The Republic of Kenya is situated across the Equator of the eastern area of Africa, boarding the countries of Somalia, Uganda, Ethiopia and Tanzania. The united states covers an area of 582, 264 kilometres2 and house approximately 28. 8 million people and growing at a level for a price 6f 1. 6 each year. The climate take a tropical origins which holiday can experience sunshine throughout the year, however the temperatures may differ throughout the united states for example warm & humid at the cost, cool & humid at central high lands and hot & dry out in the north and east. Rainwater on the other hands is seasonal for which the heaviest appear during the weeks of April to June.
Kenya is a country abundant with culture gives home to a number of different tribe, religions and about 45 different cultural groups. A few of these larger populated cultural and religious organizations include: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14% and Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Indigenous beliefs 10% and Muslim 10% respectively. (About. com)
The native vocabulary of Kenya is Swahili which is also called Kiswahili which is widely spoken among natives however British is becoming the official terminology of Kenya.
This cosmopolitan country has a number of different amenities to bring to the tourism arena. With travel and leisure being one of main finical individuals Kenya's economies, they involved in the following types of tourism which can be: Home, Culture, Business and Community and Eco Tourism.
This kind of tourism helps in several different ways. Firstly, it helps to teach the natives about their country and what it provides. Subsequently, it gets them more involved in the tourism sector. Home travel and leisure also helps in balancing off the travel and leisure industry in low amount of country and international visitor and tourist entrance.
Kenya's travel and leisure industry is carefully bonded to environment, culture and the city, wildlife in relation to eco tourism in particular is one of the most notable tourist drivers. Safaris, national parks and forests, show the countless species of Flora and Fauna that can be found throughout the country. Vacationer can also experience true tribal life through the city nationwide parks where rich Kenyan culture is displayed together with tours and hikes through deserts, mountains rainforests, beaches etc.
In addition to wild life, the accommodation and meeting sector play an important role in the travel and leisure sector. Hotels range from budget, express, luxury and nationwide parks where sleeping under the aspect is now possible. These institutions offer first class service as well as computer, telecommunication and internet services.
Tourism in Kenya goes back to pre-independence days and nights and as noted in history as soon as the 1930's (Travel and leisure in Kenya). In the past, the bulk of the traveler that seen Kenya did so mainly to take part in the games industry in the overall game - hunting expeditions, while the other visitors represented the normal old visitor that travelled for sunshine, sand and sea which is one of the travel and leisure products made available from Kenya's travel and leisure industry. In particular, the tourism industry in Kenya traditionally captivated first world rulers. e. g. The Queen of England, Queen Elizabeth II and the President of the United States of America, Theodore Roosevelt.
In the 1930s, Kenya's infrastructure was significantly less than ideal or/and satisfactory to help this new tendency, travel and leisure. Nevertheless, the tourism industry was continuously growing. Kenya gained independence in December 1963 (Kenya Timeline) after which the infrastructure developed a lttle bit but nonetheless required improvements. The government with co-operation of both the public and private sector proved helpful cohesively to fully develop the infrastructure that subsequently made Kenya more attractive to travelers.
Approximately 10% of the united states has been reserved for the preservation of the natural sights and animals in Kenya which really helps to boost travel and leisure. (Tourism in Kenya) The travel and leisure industry has improved with the introduction of the new vacationer, which brought along new types of tourism for the country notably sports travel and leisure, community and culture travel and leisure etc. Eco tourism is the prevailing form of tourism accompanied by 10% of the natural reserve dedicated by the government.
Kenya Eco tourism attractions:-
Game browsing expeditions (Flora) -the advancement of the new holiday brought over the new game viewing expeditions, where the tourist no more hunt the pets but view the pets on the Safari. Kenya's popular creature attractions are generally called "the big five" which includes: elephant, rhino, lion, buffalo and the leopard (Tourism in Kenya)
Plant enjoying (Fauna) - The taking a look at of trees and bouquets in Kenya is part of the Kenyan agricultural industry, which is the main contributor to the Kenyan GDP. Kenya climatic times act like those in the Caribbean with a dried and rainwater season yearly. The rainy season in Kenya is accountable for the increase in the fauna of the country. This is the season where the trees and flowers bloom whereas the dried up season is quite different. The trees drop their leaves and the bouquets dry out. A vacationer that sessions Kenya in the dried season would have some other experience to a visitor that visit in the rainy season in regards to the country fauna.
