Posted at 10.11.2018
The Joint Operation Planning Process, or JOPP, supports planning at all levels as well as for missions across the full range of military functions. This planning process pertains to both contingency planning and Cover. The JOPP is an orderly, analytical planning process that contains a couple of logical steps to analyze a mission, develop, review, and compare alternative COAs, or classes of action, choose the best COA, and create a plan or order.
Step 1: Initiation. The Joint Operation Planning Process or JOPP starts when the President, SecDef, or CJCS recognizes a potential for military capability to be used in response to a potential or actual crisis and initiates planning by deciding to build up armed service options. The GEF, JSCP, and related proper guidance statements provide as the principal guidance to start contingency planning. Armed service options normally are developed in mixture with other nonmilitary options so the President can react with all the current appropriate tools of national ability. Often in Cover, the JFC and staff will perform an analysis of the initiating directive to ascertain time available until objective execution, the existing status of intelligence products and personnel estimations, and other factors relevant to the precise planning situation.
Step 2: Objective Analysis. The principal purpose of quest analysis is to comprehend the situation and reason for the procedure and concern appropriate guidance to drive the rest of the planning process. Female concern for a backed commander during quest examination is the countrywide strategic end talk about -the broadly indicated political, military, monetary, sociable, informational, and other conditions that should exist after the conclusion of your campaign or procedure. The principal inputs to objective analysis are the higher head office planning directive, other proper guidance, the Joint Intelligence Prep of the Operational Environment or JIPOE, and primary staff estimates. The primary products of quest examination are a restated quest assertion and the JFC's primary intent affirmation, the Commander's Critical Information Requirements or CCIRs, and planning assistance. The body below describes the main element inputs and causing outputs of objective analysis.
Step 3: Course of Action (COA) Development. A COA contains the next information: what type of military services action will appear; why the action is required (goal); who will take the action; when the action will begin; where in fact the action will appear; and how the action will appear (approach to employment of pushes). A valid COA will possess the characteristics defined in the figure below. Once a valid COA is developed, the staff changes the approved COA into a CONOPS. COA conviction will consist of four principal activities: COA development, examination and wargaming, contrast, and approval.
Step 4: COA Analysis and Wargaming. The commander and staff assess each tentative COA separately based on the commander's information. COA analysis identifies advantages and disadvantages of each proposed friendly COA. Wargaming offers a means for the commander and individuals to investigate a tentative COA, enhance their understanding of the functional environment, and obtain insights that normally might not have occurred. Based after time available, the commander should wargame each tentative COA against the most possible and the most dangerous adversary COAs.
Step 5: COA Evaluation. A target process whereby COAs are considered independently of the other person and assessed against a set of standards that are proven by the staff and commander. The target is to identify the talents and weaknesses of COAs so that a COA with the highest possibility of success can be picked or developed. The commander and personnel develop and evaluate a set of important criteria, or regulating factors, consider each COA's advantages and disadvantages, identify actions to overcome cons, make final tests for feasibility and acceptability and consider the relative merits of each.
Step 6: COA Endorsement. The staff decides the best COA to recommend to the commander. The personnel briefs the commander on the COA comparability and the evaluation and wargaming results, including a review of important promoting information. This briefing often calls for the form of the commander's estimate. This information could include such factors as, the existing position of the joint drive; the current JIPOE; and assumptions found in COA development. The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA based upon the staff suggestions. The nature of your potential contingency will make it difficult to find out a specific end state until the problems actually occurs. In these cases, the JFC might want to present two or more valid COAs for authorization by higher specialist. A single COA can then be approved when the turmoil occurs and specific circumstances become clear.
Step 7: Plan or Order Development. The commander and personnel, in collaboration with subordinate and supporting components and organizations, broaden the approved COA into a detailed joint procedure plan or OPORD by first expanding an executable CONOPS, which plainly and concisely expresses the actual JFC intends to perform and how it will be done using available resources. It describes how the actions of the joint force components and accommodating organizations will be integrated, synchronized, and phased to perform the quest, including potential branches and sequels. Contingency planning will lead to operation plan development, while CAP typically will lead right to OPORD development.
