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Investigating The NEED FOR WAN Technologies IT Essay

Wide area network is vital to the global to do their work easily nowadays every companies attempting to develop their business around the globe extensive area network helps them to connect their network mutually. the firms need to create the network according with their needs and purpose because different type of networks are available for different purpose. Regarding to this job the company network placed in several countries each network maintain different application

Different kind of architecture models is available to design network an example may be peer to peer model and a different one is consumer/server model the majority of the network designed by using consumer/server model. peer to peer model is hook up several computers linked through network this model is unsafe since it is difficult to execute security plans. different network topologies are available to create network so we have to examine these topologies when design a network. Normally every companies using legend topology to design their network because this topology have more advantage when equate to other topologies various hardware components need to design a network such as switches, routers, firewalls, server, website link. . . ect

By using Ethernet systems and other network technology several LAN (local area network) is created in different countries then each subnet LAN was connected along via ATM cloud to make WAN (large area network)

In this task company network model was designed in opnet modeller to investigate the performance of the network taking a look at WAN technology with differing traffic loads there will vary type of website link used to put into action the traffic weight the network was designed up for you to get the ultimate result


Computer network

Computer network is more than one computers or group of pcs and network devices are connected together with the objective sharing information, file and data between each computer. Different kind of devices need to create some type of computer network such as switches, hubs, routers, different link, firewall, server and work station Protocols are use to do writing information, documents, data's in the network there are two transmission technology available in computer network one is transmit and another is point to point connection.

Computer network labeled matching to network architecture (peer to peer model, consumer/server method), network topology (star topology, wedding ring topology, bus topology and mesh network topology). computer network it is categorised as personal area network (PAN), geographic area network (LAN), metropolitan area network(MAN), wide area network(WAN), global area network(GAN)

Computer network is very useful to the public because it has many applications such as access to remote information by using this application anybody can do their work from anywhere in the world( ticket booking, shopping), communication between someone to another through email, videoconferencing. Business application

Different type of computer network

Local area network (LAN)

Local area network (LAN) is less number or band of pcs and related devices such as printing device, scanning device. . . etc that share a communication brand. lan is considered within a small geographical area such as a home, office building here LAN was created by using Ethernet technology such as Ethernet wires, Ethernet switches and adapters.

Local area network (LAN) performance features are depending on size of the network, network topologies and transmission technology. Benefit of LAN is cover small geographical area so transmitting time is bound. Different kind of topologies is support to produce broadcast LAN network such as bus and ring based mostly topologies. FIDD is employed in the LAN for hook up token ring. IEEE 802. 11standad reveals the neighborhood area network solutions. [Andrew s]

Metropolitan area network (MAN)

Metropolitan area network (MAN) is developed version of LAN and this network also using same systems as LAN, equate to LAN it cover large area (company office buildings and city). this network transporting voice sign and times.

MAN network contain few wires it don't have any turning elements, by using network technology such as backbone technology, routers and switches it connect several LAN sites.

"DQDB (allocated queue dual bus) is MAN network standard" employing this standard we can grow the network up to 30km and rates of speed of 34 to 155 Mbit/s

Wide area network (WAN)

Wide area network (WAN) relatively covers wide geographical ("country or continent") area and hooking up number of local area network, local area network connected to a WAN through the general public net work such as internet. WAN network may use is satellite tv system, WAN routers contain antenna by using antenna it can make data transmitting.

Switching device and transmitting website link are two individual device of subnet in the WAN network. Different kind of transmission link are available to transport the impulses and data transmission in one system to another system on the WAN network such as twisted match cable, coaxial cable television and fiber optic cable connection. WAN is a assortment of LAN, these LANs are connected via moving over device router so each LAN must contain at least one router to interconnect. WAN network use backbone technology.

Global area network (GAN)

Global area network (GAN) is assortment of different network such as WAN or MAN it addresses the large geographical area (unlimited area). Worldwide individual business companies use GAN network for his or her process.

