Posted at 09.10.2018
Learner autonomy, which has been a commonly discussed concept in vocabulary teaching and ELT because the 1970s, is an important notion in ELT now. Based on the Henri Holec, meaning of the learner autonomy is "the ability to take charge of your respective own learning" (Holec 14). Learner autonomy requires learners to be in charge of their own learning. This essay will explain the concept of learner autonomy. Then, it'll illustrate how learner autonomy can be fostered. Finally, why learner autonomy is important, and should be fostered will be described.
Since the idea of learner autonomy has been a very commonly discussed subject, there are a few disagreements about this is, but Holec's meaning, "the ability to take charge of one's own learning" (14), is a widely accepted definition and it is the the one which is most frequently quoted. Another explanation of learner autonomy, which is more detailed, has been made by Leni Dam: "Learner autonomy is seen as a a readiness for taking charge of one's own learning in the service of your respective needs and purposes. This entails a capacity and determination to act independently and in co-operation with others, as a socially sensible person" (Dam 127).
The main goal of learner autonomy is to allow learners to own control on their own learning, as Elspeth Broady from the School of Brighton and Marie-Madeleine from the School of East Anglia status: "The main element idea behind learner autonomy is that education should foster the learner's capacity for unbiased thinking and responsibility for learning" (Broady and Kenning 9). To truly have a control over their learning, learners should get independence, learners "will need to have control over their learning and an awareness of that liberty" (Lewis and Reinders 97).
Looking at these explanations, becoming an autonomous learner may appear to be always a complex process. It could be gained when certain qualities such as determination, awareness, and understanding of words and learning are obtained. Teachers, at this point, should help learners to acquire these skills, therefore, autonomous learning does not mean learning without tutor, "professorshave a crucial role to experience in releasing learners into self-access and in loaning them a normal helping hand to remain afloat" (Benson and Voller 63).
To become an autonomous learner, one should take the "responsibility for all the decisions relating to all areas of this learning. " (Holec 22) These aspects are:
determining the objectives
defining the details and progressions
selecting methods and techniques to be used
monitoring the procedure of acquisition
evaluating what has been bought (23).
These are the skills a learner needs to be able to "increase ability to take responsibility for learning" (Broady and Kenning 15).
In his/her way to become autonomous learner, a learner must develop "an awareness of language and learning" (Fenner, Newby, and Camilleri 83), because autonomous learning requires "learning the foreign language; on the other side, learning how to learn" (80). Awareness of language is an important for "increasing insight into what terms is and how it is discovered" (Broady and Kenning 15), therefore, it can be an important part of being an autonomous learner. "For instance, if learners are to specify their own goals, they need to have some understanding of how to separate up the target language sensibly. " (14) Autonomous learners "require some understanding of second terminology learning" (14), because they need to be familiar with the effective ways to learn terms. "For example, learning all the words in dictionary is unlikely to be a powerful approach as a result of problem of storage area overload. " (14) Knowing of learning is important for "increasing understanding into what learning involves and one's own learning style" (15). Learner with awareness of learning process can choose the best strategies, techniques, and resources relating to his/her learning style, goals, and needs.
Learners' attitude towards their tasks and abilities in learning is also important in autonomous learning. As mentioned by Anita Wenden, "two key attitudes underline learner autonomy: first of all, learners' behaviour towards their own role in learning and subsequently, their attitudes towards their capability to learn and take responsibility for learning" (Wenden 53). Learners' attitude is important because their frame of mind make a difference their determination. "If, for example, learners do not see the monitoring of these learning as a part of their role, they risk becoming dependent on others for reviews. Without regular feedback of some sort, inspiration is difficult to maintain. " (Broady and Kenning 14)
Autonomous learning is not a talent or skill that is held by a person innately, it can be gained by learner. Therefore, to be autonomous, learners should be urged to obtain learner autonomy. There are several factors affecting the learning process besides learner's frame of mind, such as materials, teachers, and methods. Each of them should maintain appropriate for autonomous learning to encourage learners to acquire their autonomy.
At this point, to gain autonomy, learners need professors' help. Because, at the beginning, learners need a counsellor who would help him/her in taking certain steps such as defining one's learning style, expanding awareness of dialect, and self evaluating to become an autonomous learner. "The key points of autonomous learning aren't meant to imply that the learner knows what's best. . . but that learners have within them the to discover what's best for them. " (Mishan 24) The role of the tutor in this technique is different from the traditional definition which defines teacher as the provider of information. "[I]n autonomous learning conditions, the role of the educator shifts significantly. The teacher is no longer the original purveyor of information, but instead, a counsellor, facilitator and learning resource. " (24) Of course, this new role of professors requires them to have different skills as stated by Freda Mishan: "These functions can demand broader knowledge, knowledge and initiative than does indeed the expository style of coaching, and contradictory though it may look, require even greater confidence than does indeed taking 'centre-stage' in the class room" (24).
Since this is of the learner autonomy is "the ability to take charge of one's own learning" (Holec 14), to foster the autonomy in language learning, the course and materials should be designed to be able to encourage learners to take more responsibility. To be able to encourage learners to be more autonomous, lessons and materials should contain "environment included goal-setting activities, discourse of the terms learning process, modelling of strategies, task practice, and reflection on experience" (Cotterall 116)
As well as materials, certain strategies can be utilized to be able to encourage autonomous learning. Self-assessment, self-reports, learning journals, peer assessment, considering learning, regarding in the look of the course are some of the ways in fostering learner autonomy. A significant factor using these strategies is the age of the learners. For example, when seeking to require students in the planning the course, it can be easy and worthwhile with teenage and more mature students, but it will probably be more difficult with learners from more radiant age ranges.
Internet, also, can be a device in fostering learner autonomy. As more people use internet and socialise through the internet, it could be used to make interaction among the list of learners and cause them to become work more cooperatively.
People can learn a dialect more effectively when they become autonomous learners because they can actually involve in the learning process actively, instead of just relaxing in the category, and hearing what teacher tells. "[L]earning is more effective if the learner integrates knowledge within a personal construction. " (Broady and Kenning 9) Therefore learners can be determined whey they are given autonomy as Leslie Dickinson areas: "a solid connection is made in the educational mindset literature between learner autonomy and desire" (Dickinson 168). In conditions of terms learning, autonomy is also very beneficial since it develops co-operation. "Using terminology effectively for communication requires negotiation of meaning, rather than the mere decoding of linguistic tokens, thus demanding the capability to manage confidently with unstable information. " (Broady and Kenning 10) Autonomous learning is also rational in terms of economy, with autonomous learning professors may use time better. "[I]f learners can be helped to manage their own learning, then probably a teacher's time can be spent more efficiently. " (10)
Autonomous learning is not only beneficial for words learning, it "reaches beyond a institution context: this can be a life-long procedure for constantly developing understanding" (Fenner, Newby, and Camilleri 80).
Learner autonomy is a growing concept in language coaching. Autonomous learning is very beneficial for learner, educator, and overall economy. With autonomy, learners may become aware of their learning styles, identify their goals, needs, choose their materials and find out language more independently. Autonomous learning is effective not limited to school or vocabulary learning but also for each part of the life, because, becoming autonomous, the learner actually learns "how to learn" (Fenner, Newby, and Camilleri 83). For these reasons learners should be prompted to be autonomous, learner autonomy should be marketed through the all durations of education.