue of the topic and data evaluation.
The reason as to the reasons one believes this subject is important and would be of interest to others is the increasing multi-cultured populace of Britain. As more cultural minorities such as Muslims continue steadily to live in Britain, increasing tensions towards people of a particular competition can only just put more tension by using an already weak romance with Muslim neighborhoods.
The reason for the newspaper is to critically examine and characterize magazines, specifically The Daily Mail and its role in reinforcing or articulating racism, and in destroying ethnic ethnical identities. The ways that these issues should be tackled and analysed will be discussed through my research and its own content analysis.
The goal of this section is to identify themes associated with the name topic from earlier published literature and critically analyse those premises. The purpose here is not only to identify those relating topics, but to analyse, criticise, interpret and examine those themes regarding the supporting or opposing the underpinning arguments of this paper. Within the last decade or so there is has been an increase in the amount of writing, due to rising concerns from Muslims worldwide, explaining how discourses such as papers in Western multimedia are misrepresenting cultural minorities such as Muslims through presenting a negative image of Islam. My research will however concentrate on the Daily Email in particular, portraying negative stereotypes, and the consequences those portrayals have, on Muslim neighborhoods within Britain. In summary, this section will attract from prior literature and verify the complex structures and strategies of reports reports and how they affect the interpretations of viewers. How much does the role of magazines like the Mail play in the reproduction of 'racial' and cultural inequality in British society.
Some of the initial writing relating to British newspapers like the Email portraying Islam as a menace to Western pursuits comes from Teun truck Dijk's: Racism and the Press. The issue of immigration within British newspapers is one that allows anti-Muslim voices to be noticed, subjectively criticising the climb in the multiculturalism of Britain:
"The Email specifically targets alleged abuses of United kingdom 'hospitality', and demands stricter immigration guidelines. It generally does not hesitate to create, with apparent authorization, overtly racist claims by right-wing politicians who declare that without further curbs on immigration Britain may become the world's "dustbin". "
(Vehicle Dijk, 1991: 96)
What Truck Dijk is inferring is that through government procedures related to issues such as immigration, any right-wing anti-immigration views from politicians or people within the general public attention will be posted by the Email with the notable support of the paper. Whilst highlighting the politics position and nationalistic dynamics of the publication, a defence for the paper would revert to free press each time.
The earliest & most relevant research in this matter area in addition has been completed by Teun Truck Dijk. His work in the collection of empirical data encompassing the press and issues of 'contest' is a starting place for anybody analysing institutional islamophobic content's effect on British Muslims. Truck Dijk started this foundational research in ordinary content evaluation of British newspaper publishers, analysing content like the repetition of certain words found in headlines in attempt to rouse certain meanings from them. He describes the recurring use of certain issues of discourse such as 'dark-colored' and 'contest' and how they are handled by the press as 'semantic macro structures'.
"These global, overall meaning structures of your text consist of a hierarchically set up group of macro-propositions, which are derived from the meanings (propositions) of the phrases via macro-rules. These guidelines reduce the complex information of the written text to its essential gist. " (Van Dijk, 1991: 72)
Van Dijk is appropriate in a few ways in expressing that the prevalence of such vocabulary would suggest that the discursive agenda of newspapers is entrenched in concerns with 'competition'. In his publication Representing Contest, Robert Ferguson agrees there are some uses of Vehicle Dijk's research:
"It could seem from this as though the media are enganged within an endless process of reproducing already existing prejudices and stereotypes. The comprehensive content analysis which was undertaken by Van Dijk also shown that cultural minorities and anti-racists are 'systematically associated with issue, offense, intolerance and unreliability. '" (Ferguson, 1998: 130)
The defects in Van Dijk's research are that using empirical data, or purely content analysis, to build up a knowledge of representation can somewhat distort the energy of ideology in magazines words or framing. However, without being blatantly racist, newspaper publishers including the Mail through ideas of 'normality' can still give power to negative representations. (Maybe utilize this paragraph in methods)
The damaging representations of Muslim asylum seekers to Britain, in magazines including the Mail, are highlighted in Arun Kundnani's THE FINISH of Tolerance. Phrases such as 'we have to look after our own people first', a normal idiom in the Mail, gives durability to the inherent belief within Britain that we cannot satisfactorily provide for ourselves, never mind foreigners or 'them' as well.