Network architecture model

Client-server network model

Client- server model is very useful and popular network model in the network structures customer and server devices are suitable for this function in the computer network client server model mainly utilized in internet as well as local area network. Computers are client device in the network it is installed with required network software; repository and documents are stored in the server devices, server devices contain much more memory, bigger disk drive than client devices

The customer server model client makes a question to server and server receives consumer submission and response with their client request. Benefit of client-server model is centralised network model it means all users in the network are linked to a central server. Central server has all user information and communication information. Construction of data backup, security procedures are easy in this model

Peer to peer network model

Peer to peer network is suited to a small network in this model more than one computer or group of computers are linked through the network. peer nodes posting their documents, audio, video data file and data's in digital format a and also they sharing their learning resource with out a dedicated server all connected peers become either client or server. One system serves as server for just one transaction while simultaneously act as consumer for another exchange in this model every client act as server and server act as client. It is complicated to apply security regulations and access insurance policies to the network because peer to peer network is a small contain few personal computers. Access permission and rights of users place personality in peer to peer network. This model do not utilize centralized network model so that it haven't any consumer information or communication information


Different network topologies are available in computer networking they can be star topology, bus topology, ring topology, tree topology and mesh topology these topologies help design an outstanding network. when design a network custom should have to choose which topology is suitable for the particular network

Ring topology

Ring topology can be used to hook up network devices in diamond ring shape when these devices in ring shape each device has two neighbour devices because of their message exchange this message transfer between neighbour only one direction. Wedding ring topology use token passing system to their message transmitting and access control. Main drawback of the method is any device fails in network wedding ring that cause whole network transmitting become failure this type of network can manage and execute easily and it normally uses in office, college network different technology can be found to implement ring topology such as token diamond ring and FDDI

Star topology

Most of the network use star topology because implementation and maintains of the network is easily this type of systems use point to point interconnection between devices and central hub main advantage of superstar topology is any interconnection fail between device and hub that have an effect on only particular device. This network devices use twisted set Ethernet cable tv to hook up with central device hub

Bus topology

Bus topology mainly used in LAN sites because these types of topology well suited for limited volume of device bus topology use backbone to hook up all devices together backbone work as hook up different part of network and offering path to message transmission between network. Implementation of the topology is not hard and inexpensive. It is possible to message transmission in both directions, to avoid subject matter jumping use termination at both end of the bus cable tv you don't have more cabling to connect devices. Main disadvantage of this topology is if backbone cable fails that affect entire network

Tree topology

Tree topology combines multiple several star topologies together into a bus by using indicate point interconnection hub devices linked to the tree bus to build up network scalability bus/star topology in a cross approach. Implementation of this topology is very difficult, if backbone cable file full network become inability benefit of this topology is each parts connected by point to point website link and it reinforced by a number of hardware and software seller.

Network components

Hardware and software components need to create a network there are different type of hardware components available in the network all of them configured for different function. Usually a network is made up of many components such as move, router, server, firewall, hub, work place. . . est.


Router is one of quite devices in the network it is used to connect several network jointly such as two WANs or two LANs and it allow data transmitting between the systems. Routers having routing dining tables it contain information about network devices that uses to find the destination place of the network. Routers work at transportation and network level of the OSI guide model. Routers maintain traffic control in the network.


Switch is one of the hardware devices in the network it is employed to connect network device such as server, workstation and printers as well as in an area area network. switches just work at the data web page link level of the OSI reference point model. Switches have a facility to check on whether that the info received or not, providing the messages to improve vacation spot and also figuring out that the particular data was moved from which device (source) to other device (destination). `different kind of Ethernet switches are available but in this network i have used Ethernet 16 dock switches to hook up network devices.


In the client/server networking model a server receive demands from consumer in the same network or other network and response consumer request. There are different types of server using their related configuration. Within this network i've used many servers such as data source server, Email server, VoIP server, HTTP server, FTP server, document server, printer server and back up server.