Voice: Planning initiation begins when the Leader, SecDef, or CJCS recognizes a potential for military capability to be employed in response to a potential or actual crisis. The primary purpose of the next phase, mission evaluation, is to understand the situation and reason for the procedure and concern appropriate guidance to drive all of those other planning process. Next, planners must create a COA to perform the quest. During plan of action research and wargaming, the commander and staff evaluate each COA separately based on the commander's advice. COA analysis recognizes advantages and disadvantages of each proposed friendly COA. Wargaming provides a opportinity for the commander and individuals to investigate the COA and improve understanding of the operational environment. During COA assessment, COAs are believed independently of the other person and evaluated against a set of criteria, that are founded by the personnel and commander. The goal is to identify the talents and weaknesses of COAs to select the COA with the highest probability of success. Next, the personnel determines the best COA to recommend to the commander, which is normally presented in the form of a briefing for authorization or further instruction. Finally, the commander and personnel, in collaboration with subordinate and encouraging components and organizations, grow the approved COA into a detailed joint operation plan or OPORD by first expanding an executable concept of procedures, or CONOPS. The CONOPS obviously and concisely expresses what the JFC intends to perform and how it will be done using available resources. Frequently contingency planning will cause operation plan development, while Cover typically will lead right to the introduction of an OPORD.
A graphic is shown, which signifies the four degrees of planning information: 1) Commander's Estimate 2) Base Plan 3) CONPLAN 4) OPLAN. The following text is shown on the right of the display in support of the narration:
Voice: Contingency planning usually commences with the publication of a new GEF and JSCP. It really is a peacetime process that develops plans for a wide range of contingencies with apportioned resources. It's performed in a continuous cycle that complements and supports other DOD planning cycles and facilitates the move to crisis action planning, or Cover.
Contingency planning is completed through four planning levels predicated on JOPES procedures and direction.
Action: On the left area of the display is a visual representing the the four degrees of planning fine detail: 1) Commander's Estimate 2) Foundation Plan 3) CONPLAN 4) OPLAN. The next text is roofed as pop-up boxes to the matching the different parts of the graphic:
Voice: Contingency planning includes four levels of planning depth with an associated planning product for every level. Level 1 planning aspect is the commander's estimation, which focuses on creating a developed COA. These military services COAs allow the SecDef to meet a potential contingency. The aim of Level 2 planning aspect is a base plan which details the CONOPS, major causes, principles of support, and the necessary timelines to complete the envisioned quest. This level normally will not include a specific transportation feasible move of resources into the theater. In Level 3 planning details, the idea plan or CONPLAN is designed, which is an operations plan in an abbreviated format. It offers annexes as required by the JFC and the supported commander's estimation of the plan's overall feasibility. The CONPLAN may come with an associated time-phased pressure and deployment data, or TPFDD, if suitable. Finally, the aim of Level 4 planning aspect is a fully-developed operation plan, or OPLAN, filled with a complete and specific joint plan with a full information of the CONOPS, all annexes necessary for the program, and a TPFDD. The OPLAN identifies the specific makes, useful support, and resources necessary to execute the plan. The OPLAN can be quickly progressed into an OPORD.
Voice: Furthermore, an OPLAN is normally prepared under the following circumstances: if the contingency is critical to national security and requires specific planning; the magnitude or timing of the contingency necessitates the planning; detailed planning is required for a multinational planning work; the feasibility of the CONOPS demands detailed planning; or if a detailed effort is essential to determine the levels of pressure deployment and sustainment.
Planning activities that arise in non-crisis situations; depends seriously on assumptions and projections
Based on facts and actual planning as an emergency unfolds
Voice: Because it's difficult to forecast where and when an emergency will occur, planners must have the ability to rapidly respond to problems as they occur. Unlike contingency planning, which prepares programs in anticipation of future events, turmoil action planning allows planners to respond to situations based on circumstances which exist at the time of planning. Crisis action planning types of procedures parallel contingency planning, but are more adaptable and attentive to changing occurrences. In time-sensitive situations, the JPEC employs formally established Cover procedures to adapt and implement recently prepared contingency strategies by transforming them into OPORDs or even to fully develop and execute OPORDs where no useful contingency plan exists.
The visual shows a visual tagged "Event, " straight under a box labeled "Situational Recognition. " Bins continue in two rows, showing a linear series connected by arrows in a zigzag design. An arrow labeled OPREP-3 PCA points from Situational Recognition to Decision. An arrow covered by a document labeled "Warning Order" issues to COA Development. An arrow tagged "Commander's Estimate" tips from COA Development to COA Selection. An arrow included in a document tagged "Planning or Alert Order" items from COA Selection to Detailed Planning. An arrow labeled "Operations Order" items from Detailed Planning to Plan Authorization. An arrow included in a document tagged "Execute Order" factors from Plan Agreement to Execution.