Safari - this allows the tourists to observe and understand the local people and their natural lifestyle.
Multiplier Result - Kenya's travel and leisure industry is seriously reliant on other industries to be a successful industry. The travel and leisure industry is mainly reliant on the agriculture industry. This sector is mostly accountable for providing the food and drinks that are dished up to the travelers.
NEGATIVE FACTORS AFFECTING THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Lacks of knowing of the individuals - The folks of Kenya are contained in the decision making process or informed about travel and leisure development initiatives. Because of this, nationals act negatively towards the tourist.
Socio-culturally - Along with the improvement in the travel and leisure industry and the influx of tourist into country, the ways and attitudes of the " new world ", have negatively afflicted the culture Kenya by the increase of prostitution, lack of traditional rituals and shows.
Terrorism Danger - The bombing of the US Embassy in 1998 and attempted bombing in Mombasa 2002, prompted countries to concern negative travel advisories which greatly affected the tourist arrivals to Kenya as depicted in the statistical data.
Kenya is a country with a diverse range of travel and leisure products that focus on various kinds of tourism as stated previously. The country is heavily centered on keeping its natural aspect as well as developing in a sustainable manner maintaining its eco tourism tendency as it foremost travel and leisure product. Overall the tourism industry is slowly but surely increasing regardless of the negative factors that are occasionally experienced; these were able to press onward.
WHAT IS TERRORISM?
According to the U. S. Team of Talk about terrorism is "premeditated, politically enthusiastic violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groupings or clandestine agencies, usually intended to influence an audience. " In the same way, international terrorism is thought as "terrorism involving individuals or the place of more than one country. " ( )
TERRORISTS ATTACKS IN KENYA
US EMBASSY ATTACK
Around 10. 30am on August 7th, 1998, Kenya's US Embassy in Nairobi, was bombed by terrorists where an estimated 12 People in america and 227 Kenyans were killed. Roughly 5000 people in the vicinity during the blast were injured. The destruction spanned a 2-3 stop radius and the Al Qaeda terrorist group were the suspects behind the occurrence.
The Al Qaeda terrorist group again launched another assault in Kenya this time at an Israeli - managed hotel. About 8. 30am on November 28, 2002, 2 Israelis and 12 Kenyans were killed and over 80 individuals were hurt in the bombing of the Paradise hotel in Mombasa. This episode was
only the first part as a missile attack by using an Israeli aeroplanes was concurrently taking place however, this quest failed.
WHY DO TERRORISTS TARGET KENYA?
Geographic location, poverty and unstable neighbours are some important elements that have added to past terrorist problems encountered by Kenya.
Kenya's unique geographic location functions as a passageway from the center East and South Asia to East Africa and past. Therefore, Kenya was required to cater for the countless activities that could now exist because of this pathway so an considerable seaport was designed as well as two airfields, one in Mombasa and one in Nairobi along with rail, highway and communication infrastructure. With these additions, travel and accessibility into and around Kenya is rather easy and usually obscure because of its penetrable borders in conjunction with its bordering neighbours and unmonitored coastline. In particular, the Arabs in Kenya that occupy the coastal areas are strongly from the Arabs in the centre East as they both discuss a common religion and language. This has managed to get quite convenient for terrorist to combine in to the community. Therefore, Kenya is a preferred choice for terrorist to attack.
Due to poverty and the high rate of unemployment that is out there in Kenya, the youths are targeted by terrorists for recruitment to handle their activities. The terrorists are able to lure these teenagers giving them money to join their cause. In this manner, they gain new recruits who would provide them with the relevant local information had a need to proceed using their activities. Again, Kenya is seen as a great vacation spot for terrorists to strike.
In Somalia, Kenya's neighbouring country, political instability is quite common. For the past 14 years, Somalia has not been run been run with a government which has given way to terrorists to move across the border. It has therefore hampered Kenya's security. Immigrants from Somalia have a home in Kenya making it easier for terrorists to merge and thus bring terrorism into Kenya.
Another obstacle for Kenya is its ties to the united states which make them susceptible to terrorists' problems. Kenya, among other countries, has been determined by america Agency for International Development to be provided with the required resources to deal with HIV/Assists. ( ) Also, the US Center for Disease Control and Elimination located in Kenya is the
Tourism, one of the foundation blocks of Kenya's economy, constitutes 25% of the Gross Local Product (GDP) and has been adversely damaged by the repercussions of terrorism.