"Because of the opportunism of advertising and politicians, asylum seekers and migrants had been made in to potent symbols for the loss of a nation-state that once 'belonged' to its people and afforded them certain privileges as individuals. " (Kundnani, 2007: 65)
This discussion is stating that through magazines persistence in covering issues of market and well-being, the Mail amidst others, have a tendency to shift the blame of the national problems to asylum seekers, from neighborhoods such as Muslims, for increasing the populace and increasing pre-existing problems such as increases in unemployment. The sole critique of this concept adding to the misrepresentation and islamophobic character of the Email, is that problem spans over an enormous area and is historically embedded within a nation's thought process. My research seeks to uncover the day to day anti-Islamic top features of the Mail and expose the issues of intentional or institutional racism that may potentially be fixed.
In some ways, earlier literature has discussed that occurrences such as 9/11 and other Islam related terrorist activities give approval to rising islamophobic voices or views within the advertising. Chris Allen's section in Muslim Britain: Areas under great pressure, highlights the enabling of submitting extreme right views on terrorist's religions without backlash. Within the wake of Baroness Thatcher's condemnation of Muslim market leaders in the Times, insisting that all Muslims - as a homogeneous group - should reveal responsibility for the disorders (4 October 2001). The Telegraph days later published articles entitled 'This Conflict Isn't about Terror, It's about Islam' (7 October 2001).
"This article sought not and then reward Baroness Thatcher's stance, but also confirm that 'Western' doubts were justified because 'some three-quarters of the world's migrants in the last decade are said to have been Muslims. . . (these) escapees, victims, scapegoats, malefactors and "sleepers" are awaiting their moment in time. " (Allen, 2005: 61)
Jonathan Birt's section in 'Muslims in Britain' also agrees with this post 9/11 islamophobic effect from the press without simply analysing the wording of a papers:
"After 9/11, the more prejudicial media comment portrayed English Muslim communities, and especially their young men, as a dangerous and unpatriotic fifth column, that have been sympathetic to anti-West level of resistance and, indeed, the use of violent terror. Mass marketing communications today shape and order these Islamophobic moral panics and the reactive defence to them. " (Birt, 2009: 217)
Here, we can see Birt is agreeing that post terrorist activities, the advertising is permitted to provide a free press tone of voice to 'racist' views and thoughts without fear of backlash from advertising regulators. The defect in analysing the islamophobic characteristics of publications including the Mail surrounding terrorist actions is that it's to be expected. There will be a bad press reaction to nationwide identities and spiritual viewpoints, how far the negative portrayal of those identities runs without trepidation of advertising regulators punishment, can be an issue that should be addressed.
The English Journalism Review (March 2006) argues that the same dangerous representation of Muslims within the multimedia is the same for other terrorist teams such as the IRA. You can see similarities between views of Catholics from Ulster in the 1980's and Muslims today, that "religious affiliations" trumped all other affiliations:
"In Britain and the United States the popular collection was that if you were a Catholic, you probably supported the IRA. Today, if you are a Muslim, the popular line is that you will be probably anti-western or fundamentalist. This is not to say that journalism was and is in charge of these views, but rather that de-contextualised coverage have and will little to chuck cold water on old stereotypes. "
The closest books relating to the topic title originates from Elizabeth Poole's Reporting Islam: Multimedia Representations of Uk Muslims. The reserve analyses the existing situation about the image of Muslims by tracking the development of the form of 'new racism' from early works. Poole says that the theme of immigration as a problem has now transferred to Muslims (truck Dijk 1991), due to, as Lueg (1995) says a people 'explosion' in the centre East. English Muslims and their homogeny to other Muslims end up being the feared 'fifth column' within (Runnymede Trust 1997). This combined with discussion of volumes of individuals 'invading' the united states depicts aspirations of taking over the earth, not seeking asylum.