Graphic bands at the very top divide the graphic into three portions. Situational Awareness stretches across the complete screen, enduring throughout the process. Planning covers COA Development, COA Selection, Complete Planning, Plan Authorization, and Execution and the intermediary products. Two arrows across the bottom, labeled "Prepare to Deploy Order" and "Deployment Order, " stretch across the same region as the look band. A music group tagged "Execution" extends from near the end of Plan Agreement through the Execution activity.
Voice: CAP activities act like contingency planning activities; however, CAP is based on active, real-world conditions rather than assumptions. Cover procedures provide for the immediate and effective exchange of information and examination, the timely planning of military COAs for awareness by the Chief executive or SecDef, and the prompt transmission of their decisions to the JPEC. The precise circulation of the techniques is largely decided by the time open to complete the look and by the importance of the crisis. The next steps summarize the activities and conversation that occur during Cover.
When the President, SecDef, or CJCS decide to develop military options, the CJCS issues a planning directive to the JPEC initiating the introduction of COAs. Next, a WARNORD is released that describes the problem, establishes command connections, and recognizes the mission and any planning constraints. In response to the WARNORD, the supported commander, in collaboration with subordinate and promoting commanders and all of those other JPEC, reviews existing joint OPLANs for applicability and produces, analyzes, and compares COAs. Next, the feasibility that existing OPLANs can be altered to fit the specific situation is determined. The CJCS then reviews and evaluates the recognized commander's estimation and advises a COA selection. On acquiring the decision of the Leader or SecDef, the CJCS issues an Alert Order to the JPEC to announce your choice. The reinforced commander then builds up the OPORD and helping TPFDD using the approved COA. The reinforced commander then submits the completed OPORD for acceptance to the SecDef or Chief executive via the CJCS. Finally, in CAP, plan development carries on after the President or SecDef decides to do the OPORD or to go back to the pre-crisis situation.
A campaign plan describes what sort of group of joint major procedures are arranged in time, space, and goal to achieve proper and operational targets. - Joint Pub 5-0
Voice: It is important to notice how advertising campaign planning relates to the two types of joint operation planning. Joint procedure planning and planning for a campaign aren't distinct planning types or techniques. Advertising campaign planning may commence during contingency planning and continue through Cover, thus unifying the complete process.
A advertising campaign plan "describes what sort of series of joint major businesses are arranged with time, space, and purpose to achieve strategic and operational aims. " Marketing campaign planning is an initial means by which combatant commanders request strategic unity of effort and by which they guide the planning of joint businesses of their theater. Campaign strategies operationalize combatant commander theater and useful strategies and integrate steady-state-activities, including current operations as well as security cooperation activities. They require the broadest strategic concepts of procedure and sustainment for achieving multinational, national, and theater-strategic aims.
Global Advertising campaign - Encompasses strategic aims on multiple AORs. Several recognized GCC possible and competing requirements for transport, ISR belongings, and specialized systems and equipment. The Global War on Terrorism can be an example of a worldwide campaign.
Theater Advertising campaign - Targets activities of a recognized combatant commander. Accomplishes tactical or operational objectives within the theater of battle or theater of procedures. Procedures DESERT SHIELD and DESERT Surprise comprised a theater plan in the 1990-91 Persian Gulf Discord.
Subordinate Plan - Describes the actions of the subordinate JFC, which attain (or contribute to the fulfillment of) proper or operational objectives to get a worldwide or theater plan. Subordinate JFCs develop subordinate advertising campaign plans
Voice: There are three standard types of campaigns, which change generally in range. A global advertising campaign is one that requires the fulfillment of strategic aims in joint operations in multiple areas of responsibility, or AORs. In this case, there could be several reinforced geographic combatant commander, or GCC. Planners should be aware of competing requirements for probably scarce tactical resources, such as vehicles and ISR resources, as well as specialised and unique units and equipment, such as special businesses and tankers. Global promotions will often build the tactical and operational framework within which theater and subordinate campaigns are developed. The "Global Battle on Terrorism" can be an exemplory case of a marketing campaign that spans all AORs.