Main activity of the firewall is avoiding unprivileged end user from being able to access the network. There is different type of firewalls such as packet filtration system firewall, program gateway and proxy ip server all of them doing different job in the network. firewall integrated in a few hardware devices. On this project i have used firewall router in a simulation.

Open system interconnection (OSI) model

OSI research model is plainly defined how information sent from source to vacation spot in the networking. OSI guide model contain seven levels such as request layer, presentation level, session covering, Trans port part, network level, data link level and presentation level. This model represents structure of any network for making use of protocol on seven levels. Every levels doing different function. This model spited into tow part such as top tiers and lower tiers. Upper levels associated with software and lower levels associated with hardware.

Application layer

Application covering is highest coating of OSI guide model. Main function of this part is interface for users to connect with application and identifying end user, validate resource availability. By using request users can gain access to information at program layer. Application coating providing some services such as file transfer, e-mail and software services. Many Protocols are applied in this layer such as record transfer process (FTP), hyper words transfer standard protocol (HTTP), simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) and telnet.

Presentation layer

Presentation layer is sixth part of the OSI research model this part receives all announcements from software and directs those information to session part. Main function of the layer is switching the format of receiving and mailing data format and also many functions are commencing by this part such as data compression, encryption, decryption, process conversation and encodes message for email purchase. Presentation covering providing some services such as easy mail transfer protocol (SMTP), telnet and file transfer protocol (FTP). As of this layer data transmitting starts with syntax and semantics format.

Session layer

Fifth coating of the OSI reference model is procedure layer it provides function to converse between two nodes in the network this part create, maintain and stop interconnection between the node and few protocols are implemented they are really data link process (DLP), apple chat session protocol (ASP) and computer printer access control standard protocol (PAP) these protocols are mainly uses to multi-media messages.

Transport layer

Data web page link layer

Data link level is second layer of the OSI reference model the use of this part is control and arranges all sending emails from software to network link. This coating makes some network establishing such as data format setting up, time environment and wire setting. it gives many services such as keep all text messages are right format when they transmit, maintain move control when information transmit over the hyperlink, detecting mistake in physical coating and encoding text messages for secure transfer.

Physical layer

Physical level is lowest level of the OSI reference point model. This layer receives all communications from data hyperlink coating in the format of bits and converts into indication (electrical or electromagnetic signal). text messages are mailing to physical media via switches and wires

TCP/IP model

TCP/IP model contain four network tiers such as application layer, transport covering, internet coating and network inter face coating. TCP/IP model and OSI reference models are providing similar services. TCP/IP model contain network communication standard protocol used to for different type data transmission between different systems. Simple mail copy protocol (SMTP), used to Email purchase, file transfer process (FTP) used to file transaction etc. This model defines how particular protocols are executed in a computer for data transmission on the network. End to end connection of the TCP/IP model define how data's received, routed and formatted at end nodes.

TCP/IP application layer

Application layer is more impressive range process of TCP/IP model this coating match to OSI reference model of period layer, application layer and presentation covering. This layer gives different services to user such as record copy, email ect. Software covering contain many protocol such as easy mail transfer protocol (SMTP), file copy standard protocol (FTP) and telnet. All data's are coded in this level then these data's encapsulated into transport coating. Lower level tiers of TCP/IP model treat by program layer.

Transport layer

Transport layer is third coating of TCP/IP model. This coating providing services these services are handled by the user datagram standard protocol (UDP) and transmitting control process (TCP).

TCP is connection oriented and reliable transmitting protocol. Connection focused it means source (sender) setup connection with vacation spot (receiver) node prior to the sending data. Error detection, error modification retransmission of data's is possible in TCP.

UDP is connection less and unreliable transmission. Error detection, error modification retransmission of data's is impossible in UDP it is suited to audio and video tutorial transmission.