"The mixture of the hostile danger and movement of Islam promotes the idea that it requires to be supervised in a way that allows assorted prejudicial practices to keep" (Poole, 2002: 47).
What Poole is saying is a basic dislike of the idea of Islam cannot be viewed as the central feature of hostility towards Muslims. Attitudes to Muslims are based on 'a mixture of xenophobia and racism' whereby newspaper publishers like the Mail can discuss or mainly criticise a few of the routines of Islam without having to be seen to be unashamedly prejudice towards Muslims.
Another adjoining little bit of literature that lots of academics have attracted from when discussing this issue, is Edward Said's Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we start to see the remaining world (1981). Said argues that the siege of the North american embassy in Iran in 1981 and its marketing coverage initiated an elevated attention and portrayal of Islam with risk, militancy and anti-Western sentiment. The text examines the genesis and effects of the media's monolithic images of Islam and unveils the twisting of proven fact that underlies 'objective' coverage of the Islamic world. Said says the use of a Western ideological construction or an 'ethnocentric way of seeing' (Dahlgren and Chakrapani 1982: 45) has designed we visit a 'domesticated Islamic world or those aspects regarded as newsworthy' (Said 1981: 27). This has created a dichotomy between the Western world and Islam whereby the Western is seen as judicious, civilized, developed and superior, and Islam as unnatural, undeveloped and second-rate.
There are a tiny number of released journals that carefully share the motives of this newspaper. Diane Frost's Islamophobia: analyzing casual links between the multimedia and 'race hate' from 'below' (2007) analyses the advertising confirming on recent and ongoing terrorist attacks in Britain and the result on Muslim areas. The paper discusses islamophobic tendencies within English tabloids and their links with government regulations and assault that concerns religion. Whilst it illustrates the media's promotion of 'moral panics' such as problems of asylum and 'race', it says English tabloids breed on these moral panics, heading beyond the 'risk' that is really presented.
"Thus, the advertising have displayed Muslims as a 'collective problem' who threaten the fabric of British society as supporters of al-Qaida and potential suicide bombers. They will be the 'folk devils' of the twenty first century" (Diane Frost 2008 see how to guide journal).
It is worth noting that there are strong links between increased anti-terror legislation and other federal measures and how publications like the Email criminalise Muslim areas when reporting on such actions and legislation. This type of research will be considered in the methods section of the newspaper.
Ian Hargreaves writes a bit in the brand new Statesman that demonstrates the negative coverage of immigration from the Email in relation to fuelling racist behaviour. He says: "It isn't which i view with cynicism the Daily Mail's initiatives to attain balance in its reporting of racial issues. Somewhat, I believe the paper is misguided in discounting the encouragement its asylum coverage offers to racist sentiments" (Hargreaves 2000). Regressing back to the theory that newspapers like the Daily Email have colonial instincts and an anti-foreigner point of view founded within its DNA, Hargreaves is wanting to say that these publications aren't going to be racist; they simply believe that the types of testimonies related to Islam being released are due to the public-interest factor.
Christopher Allen's journal discusses the dangerousness of the concept of Islamophobia in analytical relationship with the conclusions of the Runnymede Trust Record (1997). The report's findings concluded that Islam is inherently viewed as 'other' to the Western world, reinforcing the 'them' and 'us' dualism. Taking this directly into account, Allen says we should not be amazed 'to see such headlines as The Daily Mail's offering, "Fanatics with a fatality wish: I was created in Britain but I am lady first". Here the Mail is merely reiterating those beliefs that are lodged at the heart of Islamophobia' (Allen 2008: 4).
The intention of the chapter was to identify underpinning theories, styles and issues publicized in previous books for readers to comprehend the intentions of the study and findings that will be developed in the techniques and data research.
This section will discuss the research that this paper will be undertaking, the reasons for using those methods and what email address details are to be likely. The most likely methods will be discussed along with their advantages and limits, with ethical considerations ensured so the data is accumulated in an honest way.