A theater advertising campaign encompasses the actions of a backed combatant commander. It accomplishes strategic or operational objectives within the theater of warfare or theater of operations, mainly within the backed commander's AOR. An OPLAN for a theater marketing campaign is the operational extension of the commander's theater strategy, and translates theater proper concepts into unified action. Adjacent combatant commanders may carry out supporting operations, within the AOR of the backed commander or of their own AORs, under the overall direction of the backed commander. Functions DESERT SHIELD and DESERT Surprise comprised a theater plan in the 1990-91 Persian Gulf Discord.
A subordinate advertising campaign describes the activities of your subordinate JFC, which accomplish, or contribute to the achievement of, proper or operational goals to get a global or theater campaign. Subordinate JFCs develop subordinate advertising campaign ideas, if their given missions require military services operations of substantive size, complexity, and length and cannot be accomplished within the framework of a single major joint procedure. Subordinate campaign programs should be consistent with the strategic and operational information and direction produced by the supported JFC.
Voice: Marketing campaign planning is relatively unstructured in comparison to contingency and turmoil action planning. Plan planning is mostly an art, not a science; there is no set recipe or best way to develop a campaign plan. It requires a thorough understanding of adversary and friendly functions, forces, and techniques, as well as "out-of-the-box" thinking and creativity to make the best use of resources to achieve the desired targets.
Because marketing campaign planning is mostly fine art, it is inextricably associated with operational art, most notably in the design of the operational idea for the campaign. Operational art refers to the employment of military causes to attain strategic and/or operational objectives through the design, business, integration, and do of strategies, promotions, major functions, and battles. This is generally an intellectual exercise predicated on experience and common sense.
Action: A diagram is show to stand for the three important elements of operational design in the next narration. The diagram shows: "understand the tactical guidance, " bracketing the first and second levels of the diagram, that are "national proper objective"s with "conditions (effects)" branched underneath; next level is "identify critical factors" which brackets level three in the diagram, "centers of gravity"; finally, "develop an functional" principle is the previous section bracketing "actions" under the "centers of gravity" containers.
Voice: You will discover three key elements of functional design. First, organizers must understand the proper assistance from the civilian command. This involves identifying what the required end express is and what needs to be achieved militarily to get there. Once planners know very well what armed forces conditions must can be found to achieve tactical objectives, they need to regulate how to benefit those conditions. The main element to this is discovering the adversary's critical factors-their strengths and factors of vulnerability, called Centers of Gravity (COGs). Finally, the planner must develop an operational concept, which explains the series of activities and the application of forces and capacities necessary to neutralize or kill the enemy's COGs.
Voice: We've talked about joint operation planning in a very general sense, but how exactly does the Joint Push Air Part Commander (JFACC) accomplish his specific responsibility to develop the environment and space part of the Joint Drive Commander's (JFC's) marketing campaign plan?
The Joint Air Estimate Process is a six-phase process that culminates with the production of the Joint Air and Space Operations Plan (JAOP). The JAOP is the JFACC's plan for integrating and coordinating joint air and space operations. It courses the career of air and space functions and makes from joint force components to accomplish the missions designated by the JFC. A Joint Air Estimation Process may be used during contingency likely to produce JAOPs that support Operation Plans (OPLANs) or Concept Strategies (CONPLANs). It may also be utilized during turmoil action planning in concert with other theater operation planning.
Joint Intelligence Planning of the Operational Environment (JIPOE) is set up; JFC's objective and guidance analyzed
JIPOE processed; Friendly and adversary COGs are analyzed to aid in COA preparation
Advantages and negatives of each COA are identified
COAs are in comparison to predetermined criteria to recognize best work options
Staff briefs suggested COA to JFACC
Selected COA progressed into JAOP
Mission analysis is critical to ensure detailed understanding of the duty and succeeding planning. It leads to the Joint Pressure Air Component Commander's (JFACC's) mission statement which includes the "who, what, when, where and why" for the joint air procedure. Anticipation, prior planning, and a tuned personnel are critical to a well-timed mission analysis. Personnel estimates produced during mission analysis are continuously revisited and up to date during planning and execution.