Internet layer

Internet coating is second part of TCP/IP model this model used to transfer the meaning from source computer to destination computer. Internet standard protocol (IP) is main standard protocol of this coating. This process providing many services such as routing packets between source and vacation spot. Internet protocols receive messages from network user interface level in the format of tad then make it into packets. Network user interface layer is minimum covering of the TCP/IP model main function of the layer is by using protocol it develop a link with physical medium, error detection and packet framing are possible in this part. This level contain local area network (LAN) and large area network (WAN) technologies such as token ring, X. 25, ehhernet and structure relay. This covering responsible for physical devices such as wire, cables, network interface card and satellite links.

Asynchronous transfer function (ATM)

Asynchronous transfer method (ATM) is made up of three layers such as ATM adaption coating, ATM covering and physical covering. This model providing different kind of function it used to transfer all type data's such as music, video and text messages. Same time we may use ATM technology in different network (LAN. MAN and WAN).

ATM model contain management, hyphenated and handshaking process, quality of services and movement control facilities. Hyphenated standard protocol is connection focused; cell switched and point to point. ATM use different type of solutions to data transmission. Fixed -size skin cells model used to copy variable frames this model use 48 bytes for data, 5bytes for overhead.

ATM adaption layer

ATM adaption coating is third coating of this model this model made up application layer, travel layer and procedure coating of OSI research mode. You can find two different kinds of tiers in ATM adaption level such as convergence sub level and segmentation and reassembly sub part. It is categorised into five types of class for providing different type of services. According to this course of services Convergence sub part receive messages from high level part, identify the received concept format, type finally set up all announcements for sending out.

ATM layer

ATM part is second part of this model this layer providing hyperlink between ATM adaption coating and physical coating to transmit cells between those two tiers and also create digital hyperlink, doing multiplex and de-multiplex of skin cells, creating cell header.

ATM physical layer

ATM physical level is first part of this model the main function of the level is encapsulate all incoming cells in an effective format before transmit little bit to the physical medium. Physical layer split into two sub layers such as transmitting convergence sub covering and physical medium centered sub covering these sub tiers are doing different function such as transmission convergence sub level doing error correction, framing and de-framing of cells and physical medium dependent sub layer assign bit time and coding for the physical medium.


Protocol is a set of rules it is utilized to transfer the message between one ends to some other end. OSI guide model is clearly defined how information sent from source to vacation spot in the networking. This research model contain seven layers each layers must contain a number of protocol because of their message transmission.

Internet process (IP)

Main function of internet standard protocol (IP) is transmits note between one end to another end. When transmits the text messages via this protocol meaning divided into many parts each part contain Ip if end system and this small portion send various ways receiver acquire this segment in several order. This standard protocol executed in network coating of OSI reference point model and internet coating of TCP/IP model so internet standard protocol (IP) support data transmitting to higher level tiers in OSI and TCP/IP reference model. This standard protocol is connection less protocol and we can not make sure about delivery of meaning. Nowadays two different version of internet protocols (IP) are available in the networking such as internet process version4 (IPV4) and internet standard protocol version6 (IPV6).

Transmission control protocol (TCP)

Transmission control standard protocol (TCP) applied in carry layer of OSI reference model and sponsor to host travel level of TCP/IP model for communication transmission. This standard protocol is an association oriented and reliable transmission protocol. Connection oriented it means source (sender) set up connection with destination (recipient) node before the sending data. Problem detection, error correction retransmission of data's can be done in TCP. Communication transmitting via this protocol is very slow-moving because of overhead (20bytes) for error correction/detection and acknowledgement. A couple of two types of buffers such as mailing and getting buffers these buffers are used to storage, circulation control, error detection and correction. Same time text messages can be transfer both path in TCP it offers full duplex deal and also multiplexing and de-multiplexing are possible in TCP. [Behrouz A. ]

User datagram protocol (UDP)