Previous research beliefs methods to the media's role in the duplication of racism are mainly content analytical; quantitative studies selecting the use of stereotypical words, phrases or images used when representing cultural minorities (see, for example, Vehicle Dijk 1991, 1997). This discourse analytical method systematically describes different set ups and strategies of text in relation to a sociable or political platform. The method allows for the recognition of focus on certain issues in a 'semantic' analysis form as well as allowing study of the entire 'organisation' of information reports. Essentially this implies 'discourse may thus be studied as the key interface between the social and cognitive dimensions of racism' (Cottle 2000). So, magazines like the Email as a discourse in the social practice of racism is seen as a primary source for people's racist views/beliefs. Relating to Berger (1998: 23) content analysts 'assume that behavioural habits, values and behaviour found in this material echo and have an effect on the behaviour, behaviour and values of folks who create the materials'. Advantages and reason as to why this newspaper will be implementing a similar design of research is there is not a technology or major funds necessary and it has been recognized to lead to important changes in the tactics of an organization, profession and world as a whole.
Another approach to research that will be hired is that of performing surveys to measure the attitudes and ideas of Daily Email readers on the subject of Islamic and Muslim issues. This will likely be cross referenced with readers of other papers to see when there is differing attitudes toward issues involving Muslims, and of the role of The Daily Email in these perceptions from people who read different papers. This intends to identify the negative result a newspaper is wearing reader's views of a religious beliefs such as Islam and the contest of Muslim. One could condemn this research method data stating the views of visitors are only the views of the audience rather than the publication, what lengths those views are afflicted by the discourse would be research that is nearly impossible, or not possible within the means of this publisher.
(Clarify the inductive method of research with reference here)
For this content research of the Daily Mail's inciting of racial hatred, this content which will be analysed will be the amount of articles within a period period of six months the problem of Islam and Muslims is reported on in a negative manner. Albeit an individual opinion, a set of examples of this negative portrayal type of article is provided in the appendices. These are articles showing Muslims and the faith of Islam as a 'problem' and their problems with conflicting issues within British society.
The research will compare the amount of times within the 6 month period these kinds of articles pertaining to Islam are presented in the Email against how many times articles concerning the neo-Nazi anti-Muslim group The British Defence League (EDL) is shown. This can hope to illustrate a correlation between increased amounts of Islamic coverage at a certain time with articles on/activities of the EDL.
With respect to the questionnaires which will be collected, the opportunity and design have to be established. The opportunity or amount of members that the research intends to gather are as follows; 150 readers of The Daily Mail and twin that amount, 300 of viewers of most other magazines. As the research method employed to assemble this amount of data means ranking outside a occupied newsagents (W H Smith's in Lime Block Place, Liverpool) and asking individuals who have bought newspapers to answer a brief survey, to attempt to gather any more than that provided would be have a significant amount of time and effort. As people are normally quite hesitant to take part in surveys scheduled to time constraints the study will not ask for some of the standard demographic information such as time; gender; nationality; ethnicity; faith etc. The questionnaire will ask what paper the participant reads, usually an instant and easy question to answer when folks who I will be asking have just lately bought a paper from the newsagents and can realise this is exactly what my questionnaire is related to. The questions will be shown by me reading the assertion and requesting their judgment on that statement from a spectral range of answers, these being: strongly agree; agree; neutral; disagree and strongly disagree. This technique does not drive a yes or no answer that some members may be reluctant to give taking into consideration the invasive characteristics of the questions. At exactly the same time maybe it's regarded as keeping away from leading questions. Where the participant may realise the questions are designed to produce certain types of generalisations so they might answer appropriately for the purposes of the research, they involve some form of preference in which expressing their opinions.
These two varieties of quantitative and qualitative research are used in order to arrive at a degree of triangulation when developing the results and conclusions of the data collected.
The two types of research methods that newspaper will be utilizing will be that of content evaluation in a theoretical platform and research conducted. The goal is to achieve a kind of triangulation where to infer meanings from when analysing and assessing the gathered data.