Firstly, the influx of traveler to Kenya can be predicted to over 500, 000 guests each year. Europe and america of America (USA) stand for Kenya's traveller producing region with 70% of the marketplace being Europeans (Switzerland, Italy, Belgium France and Britain account for the majority of tourists). In addition, visitors come from Japan, Asia, Scandinavia, and other African countries.
USA, Germany, THE UK and some other countries, after receiving the news about the terrorist attacks on Kenya's US Embassy in Nairobi, immediately released travel advisories to their citizens and enforced travel bans to refrain happen to be Kenya as it was deemed unsafe. Moreover, the extensive media coverage of the disorders particularly focused on Kenya's vulnerability to terrorism seriously tarnished its image. These responses lead to a decline in travel to Kenya and some neighboring countries as travelers feared the spillover of the terrorist disorders. For example, travel and leisure businesses were terribly afflicted by the travel warnings. Tourism earned US $500 million in twelve-monthly revenue and was getting rid of at least $1 million each day due to the decline in travel and leisure. ( ) As a result, Kenya's tourism industry was paralyzed.
Kenya suffered a decrease in visitor arrivals. This got a ripple influence on all industries of the industry. The cancellation of leisure outings and business conferences were rapidly increasing. Kenya's reputation plummeted which lead to the loss of its competitive value. Kenya was no longer a choice to be looked at for getaway or investment. Travel and leisure catered to the employment of 500, 000 Kenyans which range from tour operators, tour guides, travel organizations, safari driver, dancers, hoteliers, restaurateurs, small company operators to airport and airline employees. Subsequently, there is a significant increase in unemployment as many Kenyans lost their careers. Employees that were still hired received salary slashes. For example, at the Carnivore restaurant; all the 330 staff acquired their salaries reduced, including Dunford the chairman (Country wide Geographic 2010).
The bombing of the united states Embassy had an enormous effect on Kenya's infrastructure. The Embassy was stationed at the crossroads of two roads in Nairobi, next to the Ufundi Building and the Co - op Loan company Building. The explosion demolished these three properties and other structures and amenities in just a 2-3 block radius. ( ) The rubble contains broken glass from windows, screen structures, furniture and fittings, concrete block wall surfaces, cars, buses, electric poles, block lighting and the list goes on. The travel sector within Kenya suffered major setbacks as the avenues were seriously broken and likewise vehicles. Additional problems surfaced as resources (medical) were delayed as it was difficult to enter and around Nairobi. Access was restricted to rescue and emergency personnel. Nairobi, the administrative centre of Kenya, was known because of its many tourist attractions but these business procedures declined because of this of the bombing. With the loss of electricity and telecommunication, travel operators, travel agencies and hotels were unable to update their websites or talk to potential visitors who would usually book their reservations, travels or tickets online.
Another hindrance to Kenya's travel and leisure industry in light of the terrorist episodes is the slump in overseas immediate investment (FDI). Shareholders were willing to nullify their FDI in Kenya credited to some of the 'shocks' experienced by the terrorist attack like the direct devastation of infrastructure, the climb of working costs credited to a growing need of security actions, and the surge of recruiting costs credited to missing bonuses to work in terrorism - susceptible parts. ( ). This further added to the loss of revenue designed for tourism development initiatives.
An important concern on the plan of Kenya's federal government to overcome terrorism is currently the advantages of more security. The notion about safety is not confined to the individuals of Kenya only but is expanded to the tourist as well. For this purpose, government spending needed to be diverted from profitable investment made to promote development, eradicate poverty and sustain travel and leisure development. ( ) Costs on hi-tech security equipment such as security cameras, steel detectors and screening machines had to be implemented as ways of counteract terrorism.
Kenya's financial costs continued to escalate in aftermath of the terrorist invasion as more money was necessary for the cleanup, recovery and reconstruction of the infrastructure, buildings and other amenities demolished in the blast including travellers' facilities. As an illustration,
Similarly, another charge incurred is that of comprehensive advertising to entice more and new visitors to Kenya. This plan was employed to portray Kenya as a once again safe place also to neutralize the negative advertising attention received following the bombing.