User datagram protocol (UDP) installed in transportation layer of OSI reference model and host to host travel covering of TCP/IP model for subject matter transmission between the layers. This standard protocol is a connection less and unreliable transmitting protocol. Message transmitting via UDP is very fast since there is small header (8bytes). this standard protocol containing many disadvantages such as no problem control and no flow control. Device can't identify whether this meaning is original or duplicate when meaning transfer via UDP. Encapulation and decapitation of information are possible in UDP when communications copy from source to vacation spot. [Behrouz A. ]

Hyper text copy protocol (HTTP)

Main function of hyper words transfer process (HTTP) is access data from internet (www). this process is applied in program coating of OSI and TCP/IP reference point model. It really is describe the meaning transmission in the network from consumer to server and data format. This process use TCP for data transmitting between consumer and server in this model the client first send submission to server then server send response message to client. There is absolutely no secure message transmitting because "HTTP will not provide security" HTTP provide security when it "stepped on the secure outlet covering" This process messages can only understand by HTTP client and server. [Behrouz A. ]

File transfer process (FTP)

File transfer process (FTP) is applied in software covering in TCP/IP model. Main function of the protocol is transferring data's from source to vacation spot (consumer to server or server to customer) in easy way. FTP process create two hyperlink between source and vacation spot some may be for message transmission other hyperlink for replay. FTP use three orders such as RETR command function of the command is copying documents, STOR command function of this demand is store the files and LIST command this is for list the documents. FTP use different transmitting mode to copy the documents such as "compressed setting, stream function and block function". through the FTP protocol we can send word data files, images and ASCII data. FTP use two different TCP dock, port 20 is utilized copy data's or data files between customer and server and port 21 is used to control transmission between them. [Behrouz A. ]

Simple mail copy protocol (SMTP)

Simple mail copy protocol (SMTP) is installed in software covering in TCP/IP reference point model. Function of this protocol is moving the email announcements between customer and server and and yes it contains some instructions these commands are used to copy the data's between client and server. Various other protocols are support to email transmission with SMTP such as post office protocol (POP3) and internet mail access standard protocol (IMAP4) [Behrouz A. ]

Simple network management protocol (SNMP)

Simple network management protocol (SNMP) is applied in software part of TCP/IP reference model this type of protocol can be used to control the network for providing better network performance by regular evaluation system, protect the network from unwanted individual by monitoring system. SNMP protocol defines the purchase between the director and agent. SNMP manager confirm the agent details by mailing requesting note to agent. "SNMP identify the packets exchange between administrator and agent" [Behrouz A. ]

Network transmission media

A transmission marketing is essential to transfer a signal form source to vacation spot in the networking system. Signals are copy via Guided and unguided transmission marketing now a day's different kind of guided transmission advertising support to transport the indication such as twisted match cable, coaxial cable television and fibers optic cable. Unguided transmission media it is radio wave, micro influx and infrared

Twisted set cable

Twisted pair cable is one of the guided transmission media to carry the signal in the network. Analogy and digital sign can be transported by this cable connection. This cable includes two shield copper cable then these wire connections are sick along. This sort of cables found in telecommunication system. Twisted set cable not well suited for long expanse, repeaters is required to use long distance, for small area it will work without amplification. Compare to other cords this type of cable tv is inexpensive. Two types of twisted set cables can be found some may be unshielded twisted match cable (UTP) another one is protect twisted pair cable connection (STP). [Andrew s]

Coaxial cable

Compare to twisted set cable it is better shield cable connection it is well suited for carry the sign to long distance. This kind of cables used to transport the high consistency signals and wide band alerts as well as this cable carries analogy and digital indication but using different cable connection. Coaxial cables providing functions in several ways you are baseband it use total bandwidth to transport the signals, a different one is broad group it separate the bandwidth with indicators. Centre core it is manufactured by hard copper cable, this center is bounded by interior dielectric insulator, copper screen and plastic material sheath. [Andrew s], [Michael]