The first two responsibilities of situation and course of action (COA) development are growing and refining the initial JIPOE completed in Period I and COG analysis. Expanded JIPOE is essential to developing and inspecting both adversary and friendly COGs. This is especially critical for air and space planning given the perspective and opportunity of air and space functions. The third job is the introduction of friendly COAs. Air and space planners develop different COAs by varying the ends, ways, means, and dangers. The operational goals normally fill the what information for COA development; the promoting tactical objectives, effects, and tasks help specify the how for organizers. Once planners explain the goals and supporting effects, they further refine potential air and space COAs predicated on the priority, sequence, phasing, weight of work, matched up resources, and analysis criteria. The consequence of COA development is at the least two valid COAs or a single valid COA with significant branches or sequels. The final step is a risk analysis of the COA in terms of both businesses and combat support
COA analysis consists of wargaming each COA up against the adversary's probably and most dangerous COAs. Wargaming is a recorded "imagine if" session of actions and reactions made to visualize the move of the battle and assess each friendly COA. Wargaming is a very important part of the estimation process since it stimulates ideas and provides insights that might not in any other case be learned.
Comparing the COAs against predetermined standards provides an analytical method to identify the best work options for air causes/capabilities. This starts with the JFACC staff comparing the proposed COAs and determining the advantages, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of each. This is often followed by rating each COA established upon the established criteria.
COA selection commences when the personnel presents their advised COA (usually in the form of a briefing) to the JFACC. This briefing includes a conclusion of the estimation process that led to the recommended COA. Predicated on the amount of JFACC participation throughout the look process and the degree of parallel planning the commander accomplishes, COA selection will change from choosing among alternatives to immediate acceptance of the staff-recommended COA.
The JAOP details how the joint air effort will support the JFC's overall Operation Plan (OPLAN). The JAOP accomplishes the following: combines the work of joint air and space capabilities and forces; recognizes objectives and duties; identifies steps or signals of success; accounts for current and potential adversary COAs; synchronizes the phasing of air and space businesses with the JFC's plan; shows what air and space capacities and forces are required to achieve the aims.
Voice: While the phases of the Joint Air Estimation process are shown in sequential order, focus on them can be either concurrent or sequential. The stages are included and the products of each phase are checked and verified for coherence.
The Process commences with Mission Research. This first period incorporates: an initial Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE); an examination of the higher headquarters quest; and the advice provided by the JFC with a emphasis upon deciding the specified, implied, and essential tasks in order to develop a concise objective statement. Through the second stage, Situation and COA Development, the JIPOE is refined and the recognition and refinement of friendly and enemy Centers of Gravity (COGs) is completed. Potential friendly COAs are developed and risk examination of the COAs is conducted. Advantages and disadvantages of every COA are determined in the third phase, COA Evaluation. The fourth stage, COA Comparison, includes the comparison of the COAs against predetermined standards, providing an analytical method to identify the best occupation options. Through the fifth period, COA Selection, the staff presents the suggested COA usually in the form of a briefing for authorization or further direction. The final job is to develop the Joint Air and Space Procedures Plan (JAOP). JAOP development is a collaborative effort of the Joint Drive Air Element Commander (JFACC) staff, the JFC staff, and the component staffs.
Action: Music works in the background while the narrator speaks. Screen presents images and words used throughout the lessons to bolster the narration, highlighting specific elements as they are mentioned.
Voice: This lesson has provided you with a synopsis of joint procedure planning. We talked about who is involved with joint operation planning, what systems impact its development, and the types of joint procedure planning. In peacetime, the procedure is highly organized to develop fully coordinated, complex planning possible contingencies. In turmoil, the procedure is designed to emphasize versatility and rapid response. Though these processes are incredibly different, they are interrelated.
Essentially, joint procedure planning supplies the link between strategic goals and the tactical businesses had a need to achieve those goals. The movie theater commander imparts his perspective of how to arrange related operations to realize national strategic aims to his element commanders who, subsequently, develop plans to support the national strategy by integrating the resources under their command. With the Joint Air Estimate process, the Joint Make Air Aspect Commander (JFACC) staff, the Joint Pressure Commander (JFC) personnel, and the aspect staffs develop the Joint Air Procedures Plan (JAOP), which leads the employment of air and space functions and makes from joint push components to accomplish the missions allocated by the JFC.
As you've seen, joint operation planning is essential to promoting our countrywide security strategy. Your support in the development and execution of these plans is essential to ensure that air and space capacities and forces are properly used in support of nationwide objectives.