Apart from the above mentioned unwanted effects of terrorism on Kenya's travel and leisure industry, some results were identified. With the decrease in tourist arrivals to Kenya, local tourism was being promoted. Locals provided some of revenue needed to sustain some travel and leisure businesses. Likewise, a fresh 'must see' holiday attraction was developed. The August 7th Memorial Park was constructed on the webpage where the US Embassy was once situated. This memorial was created to commemorate the lives that were lost and symbolizes a tribute to the courage of the several thousand others who have had to handle permanent injury and/or the increased loss of loved ones. It really is a location where people come to reflect, keep in mind and relax. ( ) This fascination is quite similar to the September 11 interest 'Ground Zero' which includes been contained in many tour plans offered by tour companies in New York City.
With respect to the Kenya's transit route region, terrorism is not a exception. The unwanted effects of US embassy bombing trickled right down to the air travel industry. Trip cancellations increased as flight travel declined. There have been numerous staff cuts and a significant loss of income for the industry. For instance, the suspension system of Uk Airways regular and charter planes traveling to Nairobi, coupled with travel advisories, closed down down usage of 90% of Kenya's abroad markets (THE RESULT of Terrorism 2004). Car rental companies were also influenced.
There is a need for the introduction of an anti-terrorism legislation in Kenya: following 1998 bombing of the US Embassy in Kenya the federal government recognized that there were no adequate measures in location to offer with such works and therefore the need to build up and implement legislation to deal with terrorism was essential. Relating to Kenya's Counter Terrorism committee, the Government on two events made endeavors to put into action such laws and regulations with the 'Suppression of Terrorism Monthly bill' in 2003 and the 'Anti-Terrorism Monthly bill in 2006 respectively. However, both bills failed to be introduced to parliament. (Yahoo 2010)
Another indicate be considered is the need for revamped management insurance policies to be occur place for Kenya's boundary collection and costal security control. Google 2010 also mentioned that the need for heightened security is essential in these areas, for example: the border between Kenya and Somalia poses a great menace to Kenyan nationals and holiday due to fact that Somalia has been without a federal of over fourteen years and is known to be politically unpredictable. This is done by adding measures set up such as; heightened security checks for persons joining Kenya through Somalia, denial of entry for suspicious entrants and denial to unnecessary travellers especially through the peak tourist periods. Proper execution of security in these areas may allow vacationers' to feel safer and therefore increase overall trips to Kenya.
The tourism mother board of Kenya could make an effort to mitigate a few of the negative impacts of the past terrorism attacks on the country by creating a fresh image for the destination. In order to effectively do that, Kenya's point of view about tourism should be more holistic. For instance regarding community tourism, the Maasai Mara tribe not only defends the environment nonetheless they engage in certain practices to reduce harm to the environment. Though terrorism would ultimately have a destructive impact on any country being influenced, repositioning Kenya in the minds of holidaymakers by focusing on the positives of the vacation spot rather than the negative aspects of terrorism can aid along the way of moving forward. Furthermore, the tourism plank can also transfer some of their focus on local traveler by creating special plans in such a way that would be attractive to the neighborhood population.
Another option to beat this issue of terrorism in Kenya should be the development of turmoil management portfolio. This would to begin with distinguish terrorism from other varieties of crisis. It will then outline in detail the measures that should be implemented before and after such an emergency. Next the stock portfolio should help out with painting an obvious and clutter free process that should be implemented after an action of terrorism to assist in a timely recovery for Kenya's image. Since terrorism seriously tarnished the image of Kenya, it is very essential that only specific and highly experienced individuals should talk about the public and press issues. Hence the reason, the portfolio should also outline all people that should be engaged in this technique with clearly identified roles and goals.
SEPTEMBER 11 AND KENYA BOMBINGS
Both the September 11 episodes on the United States and the US Embassy and Mombasa bombings in 1998 and 2002 respectively were completed by the Al - Qaeda terrorist group.
Both the US and Kenya bombings resulted in a decline in outbound and inbound travel.
The airline industry in both countries experienced significant income losses following a decline in travel.
Businesses which were dependent on travel and leisure as their main source of revenue suffered and were not able to continue businesses.
Staff reductions were also experienced again because of the reduction in travel due to functions of terrorism experienced by both countries.
Both countries presented new hi-tech security equipment and procedures to beat the threat of terrorism.
Both countries were able to create a new tourist attraction, Ground No and August 7th Memorial