Fiber optics cable

Fiber optic cords transfer the sign in the form of light beam. This type of cable can be used to hook up different cities and countries such as phone connection because these cables are suitable for long distance. Two different kinds of fibre optic cables can be found such as single mode fibber optic cable tv and multimode fibre optic cable and this cords contain two part such as "inner school cylindrical center and outer school cladding" Equate to other cables they have many advantages such as it can be used to long distance, indication transmission is very fast and lack of signal is very low. Disadvantage of this cable it's very expensive. [Michael]

Quality of services

Quality of services (QOS) includes many network technologies to build up a network. Quality of services provides expected result to the network and quality of services develop and determine data transfer, delay, and error rate and loss of cell in the network. It is very use full apply the quality of services to VOIP and video tutorial but execution of quality if services to network is very hard.

Quality of service measure

Type of Delay

Different type of delay are take place in the network through the data transmission in one system to some other system they may be processing hold off, queuing delay, transmission delay and propagation wait.

Processing delay

A data(1 little bit) transmission time taken between the finish systems (source to vacation spot) it is named processing delay this delay may occur for the following response such as mistake data's transmitting from one system to router, network architecture, switching mode and and yes it include in settings of network devices

Propagation delay

A data (1 little) of transmission between your source and destination it is called propagation hold off. This delay depends on distance between routers and propagation swiftness; it will depend on the transmission media "propagation delay computed by dividing the distance by propagation speed"

Propagation delay= [Behrouz A]

Queuing delay

Data's or packets longing in queue at intermediate device (router) because of their transaction, when the network is occupied router can't rout all the packet at same time it process these packet one at a time so packets need to wait this holding out time is called queuing wait.

Transmission delay

Transmission hold off is amount of time is needed to transfer one little bit of data via transmission media. Transmission wait will depend on bandwidth and size of the data.

Transmission time= [Behrouz A]


Voice over internet process (VOIP)

Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) is employed to communication purpose it means one person can copy his information to some other person through mobile call, speech and fax above the IP based network. To reduce the bandwidth misuse VOIP use packet- moving over method to calls. Normally more bandwidth is needed to voice transmitting but tone of voice data is compressed to small for the exchange so that it require small bandwidth. Main good thing about VOIP is lowering the price tag on long distance cell phone calls, when compare with ordinary phone call because of this every organization applying VOIP in their systems.

IP telephone is used in the VOIP network because IP telephone made with coder/decoder for convert the speech transmission from analogy to digital transmission and digital to analogy signal. Software's and hardware components are really helps to connect the telephone with network. Different protocols are executed in the VOIP network for support voice exchange such as RTP(real time transport protocol) it support the wait of audio, H. 323 process used to multimedia transmission, H. 235 process used to data encryption. ) [Michael]

List of books

1) [Michael]

MICHAEL A, WILLIAM M Networking discussed, second edition

ISBN 1-55558-252-4

2) [Behrouz A. ]

Behrouz A. Frozen, TCP/IP process Collection Fourth Edition

ISBN 978-0-07-016678-3

3) [Andrew s]

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, computer sites fourth edition

ISBN 0-13-038488-7

4) [Adam F]

James F. Kurose, Keith W. ROSE Computer networking, fourth model, a high down approach

ISBN -13:978-0-321-51325-0

ISBN -10:0-321-51325-8

5) [Behrouz A]

Behrouz A. Forouzan, data communication and networking, fourth edition

ISBN 007-125442-0

List of Internet and website

[1] http://www. docstoc. com/docs/26072792/Peer-to-peer-model

[2] http://www. authorpick. net/computer-network-definition-and-types/

[3] http://www. cit. griffith. edu. au/teaching/3142CIT/slides/ch1/node3. html

[4] http://compnetworking. about. com/od/networkdesign/a/topologies. htm

[5] http://www. edrawsoft. com/Network-Topologies. php

[6] http://searchnetworking. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0, , sid7_gci212839, 00. html

[7] http://searchunifiedcommunications. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0, , sid186_gci214031, 00. html

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